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  • COVID-19

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Likun Gao; Jiacai Ren; Li Xu; Xiaokang Ke; Lin Xiong; Xiaoli Tian; Cuifang Fan; Honglin Yan; Jingping Yuan;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    Abstract Aims To explore the clinical characteristics and placental pathological changes of pregnant women with 2019 novel coronavirus (CoV) disease (COVID-19) in the third trimester, and to assess the possibility of vertical transmission. Methods and results The placenta tissues were evaluated by using immunohistochemistry for inflammatory cells and Hofbauer cells, and using severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV-2 RNA Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein immunofluorescence (IF) double staining. All eight placentas from the third trimester pregnancy women were studied. All patients were cured, no clinical or serological evidence pointed to vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Features of maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) such as increased syncytial knots were present in all 8 cases (8/8), and increased focal perivillous fibrin depositions were presented in 7 cases (7/8). No significate chronic histiocytic intervillositis was noted in the placenta. The number of macrophages and inflammatory cells such as T cells, B cells and plasma cells in the placental villous was not significantly increased in all cases. Moreover, all of eight cases demonstrated negative results by FISH using a SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA probe and by IF using a monoclonal antibody against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Conclusions We found no evidence of vertical transmission and adverse maternal-fetal outcomes in the placentas of third trimester COVID-19 pregnancy women, which provided further information for the clinical management of those women in the third trimester. However, further studies are still needed for patients with infections in different stage of gestation, especially in first and second trimester.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Klaaren, Jonathan; Ray, Brian;
    Publisher: Unpublished
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Julian Hirt; Melanie Karrer; Laura Adlbrecht; Susi Saxer; Adelheid Zeller;
    Publisher: Research Square Platform LLC

    Abstract Background: To support the implementation of nurse-led interventions in long-term dementia care, in-depth knowledge of specific supporting factors and barriers is required. Conditions and structures of caring for people with dementia differ widely, depending on the country and the care context. Our study aimed to describe the experiences and opinions of nursing experts and managers with regard to facilitators and barriers to the implementation of nurse-led interventions in Swiss long-term dementia care.Methods: We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using individual interviews based on qualitative vignettes as a useful stimulus to generate narrations allowing to study peoples’ perceptions and beliefs. The study took place in nursing homes in the German-speaking part of Switzerland and in the Principality of Liechtenstein using purposive sampling. We intended to conduct the interviews face-to-face in a quiet room according to the participant’s choice. However, due to the lockdown of nursing homes during the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020, we performed interviews face-to-face and by video. We analysed data thematically following Braun and Clarke to achieve a detailed, nuanced description. To verify our interpretation and to ensure congruence with participants’ perspectives, we conducted member checks. The Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR) served to structure our manuscript.Results: Six dyads of nursing home managers and nursing experts from six nursing homes took part in our study (n=12). Our thematic analysis yielded seven themes reflecting facilitators and barriers to implementing nurse-led interventions in Swiss long-term dementia care: «A common attitude and cohesion within the organization», «Commitment on several levels», «A needs-oriented implementation», «The effect and the public perception of the intervention», «A structured and guided implementation process», «Supporting knowledge and competencies», as well as «Resources for implementing the intervention».Conclusions: Successful implementation of nurse-led interventions in dementia care is highly challenging due to the complex nature of interventions. Therefore, it is important to know the facilitators and barriers to optimally design implementation strategies. Our results might support researchers and other key persons involved in implementing nurse-led interventions in Swiss long-term dementia care.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fulvio Adorni; Nithiya Jesuthasan; Elena Perdixi; Aleksandra Sojic; Andrea Giacomelli; Marianna Noale; Caterina Trevisan; Michela Franchini; Stefania Pieroni; Liliana Cori; +7 more
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Italy

