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  • Authors: M M, Mahmoud; I M I, Youssef; M M, Abd El-Tawab; H A, Bakr; +6 Authors

    This study was carried out to evaluate the potential effects of 90 days-long dietary supple- mentation of probiotic and yeast culture on immunity condition of lambs. Fifteen Rahmani growing male lambs (about 5 months old and 23.21±2.75 kg body weight) were randomly allo- cated to three equal groups consisting of 5 animals each. The animals in the first group, served as a control (group C), were fed a basal diet without any supplementation. The lambs in the second and third group were fed the basal diet supplemented with probiotic (group Y) or yeast culture (group YC), respectively. The probiotic consisted of live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) alone, while the yeast culture was composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the media on which it was grown. In group Y and YC, each lamb was supplemented daily with 0.5 g and 7.0 g of live yeast and yeast culture, respectively. Blood samples were collected before feeding the supplements and then every 15 days until the day 90th. Total and differential leucocytic counts, total protein, albumin, IgA, IgG and IgM levels were measured in blood. There were insignificant (p>0.05) variations in the levels of total and differential leucocytic counts and total protein among the groups throughout the experiment. However, significant differences (p⟨0.05) were found in globulin, IgA, IgG and IgM in both (Y) and (YC) groups, but the effect of yeast culture seems to be better than that of the probiotic. In conclusions, the obtained results indicate that the tested probiotic and yeast culture improve the immunological status of lambs.

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    Authors: Jens Birkholzer; Joseph P. Morris; John R. Bargar; F. Brondolo; +24 Authors

    This paper describes a new modeling framework for microscopic to reservoir-scale simulations of hydraulic fracturing and production. The approach builds upon a fusion of two existing high-performance simulators for reservoir-scale behavior: the GEOS code for hydromechanical evolution during stimulation and the TOUGH+ code for multi-phase flow during production. The reservoir-scale simulations are informed by experimental and modeling studies at the laboratory scale to incorporate important micro-scale mechanical processes and chemical reactions occurring within the fractures, the shale matrix, and at the fracture-fluid interfaces. These processes include, among others, changes in stimulated fracture permeability as a result of proppant behavior rearrangement or embedment, or mineral scale precipitation within pores and microfractures, at µm to cm scales. In our new modeling framework, such micro-scale testing and modeling provides upscaled hydromechanical parameters for the reservoir scale models. We are currently testing the new modeling framework using field data and core samples from the Hydraulic Fracturing Field Test (HFTS), a recent field-based joint research experiment with intense monitoring of hydraulic fracturing and shale production in the Wolfcamp Formation in the Permian Basin (USA). Below, we present our approach coupling the reservoir simulators GEOS and TOUGH+ informed by upscaled parameters from micro-scale experiments and modeling. We provide a brief overview of the HFTS and the available field data, and then discuss the ongoing application of our new workflow to the HFTS data set.

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    Energies
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Energies
    Article . 2021
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    Article . 2021
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    Energies
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      Energies
      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Energies
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    Authors: Rafael García-Tenorio; Martina Rozmaric; A. Harms; J.M. De Oliveira Godoy; +15 Authors

    Laboratories from 14 countries (with different levels of expertise in radionuclide measurements and 210Pb dating) participated in an interlaboratory comparison exercise (ILC) related to the application of 210Pb sediment dating technique within the framework of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project. The laboratories were provided with samples from a composite sediment core and were required to provide massic activities of several radionuclides and an age versus depth model from the obtained results, using the most suitable 210Pb dating model. Massic concentrations of Zn and Cu were also determined to be used for chronology validation. The ILC results indicated good analytical performances while the dating results didn't demonstrate the same degree of competence in part due to the different experience in dating of the participant laboratories. The ILC exercise enabled evaluation of the difficulties faced by laboratories implementing 210Pb dating methods and identified some limitations in providing reliable chronologies. This work was supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research project “Study of Global Temporal Trends of Pollution in Selected Coastal Areas by the Application of Isotopic and Nuclear Tools” (CRP K41016). Peer reviewed

