Archaeological and historical report on earth architectures, from prehistorical to modern times, in western countries; Bilan archéologique et historique sur les architectures en terre crue en Occident depuis la préhistoire jusqu'à nos jours.
Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2015
International audience; This essay examines the geographic origins, the political belongings and the confessional profiles of the members of the two most important mercantile nations of eighteenth-century southern Italy: the French nation and the British factory of Naples. Taking into account their pronounced prosopographic heterogeneity, it shows how legal resources and their social uses played a crucial role in defining the boundaries of such groups.
Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . Book . 2006
Les niveaux néolithiques de l'abri-sous-roche de la Grande Rivoire sont formés d'une multitude de lentilles sédimentaires de couleurs très contrastées. Les analyses sédimentologiques montrent que les fractions fines, essentiellement limoneuses et assez fortement carbonatées, ont deux origines principales : d'une part, une importante accumulation d'excréments due au parcage maintes fois renouvelé de troupeaux d'herbivores (présence de sphérolites de calcite, fortes teneurs en matière organique, valeurs élevées en phosphates) et, d'autre part, une forte production de cendres due à des feux de bois allumés par les hommes directement sur les « fumiers » ou dans des foyers peu éloignés. Les ossements d'animaux découverts dans ces niveaux montrent, parmi les espèces domestiques, une nette prédominance des caprinés (chèvres/moutons) sur le bœuf et le porc. Les analyses archéobotaniques suggèrent pour leur part un apport intentionnel de ligneux, sous forme de branchettes feuillées et parfois fleuries. En relation avec la présence de caprinés, on peut penser à du fourrage et/ou de la litière d'arbre.Les niveaux protohistoriques se différencient nettement de ceux du Néolithique par la disparition des horizons cendreux et par une présence plus manifeste de composants naturels détritiques. Toutefois, l'analyse en lames minces des fractions fines montre que les sphérolites de calcite et les phytolithes sont encore bien présents. Cela indique que le parcage du bétail sous l'abri était encore pratiqué durant ces périodes. The neolithic levels of the rock-shelter "La Grande Rivoire" are composed of a multitude of sedimentary layers of very contrasting colours.Sedimentological analyses show that the fine fractions, mainly silty and rather strongly carbonated, have two main origins: on the one hand, an important accumulation of herbivores faeces due to the repeated penning of flocks (presence of calcite spheruliths, high concentrations of organic matter, high rate of phosphate), on the other hand, a large production of ashes from fire kindled directly on the dung or in nearby hearths. Animal bones of domestic species found in these dung levels show a large predominancy of goat/sheep over ox and pig. Archaeobotanical studies suggest a fodder/litter supply based on leafy and flowering tree branches.The protohistoric levels are different from the neolithic ones: ashy layers are missing whereas natural detritic components are better represented. Nevertheless, the analysis of thin sections from these levels shows the lasting presence of spheruliths and phytoliths. This indicates that stabling was during the Bronze and Iron Ages still practiced in the rock-shelter.
International audience; Synchrotrons have provided significant methods and instruments to study ancient materials from cultural and natural heritages. New ways to visualise (surfacic or volumic) morphologies are developed on the basis of elemental, density and refraction contrasts. They now apply to a wide range of materials, from historic artefacts to paleontological specimens. The tunability of synchrotron beams owing to the high flux and high spectral resolution of photon sources is at the origin of the main chemical speciation capabilities of synchrotron-based techniques. Although, until recently, photon-based speciation was mainly applicable to inorganic materials, novel developments based, for instance, on STXM and deep UV photoluminescence bring new opportunities to study speciation in organic and hybrid materials, such as soaps and organometallics, at a submicrometric spatial resolution over large fields of view. Structural methods are also continuously improved and increasingly applied to hierarchically structured materials for which organisation results either from biological or manufacturing processes. High-definition (spectral) imaging appears as the main driving force of the current trend for new synchrotron techniques for research on cultural and natural heritage materials.
Born at the end of the nineteenth century at a time of the introduction of mass schooling, the notion of “literacy” is current in many fields of the arts and humanities. Keywords: class; cultural history; Egyptian history; gender; Greek history; history of science, medicine and technology; history of the book and printing; Late Antiquity
International audience; Baya-Laffite and Cointet map the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations topic structure and evolution over 20 years using a digital corpus from the most renowned internal journal of the negotiations available online, the Earth Negotiations Bulletin (ENB). The authors’ methodological strategy combines text mining, network analysis and data visualization tools. The chapter shows how this mixed-method strategy applied to a digital corpus drawn from the ENB website, makes it possible to map climate change negotiations. Mixing traditional research methods and computer-assisted techniques, as well as manual and automated operations results in a series of unique new visual syntheses of the UNFCCC process. Narrating the visualizations allows distant readings of topics’ semantic structure and topic trajectories and thereby to test the robustness of the maps as well as the tools and methods used to produce them.
International audience; This paper describes the workflow of the Grammateus project, from gathering data on Greek documentary papyri to the creation of a web application. The first stage is the selection of a corpus and the choice of metadata to record: papyrology specialists gather data from printed editions, existing online resources and digital facsimiles. In the next step, this data is transformed into the EpiDoc standard of XML TEI encoding, to facilitate its reuse by others, and processed for HTML display. We also reuse existing text transcriptions available on . Since these transcriptions may be regularly updated by the scholarly community, we aim to access them dynamically. Although the transcriptions follow the EpiDoc guidelines, the wide diversity of the papyri as well as small inconsistencies in encoding make data reuse challenging. Currently, our data is available on an institutional GitLab repository, and we will archive our final dataset according to the FAIR principles.
Publication . Other literature type . Part of book or chapter of book . 2021
International audience; This chapter provides methodological information about implementing documentary approaches by which to analyze, discuss, and support river restoration. First, we present the kind of documentary material that can be used to analyze discourse on river restoration. We explain how to build a corpus in order to study stakeholders’ discourses and to collect specific information about river restoration. We based our analysis on scientific publications, newspaper articles, and administrative documents. Then we detail different qualitative and quantitative methods used to analyze such documentary material and the type of results they yield. We present four types of method: bibliometric analysis, content analysis, textual data analysis, and qualitative analysis. Finally, we discuss the pros and cons of documentary methods versus survey methods.