    ABSTRACTDigital technologies have been extensively employed in response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic worldwide. This study describes the methodology of the two-phase internet-based EPICOVID19 survey, and the characteristics of the adult volunteers respondents who lived in Italy during the first (April - May 2020) and the second wave (January - February 2021) of the epidemic. Validated scales and ad-hoc questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic, medical and behavioural characteristics, as well as information on COVID-19. Among those who provided email addresses during phase I (105,355), 41,473 participated in phase II (mean age 50.7 years ± 13.5 SD, 60.6% females). After a median follow-up of ten months, 52.8% had undergone naso-pharyngeal swab (NPS) testing and 13.2% had positive result. More than 40% had undergone serological test (ST) and 11.9% were positive. Out of the 2,073 participants with at least one positive ST, 72.8% had only negative results from NPS or never performed it. These results indicate that a large fraction of individuals remained undiagnosed, possibly contributing to the spread of the virus in the community. Participatory online surveys offer a unique opportunity to collect relevant data at individual level from large samples during confinement.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Schultz, Bárbara M; Melo-González, Felipe; Duarte, Luisa F; Gálvez, Nicolás MS; Pacheco, Gaspar A; Soto, Jorge A; Berríos-Rojas, Roslye V; González, Liliana A; Moreno-Tapia, Daniela; Rivera-Pérez, Daniela; +26 more
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    AbstractBackgroundCoronaVac® is an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine approved by the World Health Organization. Previous studies reported increased levels of neutralizing antibodies and specific T cells two- and four-weeks after two doses of CoronaVac®, but the levels of neutralizing antibodies are reduced at six to eight months after two doses. Here we report the effect of a booster dose of CoronaVac® on the anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response generated against variants of concern (VOC) Delta and Omicron in adults participating in a phase 3 clinical trial in Chile.MethodsVolunteers immunized with two doses of CoronaVac® in a four-week interval received a booster dose of the same vaccine between twenty-four and thirty weeks after the 2nd dose. Four weeks after the booster dose, neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses were measured. Neutralization capacities and T cell activation against VOC Delta and Omicron were detected at four weeks after the booster dose.FindingsWe observed a significant increase in neutralizing antibodies at four weeks after the booster dose. We also observed an increase in CD4+ T cells numbers over time, reaching a peak at four weeks after the booster dose. Furthermore, neutralizing antibodies and SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells induced by the booster showed activity against VOC Delta and Omicron.InterpretationOur results show that a booster dose of CoronaVac® increases the anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular immune responses in adults. Immunity induced by a booster dose of CoronaVac® is active against VOC, suggesting an effective protection.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Farhan S. Cyprian; Muhammad Suleman; Ibrahim Abdelhafez; Asmma Doudin; Ibn Mohammed Masud Danjuma; Fayaz Mir; Aijaz Parray; Zohaib Yousaf; Mohammed Yassin Ahmed Siddiqui; Ala Eldin; +8 more
    Publisher: Research Square Platform LLC

