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  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arena, Francesca;
    Publisher: Le Mans Université
    Country: Switzerland

    Almost entirely overlooked throughout the 20th century, neglected by contemporary medical manuals, the clitoris has gradually returned centre stage thanks to Western feminism.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Jyoti Mishra; Daphne Bavelier; Adam Gazzaley;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (New York, NY)
    Country: Switzerland

    The aims of this chapter are to outline the key experimental methods used by neuroscientists to evaluate the impact of game-based training strategies on attention and working memory function in humans. The chapter is organized into sections that detail methods that probe the major facets of attention followed by methods that probe working memory. Attention methods are subdivided into sections on (1) spatial attention, (2) temporal attention, (3) combined spatial and temporal attention, (4) feature-/object-based attention, (5) sustained attention, (6) interaction between top-down and bottom-up attention, and (7) attention resource allocation. Methods that assess working memory function are then presented in two major sections, (9) visual and visuospatial working memory and (10) verbal working memory. We conclude with a discussion of prospects for further research and applications.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fischer, Gyongyver Jennifer; Godefroid, Fabienne; Kindler, Pascal; Baldessin, Erika;
    Country: Switzerland

    Preliminary biostratigraphic and geochronological results obtained from a 44 m-long core drilled on the northern coast of Mayaguana Island (SE Bahamas) show that the topmost layers of the core date from the Burdigalian (Early Miocene), whereas the deepest units are of Chattian (Late Oligocene) or Aquitanian (Earliest Miocene) age. Accordingly, the platform aggraded 44 m of sediments in a 10 to 3 my time span, from the Chattian/Aquitanian to the Burdigalian, whereas previous surface investigations of the island showed that only 11 m of carbonates were accumulated in a 17 my-long period, between the Burdigalian and the Early Pleistocene. This new record shows that the accumulation rate of the Mayaguana Bank was much higher during the Late Paleogene/Early Miocene than during the time interval from the Middle Miocene to the Pleistocene. This decrease is likely due to vertical tectonic motions related to the late phases of the Cuban orogeny which reduced accommodation on the platform top. These results designate the Mayaguana Bank as an accurate gauge to record the elevation of sea-level highstands during the Neogene

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Article . Other literature type . 2013
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Anne Condamines; Amélie Josselin-Leray; Cécile Fabre; Luce Lefeuvre; Aurélie Picton; Josette Rebeyrolle;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: France, Switzerland

    V International Conference on Corpus Linguistics (CILC2013); International audience; The paper presents the early stage of the CRISTAL project, an original French project involving linguists, computer researchers and a firm specializing in multilingual text management. What is at stake from a linguistic point of view is a deeper analysis of the notion of Knowledge Rich Context proposed by Meyer (2001). Using comparable corpora, it analyzes how the notion of KRC can vary according to text genre and/or type of users.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Godefroid, Fabienne; Kindler, Pascal;
    Country: Switzerland

    The most salient geological features observed during a recent reconnaissance trip to Crooked Island, SE Bahamas, include: (1) altered bioclastic calcarenites of probable Early Pleistocene age; and (2) an elevated intertidal notch carved in last interglacial deposits, indicating that sea level peaked at a higher elevation than previously estimated during that time period. Four main lithostratigraphic units were identified on Crooked Island: (1) highly weathered bioclastic calcarenites that yielded unreliable alloisoleucine/isoleucine (A/I) ratios, and two valid 87Sr/86Sr ratios averaging 0.709147; (2) well-lithified bioclastic/peloidal eolianites, forming low sea cliffs, that gave one A/I ratio of 0.523; (3) a complex and extensive unit including scarce coral framestone, exposed up to +1.2 m above sea level, and oolitic-peloidal calcarenites deposited in subtidal, beach, and eolian environments that yielded A/I ratios averaging 0.411 (n=5); and (4) poorly lithified bioclastic beach ridges congruent with modern sea level. Moreover, a prominent ridge along the north coast of the island shows, at +11 m above sea level, an intertidal notch carved in Unit 3 eolianite and filled by Unit 3 beach facies. Units 4, 3 and 2 can be compared, respectively, to the Rice Bay (Holocene), the Grotto Beach (Late Pleistocene) and the Owl's Hole (Middle Pleistocene) formations, previously identified on many other Bahamian islands. Of probable Early Pleistocene age (between 0.6 and 1 Ma), Unit 1 could represent the lowermost part of the Owl's Hole Formation and the top of the underlying, mostly marine Misery Point Formation recently discovered on Mayaguana. The unequivocal occurrence of an intertidal notch carved in, and sealed by, last-interglacial deposits at +11 m shows that the peak elevation reached by sea level during that time interval was much higher than previously assessed. Finally, stratigraphic units decrease in age from N to S, suggesting that the island grew differently than other Bahamian islands or, alternatively, that the northern margin of the Crooked-Acklins bank collapsed in a recent past.

