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332 Research products, page 1 of 34

  • 2013-2022
  • Part of book or chapter of book
  • Science and Innovation Policy Studies

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov; Halvarsson, Daniel; Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik; McKelvie, Alexander;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Country: Sweden

    AbstractMost previous studies on the employment effects of government R&D grants targeting SMEs are characterized by data-, measurement-, and selection problems, making it difficult to construct a relevant control group of firms that did not receive an R&D grant. We investigate the effects on employment and firm-level demand for high human capital workers of two Swedish programs targeted toward growth-oriented SMEs using Coarsened Exact Matching. Our most striking result is the absence of any statistically significant effects. We find no robust evidence that the targeted R&D grant programs had any positive and statistically significant effects on the number of employees recruited into these SMEs, or that the grants are associated with an increase in the demand for high human capital workers. The lack of statistically significant findings is troublesome considering that government support programs require a positive impact to cover the administrative costs associated with these programs.

  • Authors: 
    Melissa Nursey-Bray; Nick Harvey;
    Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Other literature type . 2013
    Open Access

    This paper outlines a vision of responsible research and innovation and develops an implementation strategy for it.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Padma Nambisan;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    Advances in biotechnology are rapidly determining the future of mankind, touching all aspects of life: from food, to healthcare and life expectancy, and environment. There is therefore a pressing need to examine the ethical ramifications of biotechnology research. The moral approach to science policy demands that we justify our actions, account for our intentions, and avoid being at the mercy of the “technological imperative” (employing a technique merely because we can). A critical examination of the moral value of the technology, whether it serves to protect individual rights and dignity, whether it is fair to all concerned so that the risks and benefits are shared equally, and whether it is for the common good, is necessary for both the scientist and the public.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Tatyana Novossiolova;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    The chapter gives an in-depth critical appraisal of life science policy and practice in post-Soviet Russia. It looks into the key policy, regulations, and initiatives that have been implemented over the past years, in order to promote scientific and technological innovation. It further explores the budget forecasts and the bulk of biotechnology investment. Finally, it examines life science professional culture in terms of training and capacity building, links with industry, and norms of practice.

  • Authors: 
    Julia Stamm;
    Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ikuko Matsumoto; Yasuo Takahashi; André Mader; Brian Alan Johnson; Federico Lopez-Casero; Masayuki Kawai; Kazuo Matsushita; Sana Okayasu;
    Publisher: Springer Singapore

    This chapter contributes to improve an understanding of the effectiveness of different biodiversity science–policy interfaces (SPIs), which play a vital role in navigating policies and actions with sound evidence base. The single comprehensive study that was found to exist, assessed SPIs in terms of their ‘features’—goals, structure, process, outputs and outcomes. We conducted a renewed systematic review of 96 SPI studies in terms of these features, but separating outcomes, as a proxy for effectiveness, from other features. Outcomes were considered in terms of their perceived credibility, relevance and legitimacy. SPI studies were found to focus mostly on global scale SPIs, followed by national and regional scale SPIs and few at subnational or local scale. The global emphasis is largely explained by the numerous studies that focused on the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Regionally, the vast majority of studies were European, with a severe shortage of studies, and possibly SPIs themselves, in especially the developing world. Communication at the science–policy interface was found to occur mostly between academia and governments, who were also found to initiate most communication. Certain themes emerged across the different features of effective SPIs, including capacity building, trust building, adaptability and continuity. For inclusive, meaningful and continuous participation in biodiversity SPIs, continuous, scientifically sound and adaptable processes are required. Effective, interdisciplinary SPIs and timely and relevant inputs for policymakers are required to ensure more dynamic, iterative and collaborative interactions between policymakers and other actors.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olivier Ragueneau; Mélanie Raimonet; Camille Mazé; Jennifer Coston-Guarini; Laurent Chauvaud; Anatole Danto; Jacques Grall; Frédéric Jean; Yves-Marie Paulet; Gérard Thouzeau;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media Sa
    Country: France

    Cet article fait partie d'un EBOOK: Biogeochemistry and Genomics of Silicification and Silicifiers édité par Marion Gehlen, Stephen Baines, Brivaëla Moriceau et Paul Tréguer, publié dans: Frontiers in Marine Science and Frontiers in Earth Science (ISSN 1664-8714 ; ISBN 978-2-88963-085-1 ; DOI 10.3389/978-2-88963-085-1); International audience; In this contribution, the study of the Bay of Brest ecosystem changes over the past 50 years is used to explore the construction of interdisciplinary knowledge and raise key questions that now need to be tackled at the science-policy-communities interface. The Bay of Brest is subject to a combination of several aspects of global change, including excessive nutrient inputs from watersheds and the proliferation of invasive species. These perturbations strongly interact, affecting positively or negatively the ecosystem functioning, with important impacts on human activities. We first relate a cascade of events over these five decades, linking farming activities, nitrogen, and silicon biogeochemical cycles, hydrodynamics of the Bay, the proliferation of an exotic benthic suspension feeder, the development of the Great scallop fisheries and the high biodiversity in maerl beds. The cascade leads to today's situation where toxic phytoplankton blooms become recurrent in the Bay, preventing the fishery of the great scallop and forcing the fishermen community to switch pray and alter the maerl habitat and the benthic biodiversity it hosts, despite the many scientific alerts and the protection of this habitat. In the second section, we relate the construction of the interdisciplinary knowledge without which scientists would never have been able to describe these changes in the Bay. Interdisciplinarity construction is described, first among natural sciences (NS) and then, between natural sciences and human and social sciences (HSS). We finally ask key questions at the science-policy interface regarding this unsustainable trend of the Bay: How is this possible, despite decades of joint work between scientists and fishermen? Is adaptive co-management a sufficient condition for a sustainable management of an ecosystem? How do the different groups (i.e., farmers, fishermen, scientists, environmentalists), with their diverse interests, take charge of this situation? What is the role of power in this difficult transformation to sustainability? Combining natural sciences with political science, anthropology, and the political sociology of science, we hope to improve the contribution of HSS to integrated studies of social-ecological systems, creating the conditions to address these key questions at the science-policy interface to facilitate the transformation of the Bay of Brest ecosystem toward sustainability.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
    Authors: 
    J. Britt Holbrook;
    Publisher: Routledge
  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2015
    Authors: 
    Lior Tabansky; Isaac Ben Israel;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    The current National cyber-strategy of Israel stemmed from the National Cyber Initiative and was declared in the Government Resolution 3611 ‘Advancing the national capacity in cyberspace’. The Israeli strategy aims at cyber-power, including more comprehensive defence, advanced research and development, developing cyber-technology as an economic growth engine, and leveraging cybersecurity for enhanced international cooperation. The Israel National Cyber Bureau (INCB) was established to develop and implement the strategy. The history of the INCB demonstrates the dynamics of cybersecurity policy. Among the INCB successes are developing and managing the incentives towards marked increase of cybersecurity education and research and development activities in academia, school system and industry, including the start-up scene.

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