    Abstract Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) was declared as a pandemic by WHO in March 2020. SARS-CoV-2 causes a wide range of illness from asymptomatic to life-threatening. There is an essential need to identify biomarkers to predict disease severity and mortality during the earlier stages of the disease, aiding treatment and allocation of resources to improve survival. The aim of this study was to identify at the time of SARS-COV-2 infection patients at high risk of developing severe disease associated with low survival using blood parameters, including inflammation and coagulation mediators, vital signs, and pre-existing comorbidities. This cohort included 89 multi-ethnic COVID-19 patients recruited between July 14th and October 20th 2020 in Doha, Qatar. According to clinical severity, patients were grouped into severe (n = 33), mild (n = 33) and asymptomatic (n = 23). Common routine tests such as complete blood count (CBC), glucose, electrolytes, liver and kidney function parameters and markers of inflammation, thrombosis and endothelial dysfunction including complement component split product C5a, Interleukin-6, ferritin and C-reactive protein were measured at the time COVID-19 infection was confirmed. Correlation tests suggest that C5a is a novel predictive marker of disease severity and mortality, in addition to 40 biological and physiological parameters that were found statistically significant between survivors and non-survivors. Survival analysis showed that. high C5a levels, hypoalbuminemia, lymphopenia, elevated procalcitonin, neutrophilic leukocytosis, acute anemia along with increased acute kidney and hepatocellular injury markers were associated with a higher risk of death in COVID-19 patients. Altogether, we created a prognostic classification model, the CAL model (C5a, Albumin, and Lymphocyte count) to predict severity with significant accuracy. Stratification of patients using the CAL model could help the identification of patients likely to develop severe symptoms in advance so that treatments can be targeted accordingly.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Shilei Zhao; Tong Sha; Yongbiao Xue; Chung-I Wu; Hua Chen;
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    The availability of vaccines provides a promising solution to containing the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we develop an epidemiological model to quantitatively analyze and predict the epidemic dynamics of COVID-19 under vaccination. The model is applied to the daily released numbers of confirmed cases of Israel and United States of America to explore and predict the trend under vaccination based on their current epidemic status and intervention measures.For Israel, of which 53.83% of the population was fully vaccinated, under the current intensity of NPIs and vaccination scheme, the pandemic is predicted to end between May 14, 2021 to May 16, 2021 depending on an immunity duration between 180 days and 365 days; Assuming no NPIs after March 24, 2021, the pandemic will ends later, between July 4, 2021 to August 26, 2021. For USA, if we assume the current vaccination rate (0.268% per day) and intensity of NPIs, the pandemic will end between February 3, 2022 and August 17, 2029 depending on an immunity duration between 180 days and 365 days. However, assuming an immunity duration of 180 days and with no NPIs, the pandemic will not end, and instead reach an equilibrium state with a proportion of the population remaining actively infected.Overall the daily vaccination rate should be chosen according to the vaccine efficacy and the immunity duration to achieve herd immunity. In some situations, vaccination alone cannot stop the pandemic, and NPIs are necessary both to supplement vaccination and accelerate the end of the pandemic. Considering that vaccine efficacy and duration of immunity may be reduced for new mutant strains, it is necessary to remain cautiously optimistic about the prospect of the pandemic under vaccination.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Thiago de Paula Oliveira; Rafael de Andrade Moral;
    Publisher: Nature Portfolio
    Countries: Ireland, United Kingdom

    AbstractThe continuously growing number of COVID-19 cases pressures healthcare services worldwide. Accurate short-term forecasting is thus vital to support country-level policy making. The strategies adopted by countries to combat the pandemic vary, generating different uncertainty levels about the actual number of cases. Accounting for the hierarchical structure of the data and accommodating extra-variability is therefore fundamental. We introduce a new modelling framework to describe the pandemic’s course with great accuracy and provide short-term daily forecasts for every country in the world. We show that our model generates highly accurate forecasts up to seven days ahead and use estimated model components to cluster countries based on recent events. We introduce statistical novelty in terms of modelling the autoregressive parameter as a function of time, increasing predictive power and flexibility to adapt to each country. Our model can also be used to forecast the number of deaths, study the effects of covariates (such as lockdown policies), and generate forecasts for smaller regions within countries. Consequently, it has substantial implications for global planning and decision making. We present forecasts and make all results freely available to any country in the world through an online Shiny dashboard.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Estrada, Mario Arturo Ruiz;
    Publisher: Unpublished
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Masud Yunesian; Akbar Fotouhi; Mina Aghaei;
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    The case fatality rate (CFR) is an important index in epidemics and policymakers need to be aware of this statistic for making sound decisions. However, there are some uncertainties in the calculation of the fatality rate and the true case fatality rate can be calculated after an epidemic subsides, we calculated the fatality rate for 20 countries which had the highest number of confirmed cases with three scenarios. In this study, we provided detailed information to discuss the studies that calculate the case fatality rate during the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight the estimation bias in these studies