  • Publication . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2014
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yves Scherrer;
    Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics and Dublin City University
    Country: Switzerland

    When developing NLP tools for low-resource languages, one is often confronted with the lack of annotated data. We propose to circumvent this bottleneck by training a supervised HMM tagger on a closely related language for which annotated data are available, and translating the words in the tagger parameter files into the low-resource language. The translation dictionaries are created with unsupervised lexicon induction techniques that rely only on raw textual data. We obtain a tagging accuracy of up to 89.08% using a Spanish tagger adapted to Catalan, which is 30.66% above the performance of an unadapted Spanish tagger, and 8.88% below the performance of a supervised tagger trained on annotated Catalan data. Furthermore, we evaluate our model on several Romance, Germanic and Slavic languages and obtain tagging accuracies of up to 92%.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2013
    Restricted Italian
    Authors: 
    Carlino, Andrea;
    Publisher: Sismel (Firenze)
    Country: Switzerland
  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eric Haeberli;
    Publisher: De Gruyter (Berlin ; Boston)
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | The History of English Au... (143302), SNSF | Revisiting the Loss of Ve... (124619)

    This paper offers an overview of the history of medial NP-adjuncts from Old English to Present-Day English. In Present-Day English, adverbs are perfectly grammatical in a position between the subject and the main verb ('He recently left for London') whereas NP-adjuncts are at best stylistically marked in this position ('(*)He tomorrow leaves for London'). The paper shows that while medial placement of NP-adjuncts has been considerably less frequent as compared to adverbs ever since around 1500, the contrast was initially much stronger in clauses with finite main verbs than in clauses with finite auxiliaries. It is only in the 19th century that medial placement becomes equally marked in both contexts. These developments are accounted for in terms of processing constraints disfavouring the use of medial NP-adjuncts and a structural reanalysis of NP-medial adjuncts in Late Modern English.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Manny Rayner; Johanna Gerlach; Pierrette Bouillon; Nikos Tsourakis; Hervé Spechbach;
    Publisher: Springer
    Country: Switzerland

    We consider methods for handling incomplete (elliptical) utterances in spoken phraselators, and describe how they have been implemented inside BabelDr, a substantial spoken medical phraselator. The challenge is to extend the phrase matching process so that it is sensitive to preceding dialogue context. We contrast two methods, one using limited-vocabulary strict grammar-based speech and language processing and one using large-vocabulary speech recognition with fuzzy grammar-based processing, and present an initial evaluation on a spoken corpus of 821 context-sentence/elliptical-phrase pairs. The large-vocabulary/fuzzy method strongly outperforms the limited-vocabulary/strict method over the whole corpus, though it is slightly inferior for the subset that is within grammar coverage. We investigate possibilities for combining the two processing paths, using several machine learning frameworks, and demonstrate that hybrid methods strongly outperform the large-vocabulary/fuzzy method.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . Preprint . 2018 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kristina Gulordava; Piotr Bojanowski; Edouard Grave; Tal Linzen; Marco Baroni;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Country: Switzerland

    Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have achieved impressive results in a variety of linguistic processing tasks, suggesting that they can induce non-trivial properties of language. We investigate here to what extent RNNs learn to track abstract hierarchical syntactic structure. We test whether RNNs trained with a generic language modeling objective in four languages (Italian, English, Hebrew, Russian) can predict long-distance number agreement in various constructions. We include in our evaluation nonsensical sentences where RNNs cannot rely on semantic or lexical cues ("The colorless green ideas I ate with the chair sleep furiously"), and, for Italian, we compare model performance to human intuitions. Our language-model-trained RNNs make reliable predictions about long-distance agreement, and do not lag much behind human performance. We thus bring support to the hypothesis that RNNs are not just shallow-pattern extractors, but they also acquire deeper grammatical competence. Comment: Accepted to NAACL 2018