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    ENEA Open Archive
    Article . 2020
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    Marine Pollution Bulletin
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    ENEA Open Archive
    Other ORP type . 2020
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    We analyze the semiclassical polymer dynamics of the inhomogeneous Mixmaster model by choosing the cubed scale factor as the discretized configurational variable, while the anisotropies remain pure Einsteinian variables. Such a modified theory of gravity should be regarded as the appropriate framework to describe the behavior of quantum mean values, both in polymer quantum mechanics and in Loop Quantum Cosmology. We first construct the generalized Kasner solution, including a massless scalar field and a cosmological constant in the dynamics. They account for a quasi-isotropization, inflationary-like mechanism. The resulting scenario links a singularity-free Kasner-like regime with a homogeneous and isotropic de Sitter phase. Subsequently, we investigate the role of the three-dimensional scalar curvature, demonstrating that a bounce of the point-universe against the potential walls can always occur within the polymer framework, also in the presence of a scalar field. However, the absence of the singularity implies that the curvature is bounded. Therefore, the point-universe undergoes an oscillatory regime until it oversteps the potential walls (if the Big Bounce is not reached before). After that, a final stable Kasner-like regime will last all the way toward the Big Bounce. Thus, the present study demonstrates that, as soon as a discretization of the volume of the universe is performed, the generic cosmological solution is non-chaotic and free from singularities. It is likely that the same result can be achieved also in the loop quantum cosmology approach. 11 pages, 4 figures, to appear on Physics Letters B

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    arXiv.org e-Print Archive
    Other literature type . Preprint . 2018
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    Physics Letters B
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    Physics Letters B
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      Physics Letters B
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      Physics Letters B
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Mastoor M. Abushaega; Yahya H. Daehy; Saleh Alghamdi; Krishna K. Krishnan; +1 Authors

    © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

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    Authors: David, Tweats; David A, Eastmond; Anthony M, Lynch; Azeddine, Elhajouji; +6 Authors

    Aneuploidy is regarded as a hallmark of cancer, however, its role is complex with both pro- and anti-carcinogenic effects evident. In this IWGT review, we consider the role of aneuploidy in cancer biology; cancer risk associated with constitutive aneuploidy; rodent carcinogenesis with known chemical aneugens; and chemotherapy-related malignant neoplasms. Aneuploidy is seen at various stages in carcinogenesis. However, the relationship between induced aneuploidy occurring after exposure and clonal aneuploidy present in tumours is not clear. Recent evidence indicates that the induction of chromosomal instability (CIN), may be more important than aneuploidy per se, in the carcinogenic process. Down Syndrome, trisomy 21, is associated with altered hematopoiesis in utero which, in combination with subsequent mutations, results in an increased risk for acute megakaryoblastic and lymphoblastic leukemias. In contrast, there is reduced cancer risk for most solid tumours in Down Syndrome. Mouse models with high levels of aneuploidy are also associated with increased cancer risk for particular tumours with long latencies, but paradoxically other types of tumour often show decreased incidence. The aneugens reviewed that induce cancer in humans and animals all possess other carcinogenic properties, such as mutagenicity, clastogenicity, cytotoxicity, organ toxicities, hormonal and epigenetic changes which likely account for, or interact with aneuploidy, to cause carcinogenesis. Although the role that aneuploidy plays in carcinogenesis has not been fully established, in many cases, it may not play a primary causative role. Tubulin-disrupting aneugens that do not possess other properties linked to carcinogenesis, were not carcinogenic in rodents. Similarly, in humans, for the tubulin-disrupting aneugens colchicine and albendazole, there is no reported association with increased cancer risk. There is a need for further mechanistic studies on agents that induce aneuploidy, particularly by mechanisms other than tubulin disruption and to determine the role of aneuploidy in pre-neoplastic events and in early and late stage neoplasia.