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
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Include:
69,728 Research products, page 1 of 6,973
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Likun Gao; Jiacai Ren; Li Xu; Xiaokang Ke; Lin Xiong; Xiaoli Tian; Cuifang Fan; Honglin Yan; Jingping Yuan;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    Abstract Aims To explore the clinical characteristics and placental pathological changes of pregnant women with 2019 novel coronavirus (CoV) disease (COVID-19) in the third trimester, and to assess the possibility of vertical transmission. Methods and results The placenta tissues were evaluated by using immunohistochemistry for inflammatory cells and Hofbauer cells, and using severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV-2 RNA Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein immunofluorescence (IF) double staining. All eight placentas from the third trimester pregnancy women were studied. All patients were cured, no clinical or serological evidence pointed to vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Features of maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) such as increased syncytial knots were present in all 8 cases (8/8), and increased focal perivillous fibrin depositions were presented in 7 cases (7/8). No significate chronic histiocytic intervillositis was noted in the placenta. The number of macrophages and inflammatory cells such as T cells, B cells and plasma cells in the placental villous was not significantly increased in all cases. Moreover, all of eight cases demonstrated negative results by FISH using a SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA probe and by IF using a monoclonal antibody against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Conclusions We found no evidence of vertical transmission and adverse maternal-fetal outcomes in the placentas of third trimester COVID-19 pregnancy women, which provided further information for the clinical management of those women in the third trimester. However, further studies are still needed for patients with infections in different stage of gestation, especially in first and second trimester.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Klaaren, Jonathan; Ray, Brian;
    Publisher: Unpublished
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Julian Hirt; Melanie Karrer; Laura Adlbrecht; Susi Saxer; Adelheid Zeller;
    Publisher: Research Square Platform LLC

    Abstract Background: To support the implementation of nurse-led interventions in long-term dementia care, in-depth knowledge of specific supporting factors and barriers is required. Conditions and structures of caring for people with dementia differ widely, depending on the country and the care context. Our study aimed to describe the experiences and opinions of nursing experts and managers with regard to facilitators and barriers to the implementation of nurse-led interventions in Swiss long-term dementia care.Methods: We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using individual interviews based on qualitative vignettes as a useful stimulus to generate narrations allowing to study peoples’ perceptions and beliefs. The study took place in nursing homes in the German-speaking part of Switzerland and in the Principality of Liechtenstein using purposive sampling. We intended to conduct the interviews face-to-face in a quiet room according to the participant’s choice. However, due to the lockdown of nursing homes during the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020, we performed interviews face-to-face and by video. We analysed data thematically following Braun and Clarke to achieve a detailed, nuanced description. To verify our interpretation and to ensure congruence with participants’ perspectives, we conducted member checks. The Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR) served to structure our manuscript.Results: Six dyads of nursing home managers and nursing experts from six nursing homes took part in our study (n=12). Our thematic analysis yielded seven themes reflecting facilitators and barriers to implementing nurse-led interventions in Swiss long-term dementia care: «A common attitude and cohesion within the organization», «Commitment on several levels», «A needs-oriented implementation», «The effect and the public perception of the intervention», «A structured and guided implementation process», «Supporting knowledge and competencies», as well as «Resources for implementing the intervention».Conclusions: Successful implementation of nurse-led interventions in dementia care is highly challenging due to the complex nature of interventions. Therefore, it is important to know the facilitators and barriers to optimally design implementation strategies. Our results might support researchers and other key persons involved in implementing nurse-led interventions in Swiss long-term dementia care.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fulvio Adorni; Nithiya Jesuthasan; Elena Perdixi; Aleksandra Sojic; Andrea Giacomelli; Marianna Noale; Caterina Trevisan; Michela Franchini; Stefania Pieroni; Liliana Cori; +7 more
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Italy