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
80 Research products, page 1 of 8
  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arena, Francesca;
    Publisher: Le Mans Université
    Country: Switzerland

    Almost entirely overlooked throughout the 20th century, neglected by contemporary medical manuals, the clitoris has gradually returned centre stage thanks to Western feminism.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Jyoti Mishra; Daphne Bavelier; Adam Gazzaley;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (New York, NY)
    Country: Switzerland

    The aims of this chapter are to outline the key experimental methods used by neuroscientists to evaluate the impact of game-based training strategies on attention and working memory function in humans. The chapter is organized into sections that detail methods that probe the major facets of attention followed by methods that probe working memory. Attention methods are subdivided into sections on (1) spatial attention, (2) temporal attention, (3) combined spatial and temporal attention, (4) feature-/object-based attention, (5) sustained attention, (6) interaction between top-down and bottom-up attention, and (7) attention resource allocation. Methods that assess working memory function are then presented in two major sections, (9) visual and visuospatial working memory and (10) verbal working memory. We conclude with a discussion of prospects for further research and applications.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fischer, Gyongyver Jennifer; Godefroid, Fabienne; Kindler, Pascal; Baldessin, Erika;
    Country: Switzerland

    Preliminary biostratigraphic and geochronological results obtained from a 44 m-long core drilled on the northern coast of Mayaguana Island (SE Bahamas) show that the topmost layers of the core date from the Burdigalian (Early Miocene), whereas the deepest units are of Chattian (Late Oligocene) or Aquitanian (Earliest Miocene) age. Accordingly, the platform aggraded 44 m of sediments in a 10 to 3 my time span, from the Chattian/Aquitanian to the Burdigalian, whereas previous surface investigations of the island showed that only 11 m of carbonates were accumulated in a 17 my-long period, between the Burdigalian and the Early Pleistocene. This new record shows that the accumulation rate of the Mayaguana Bank was much higher during the Late Paleogene/Early Miocene than during the time interval from the Middle Miocene to the Pleistocene. This decrease is likely due to vertical tectonic motions related to the late phases of the Cuban orogeny which reduced accommodation on the platform top. These results designate the Mayaguana Bank as an accurate gauge to record the elevation of sea-level highstands during the Neogene

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Article . Other literature type . 2013
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Anne Condamines; Amélie Josselin-Leray; Cécile Fabre; Luce Lefeuvre; Aurélie Picton; Josette Rebeyrolle;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: France, Switzerland

    V International Conference on Corpus Linguistics (CILC2013); International audience; The paper presents the early stage of the CRISTAL project, an original French project involving linguists, computer researchers and a firm specializing in multilingual text management. What is at stake from a linguistic point of view is a deeper analysis of the notion of Knowledge Rich Context proposed by Meyer (2001). Using comparable corpora, it analyzes how the notion of KRC can vary according to text genre and/or type of users.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Godefroid, Fabienne; Kindler, Pascal;
    Country: Switzerland

    The most salient geological features observed during a recent reconnaissance trip to Crooked Island, SE Bahamas, include: (1) altered bioclastic calcarenites of probable Early Pleistocene age; and (2) an elevated intertidal notch carved in last interglacial deposits, indicating that sea level peaked at a higher elevation than previously estimated during that time period. Four main lithostratigraphic units were identified on Crooked Island: (1) highly weathered bioclastic calcarenites that yielded unreliable alloisoleucine/isoleucine (A/I) ratios, and two valid 87Sr/86Sr ratios averaging 0.709147; (2) well-lithified bioclastic/peloidal eolianites, forming low sea cliffs, that gave one A/I ratio of 0.523; (3) a complex and extensive unit including scarce coral framestone, exposed up to +1.2 m above sea level, and oolitic-peloidal calcarenites deposited in subtidal, beach, and eolian environments that yielded A/I ratios averaging 0.411 (n=5); and (4) poorly lithified bioclastic beach ridges congruent with modern sea level. Moreover, a prominent ridge along the north coast of the island shows, at +11 m above sea level, an intertidal notch carved in Unit 3 eolianite and filled by Unit 3 beach facies. Units 4, 3 and 2 can be compared, respectively, to the Rice Bay (Holocene), the Grotto Beach (Late Pleistocene) and the Owl's Hole (Middle Pleistocene) formations, previously identified on many other Bahamian islands. Of probable Early Pleistocene age (between 0.6 and 1 Ma), Unit 1 could represent the lowermost part of the Owl's Hole Formation and the top of the underlying, mostly marine Misery Point Formation recently discovered on Mayaguana. The unequivocal occurrence of an intertidal notch carved in, and sealed by, last-interglacial deposits at +11 m shows that the peak elevation reached by sea level during that time interval was much higher than previously assessed. Finally, stratigraphic units decrease in age from N to S, suggesting that the island grew differently than other Bahamian islands or, alternatively, that the northern margin of the Crooked-Acklins bank collapsed in a recent past.