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    Article . 2019
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    Authors: Joaquín Guillermo Ramírez-Gil; Andrew Townsend Peterson;
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    Journal of Plant Protection Research
    Article . Other ORP type . 2023 . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Plant Protection Research
      Article . Other ORP type . 2023 . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Cultrera, Nicolò G. M.; Sarri, Vania; Lucentini, Livia; Ceccarelli, Marilena; +5 Authors

    Gene sequence variation in cultivated olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. europaea), the most important oil tree crop of the Mediterranean basin, has been poorly evaluated up to now. A deep sequence analysis of fragments of four genes, OeACP1, OeACP2, OeLUS and OeSUT1, in 90 cultivars, revealed a wide range of polymorphisms along all recognized allele forms and unexpected allele frequencies and genotype combinations. High linkage values among most polymorphisms were recorded within each gene fragment. The great sequence variability corresponded to a low number of alleles and, surprisingly, to a small fraction of genotype combinations. The distribution, frequency, and combination of the different alleles at each locus is possibly due to natural and human pressures, such as selection, ancestrality, or fitness. Phylogenetic analyses of allele sequences showed distant and complex patterns of relationships among cultivated olives, intermixed with other related forms, highlighting an evolutionary connection between olive cultivars and the O. europaea subspecies cuspidata and cerasiformis. This study demonstrates how a detailed and complete sequence analysis of a few gene portions and a thorough genotyping on a representative set of cultivars can clarify important issues related to sequence polymorphisms, reconstructing the phylogeny of alleles, as well as the genotype combinations. The identification of regions representing blocks of recombination could reveal polymorphisms that represent putatively functional markers. Indeed, specific mutations found on the analyzed OeACP1 and OeACP2 fragments seem to be correlated to the fruit weight.

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    CNR ExploRA
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    Article . 2019
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    Article . 2019
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    Authors: Christophe Blanc; Guillaume Durey; Randall D. Kamien; Teresa Lopez-Leon; +2 Authors

    The Helfrich-Hurault (HH) elastic instability is a well-known mechanism behind patterns that form as a result of strain upon liquid crystal systems with periodic ground states. In the HH model, layered structures undulate and buckle in response to local, geometric incompatibilities, in order to maintain the preferred layer spacing. Classic HH systems include cholesteric liquid crystals under electromagnetic field distortions and smectic liquid crystals under mechanical strains, where both materials are confined between rigid substrates. However, richer phenomena are observed when undulation instabilities occur in the presence of deformable interfaces and variable boundary conditions. Understanding how the HH instability is affected by deformable surfaces is imperative for applying the instability to a broader range of materials. In this review, we re-examine the HH instability and give special focus to how the boundary conditions influence the mechanical response of lamellar systems to geometrical frustration. We use lamellar liquid crystals confined within a spherical shell geometry as our model system. Made possible by the relatively recent advances in microfluidics within the past 15 years, liquid crystal shells are composed entirely of fluid interfaces and have boundary conditions that can be dynamically controlled at will. We examine past and recent work that exemplifies how topological constraints, molecular anchoring conditions, and boundary curvature can trigger the HH instability in liquid crystals with periodic ground states. We then end by identifying similar phenomena across a wide variety of materials, both biological and synthetic. With this review, we aim to highlight that the HH instability is a generic and often overlooked response of periodic materials to geometrical frustration. Comment: 38 pages, 35 figures, Submitted to Reviews of Modern Physics

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    Reviews of Modern Physics; NARCIS
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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    Utrecht University Repository
    Preprint . Other ORP type . 2021
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    Other literature type . Preprint . 2021
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    Reviews of Modern Physics
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Karam Mansour; Stefano Decesari; Marco Bellacicco; Salvatore Marullo; +7 Authors