    ABSTRACTDigital technologies have been extensively employed in response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic worldwide. This study describes the methodology of the two-phase internet-based EPICOVID19 survey, and the characteristics of the adult volunteers respondents who lived in Italy during the first (April - May 2020) and the second wave (January - February 2021) of the epidemic. Validated scales and ad-hoc questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic, medical and behavioural characteristics, as well as information on COVID-19. Among those who provided email addresses during phase I (105,355), 41,473 participated in phase II (mean age 50.7 years ± 13.5 SD, 60.6% females). After a median follow-up of ten months, 52.8% had undergone naso-pharyngeal swab (NPS) testing and 13.2% had positive result. More than 40% had undergone serological test (ST) and 11.9% were positive. Out of the 2,073 participants with at least one positive ST, 72.8% had only negative results from NPS or never performed it. These results indicate that a large fraction of individuals remained undiagnosed, possibly contributing to the spread of the virus in the community. Participatory online surveys offer a unique opportunity to collect relevant data at individual level from large samples during confinement.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Schultz, Bárbara M; Melo-González, Felipe; Duarte, Luisa F; Gálvez, Nicolás MS; Pacheco, Gaspar A; Soto, Jorge A; Berríos-Rojas, Roslye V; González, Liliana A; Moreno-Tapia, Daniela; Rivera-Pérez, Daniela; +26 more
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    AbstractBackgroundCoronaVac® is an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine approved by the World Health Organization. Previous studies reported increased levels of neutralizing antibodies and specific T cells two- and four-weeks after two doses of CoronaVac®, but the levels of neutralizing antibodies are reduced at six to eight months after two doses. Here we report the effect of a booster dose of CoronaVac® on the anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response generated against variants of concern (VOC) Delta and Omicron in adults participating in a phase 3 clinical trial in Chile.MethodsVolunteers immunized with two doses of CoronaVac® in a four-week interval received a booster dose of the same vaccine between twenty-four and thirty weeks after the 2nd dose. Four weeks after the booster dose, neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses were measured. Neutralization capacities and T cell activation against VOC Delta and Omicron were detected at four weeks after the booster dose.FindingsWe observed a significant increase in neutralizing antibodies at four weeks after the booster dose. We also observed an increase in CD4+ T cells numbers over time, reaching a peak at four weeks after the booster dose. Furthermore, neutralizing antibodies and SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells induced by the booster showed activity against VOC Delta and Omicron.InterpretationOur results show that a booster dose of CoronaVac® increases the anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular immune responses in adults. Immunity induced by a booster dose of CoronaVac® is active against VOC, suggesting an effective protection.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Farhan S. Cyprian; Muhammad Suleman; Ibrahim Abdelhafez; Asmma Doudin; Ibn Mohammed Masud Danjuma; Fayaz Mir; Aijaz Parray; Zohaib Yousaf; Mohammed Yassin Ahmed Siddiqui; Ala Eldin; +8 more
    Publisher: Research Square Platform LLC