  • Publication . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2014
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yves Scherrer;
    Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics and Dublin City University
    Country: Switzerland

    When developing NLP tools for low-resource languages, one is often confronted with the lack of annotated data. We propose to circumvent this bottleneck by training a supervised HMM tagger on a closely related language for which annotated data are available, and translating the words in the tagger parameter files into the low-resource language. The translation dictionaries are created with unsupervised lexicon induction techniques that rely only on raw textual data. We obtain a tagging accuracy of up to 89.08% using a Spanish tagger adapted to Catalan, which is 30.66% above the performance of an unadapted Spanish tagger, and 8.88% below the performance of a supervised tagger trained on annotated Catalan data. Furthermore, we evaluate our model on several Romance, Germanic and Slavic languages and obtain tagging accuracies of up to 92%.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2013
    Restricted Italian
    Authors: 
    Carlino, Andrea;
    Publisher: Sismel (Firenze)
    Country: Switzerland
  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eric Haeberli;
    Publisher: De Gruyter (Berlin ; Boston)
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | The History of English Au... (143302), SNSF | Revisiting the Loss of Ve... (124619)

    This paper offers an overview of the history of medial NP-adjuncts from Old English to Present-Day English. In Present-Day English, adverbs are perfectly grammatical in a position between the subject and the main verb ('He recently left for London') whereas NP-adjuncts are at best stylistically marked in this position ('(*)He tomorrow leaves for London'). The paper shows that while medial placement of NP-adjuncts has been considerably less frequent as compared to adverbs ever since around 1500, the contrast was initially much stronger in clauses with finite main verbs than in clauses with finite auxiliaries. It is only in the 19th century that medial placement becomes equally marked in both contexts. These developments are accounted for in terms of processing constraints disfavouring the use of medial NP-adjuncts and a structural reanalysis of NP-medial adjuncts in Late Modern English.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Manny Rayner; Johanna Gerlach; Pierrette Bouillon; Nikos Tsourakis; Hervé Spechbach;
    Publisher: Springer
    Country: Switzerland

    We consider methods for handling incomplete (elliptical) utterances in spoken phraselators, and describe how they have been implemented inside BabelDr, a substantial spoken medical phraselator. The challenge is to extend the phrase matching process so that it is sensitive to preceding dialogue context. We contrast two methods, one using limited-vocabulary strict grammar-based speech and language processing and one using large-vocabulary speech recognition with fuzzy grammar-based processing, and present an initial evaluation on a spoken corpus of 821 context-sentence/elliptical-phrase pairs. The large-vocabulary/fuzzy method strongly outperforms the limited-vocabulary/strict method over the whole corpus, though it is slightly inferior for the subset that is within grammar coverage. We investigate possibilities for combining the two processing paths, using several machine learning frameworks, and demonstrate that hybrid methods strongly outperform the large-vocabulary/fuzzy method.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . Preprint . 2018 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kristina Gulordava; Piotr Bojanowski; Edouard Grave; Tal Linzen; Marco Baroni;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Country: Switzerland

    Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have achieved impressive results in a variety of linguistic processing tasks, suggesting that they can induce non-trivial properties of language. We investigate here to what extent RNNs learn to track abstract hierarchical syntactic structure. We test whether RNNs trained with a generic language modeling objective in four languages (Italian, English, Hebrew, Russian) can predict long-distance number agreement in various constructions. We include in our evaluation nonsensical sentences where RNNs cannot rely on semantic or lexical cues ("The colorless green ideas I ate with the chair sleep furiously"), and, for Italian, we compare model performance to human intuitions. Our language-model-trained RNNs make reliable predictions about long-distance agreement, and do not lag much behind human performance. We thus bring support to the hypothesis that RNNs are not just shallow-pattern extractors, but they also acquire deeper grammatical competence. Comment: Accepted to NAACL 2018

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