    Abstract Many efforts have been dedicated toward understanding the role of biogenic sulfur particles as a climate regulator. Herein, we investigate the relationship between the atmospheric concentration of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and phytoplankton biomass in the Mediterranean Sea by identifying the main MSA source regions during a springtime intensive observation period. The study approach combines i) spatio-temporal correlation analysis between in situ aerosol data measured in April 2016 at Capo Granitola (southern Sicily), and high-resolution ocean color composites, ii) back-trajectory analysis, and iii) potential source contribution function (PSCF) algorithm. The southwestern Mediterranean region (between Sardinia and the Algerian coast) was identified as the most probable dimethylsulfide (DMS) source region contributing to the observed MSA concentrations. Conversely, the blooming northwestern Mediterranean Sea region did not appear to contribute significantly. The present analysis shows that the reasons may be biotic (phytoplankton type, stress level) or abiotic (sea surface temperature), or a combination of both. We also postulate that the identified source region is associated with the production of non-sea-salt-sulfate and secondary organic aerosols from the processing of sea-released volatile organic compounds.

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    ENEA Open Archive
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    Article . 2020
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  • Authors: M M, Mahmoud; I M I, Youssef; M M, Abd El-Tawab; H A, Bakr; +6 Authors

    This study was carried out to evaluate the potential effects of 90 days-long dietary supple- mentation of probiotic and yeast culture on immunity condition of lambs. Fifteen Rahmani growing male lambs (about 5 months old and 23.21±2.75 kg body weight) were randomly allo- cated to three equal groups consisting of 5 animals each. The animals in the first group, served as a control (group C), were fed a basal diet without any supplementation. The lambs in the second and third group were fed the basal diet supplemented with probiotic (group Y) or yeast culture (group YC), respectively. The probiotic consisted of live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) alone, while the yeast culture was composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the media on which it was grown. In group Y and YC, each lamb was supplemented daily with 0.5 g and 7.0 g of live yeast and yeast culture, respectively. Blood samples were collected before feeding the supplements and then every 15 days until the day 90th. Total and differential leucocytic counts, total protein, albumin, IgA, IgG and IgM levels were measured in blood. There were insignificant (p>0.05) variations in the levels of total and differential leucocytic counts and total protein among the groups throughout the experiment. However, significant differences (p⟨0.05) were found in globulin, IgA, IgG and IgM in both (Y) and (YC) groups, but the effect of yeast culture seems to be better than that of the probiotic. In conclusions, the obtained results indicate that the tested probiotic and yeast culture improve the immunological status of lambs.

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    Authors: Jens Birkholzer; Joseph P. Morris; John R. Bargar; F. Brondolo; +24 Authors

    This paper describes a new modeling framework for microscopic to reservoir-scale simulations of hydraulic fracturing and production. The approach builds upon a fusion of two existing high-performance simulators for reservoir-scale behavior: the GEOS code for hydromechanical evolution during stimulation and the TOUGH+ code for multi-phase flow during production. The reservoir-scale simulations are informed by experimental and modeling studies at the laboratory scale to incorporate important micro-scale mechanical processes and chemical reactions occurring within the fractures, the shale matrix, and at the fracture-fluid interfaces. These processes include, among others, changes in stimulated fracture permeability as a result of proppant behavior rearrangement or embedment, or mineral scale precipitation within pores and microfractures, at µm to cm scales. In our new modeling framework, such micro-scale testing and modeling provides upscaled hydromechanical parameters for the reservoir scale models. We are currently testing the new modeling framework using field data and core samples from the Hydraulic Fracturing Field Test (HFTS), a recent field-based joint research experiment with intense monitoring of hydraulic fracturing and shale production in the Wolfcamp Formation in the Permian Basin (USA). Below, we present our approach coupling the reservoir simulators GEOS and TOUGH+ informed by upscaled parameters from micro-scale experiments and modeling. We provide a brief overview of the HFTS and the available field data, and then discuss the ongoing application of our new workflow to the HFTS data set.

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    Energies
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Energies
    Article . 2021
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    Article . 2021
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    Energies
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