    Abstract Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) was declared as a pandemic by WHO in March 2020. SARS-CoV-2 causes a wide range of illness from asymptomatic to life-threatening. There is an essential need to identify biomarkers to predict disease severity and mortality during the earlier stages of the disease, aiding treatment and allocation of resources to improve survival. The aim of this study was to identify at the time of SARS-COV-2 infection patients at high risk of developing severe disease associated with low survival using blood parameters, including inflammation and coagulation mediators, vital signs, and pre-existing comorbidities. This cohort included 89 multi-ethnic COVID-19 patients recruited between July 14th and October 20th 2020 in Doha, Qatar. According to clinical severity, patients were grouped into severe (n = 33), mild (n = 33) and asymptomatic (n = 23). Common routine tests such as complete blood count (CBC), glucose, electrolytes, liver and kidney function parameters and markers of inflammation, thrombosis and endothelial dysfunction including complement component split product C5a, Interleukin-6, ferritin and C-reactive protein were measured at the time COVID-19 infection was confirmed. Correlation tests suggest that C5a is a novel predictive marker of disease severity and mortality, in addition to 40 biological and physiological parameters that were found statistically significant between survivors and non-survivors. Survival analysis showed that. high C5a levels, hypoalbuminemia, lymphopenia, elevated procalcitonin, neutrophilic leukocytosis, acute anemia along with increased acute kidney and hepatocellular injury markers were associated with a higher risk of death in COVID-19 patients. Altogether, we created a prognostic classification model, the CAL model (C5a, Albumin, and Lymphocyte count) to predict severity with significant accuracy. Stratification of patients using the CAL model could help the identification of patients likely to develop severe symptoms in advance so that treatments can be targeted accordingly.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Shilei Zhao; Tong Sha; Yongbiao Xue; Chung-I Wu; Hua Chen;
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    The availability of vaccines provides a promising solution to containing the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we develop an epidemiological model to quantitatively analyze and predict the epidemic dynamics of COVID-19 under vaccination. The model is applied to the daily released numbers of confirmed cases of Israel and United States of America to explore and predict the trend under vaccination based on their current epidemic status and intervention measures.For Israel, of which 53.83% of the population was fully vaccinated, under the current intensity of NPIs and vaccination scheme, the pandemic is predicted to end between May 14, 2021 to May 16, 2021 depending on an immunity duration between 180 days and 365 days; Assuming no NPIs after March 24, 2021, the pandemic will ends later, between July 4, 2021 to August 26, 2021. For USA, if we assume the current vaccination rate (0.268% per day) and intensity of NPIs, the pandemic will end between February 3, 2022 and August 17, 2029 depending on an immunity duration between 180 days and 365 days. However, assuming an immunity duration of 180 days and with no NPIs, the pandemic will not end, and instead reach an equilibrium state with a proportion of the population remaining actively infected.Overall the daily vaccination rate should be chosen according to the vaccine efficacy and the immunity duration to achieve herd immunity. In some situations, vaccination alone cannot stop the pandemic, and NPIs are necessary both to supplement vaccination and accelerate the end of the pandemic. Considering that vaccine efficacy and duration of immunity may be reduced for new mutant strains, it is necessary to remain cautiously optimistic about the prospect of the pandemic under vaccination.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Thiago de Paula Oliveira; Rafael de Andrade Moral;
    Publisher: Nature Portfolio
    Countries: Ireland, United Kingdom

    AbstractThe continuously growing number of COVID-19 cases pressures healthcare services worldwide. Accurate short-term forecasting is thus vital to support country-level policy making. The strategies adopted by countries to combat the pandemic vary, generating different uncertainty levels about the actual number of cases. Accounting for the hierarchical structure of the data and accommodating extra-variability is therefore fundamental. We introduce a new modelling framework to describe the pandemic’s course with great accuracy and provide short-term daily forecasts for every country in the world. We show that our model generates highly accurate forecasts up to seven days ahead and use estimated model components to cluster countries based on recent events. We introduce statistical novelty in terms of modelling the autoregressive parameter as a function of time, increasing predictive power and flexibility to adapt to each country. Our model can also be used to forecast the number of deaths, study the effects of covariates (such as lockdown policies), and generate forecasts for smaller regions within countries. Consequently, it has substantial implications for global planning and decision making. We present forecasts and make all results freely available to any country in the world through an online Shiny dashboard.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Estrada, Mario Arturo Ruiz;
    Publisher: Unpublished
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Masud Yunesian; Akbar Fotouhi; Mina Aghaei;
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    The case fatality rate (CFR) is an important index in epidemics and policymakers need to be aware of this statistic for making sound decisions. However, there are some uncertainties in the calculation of the fatality rate and the true case fatality rate can be calculated after an epidemic subsides, we calculated the fatality rate for 20 countries which had the highest number of confirmed cases with three scenarios. In this study, we provided detailed information to discuss the studies that calculate the case fatality rate during the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight the estimation bias in these studies

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