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9 Research products

  • 2013-2022
  • Doctoral thesis
  • DARIAH EU

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Respaldiza Hidalgo, María Aránzazu;

    El tema de la presente tesis es la valoración del patrimonio y en ella se considera que el patrimonio es un proceso cultural interesado en negociar, crear y recrear recuerdos, valores y significados culturales. Actualmente el patrimonio como proceso se está consolidando en la literatura científica, aunque la idea de que es una ‘cosa’ es dominante en el debate internacional y está respaldada tanto por políticas como prácticas de la UNESCO. El considerar el patrimonio como un proceso permite una mirada crítica, que subraya la significación. Es decir, supone el correlato que conlleva definir algo como ‘patrimonio’, o hacer que lo vaya siendo. Esta visión del concepto permite la posibilidad de comprender no sólo lo que se ha valorado, sino también lo que se ha olvidado y el porqué. El principal objetivo de esta investigación es explorar las características de un proceso de razonamiento visual para aplicarlo en el de valoración del patrimonio. Éste que se presenta, implica la creación de representaciones visuales y sus relaciones, además su meta no está centrada en producir un ambiente que sea indiferenciado de la realidad física. Con él se pretende ofrecer la posibilidad de comunicar la dimensión ‘poliédrica’ del patrimonio. Para que este nuevo proceso que propongo sea viable y sostenible, existe la necesidad de tener en cuenta el fin que se quiere lograr: la valoración. Es importante considerar que es un proceso en el cual las dinámicas de aprendizaje, comportamientos y exploración del patrimonio están directamente relacionadas con su valoración. Por lo tanto, hay que saber cómo se genera la valoración del patrimonio, con el fin de ser capaces de desarrollar el proceso adaptado a estas dinámicas. La hipótesis de esta tesis defiende que un proceso de razonamiento visual para la valoración del patrimonio permite que las personas involucradas en el proceso inicien un proceso de interacción con un elemento patrimonial y su imagen mental para llegar a ciertas conclusiones con respecto a su valor y significado. El trabajo describe la metodología que da lugar al proceso de razonamiento visual para el patrimonio, que ha sido concebido sobre un modelado descriptivo de procesos, donde se han caracterizado tres niveles: meta-nivel, de análisis y operacional. En el modelado del proceso los agentes, junto con el patrimonio, son los protagonistas. El enfoque propuesto no es sólo sobre el patrimonio, sino sobre la compleja relación entre las personas y el patrimonio. Los agentes humanos dan valor a los testimonios de la vida pasada y les imbuyen de significado. Por lo tanto, este enfoque de un proceso de razonamiento visual sirve para detectar los cambios en el valor del patrimonio, además de su dimensión poliédrica en términos espaciales y temporales. Además se ha propuesto una nueva tipología de patrimonio necesaria para sustentar un proceso de razonamiento visual para su valoración. Esta tipología está apoyada en la usabilidad del patrimonio y dentro de ella se encuentran los siguientes tipos de patrimonio: accesible, cautivo, contextualizado, descontextualizado, original y vicarial. El desarrollo de un proceso de razonamiento visual para el patrimonio es una propuesta innovadora porque integra el proceso para su valoración, contemplando la dimensión poliédrica del patrimonio y explotando la potencialidad del razonamiento visual. Además, los posibles usuarios del proceso propuesto van a tener interacción de manera directa con el patrimonio e indirecta con la información relativa a él, como por ejemplo, con los metadatos. Por tanto, el proceso propuesto posibilita que los posibles usuarios se impliquen activamente en la propia valoración del patrimonio. ABSTRACT The subject of this thesis is heritage valuation and it argues that heritage is a cultural process that is inherited, transmitted, and transformed by individuals who are interested in negotiating, creating and recreating memories and cultural meanings. Recently heritage as a process has seen a consolidation in the research, although the idea that heritage is a ‘thing’ is dominant in the international debate and is supported by policies and practice of UNESCO. Seeing heritage as a process enables a critical view, underscoring the significance. That is, it is the correlate involved in defining something as ‘heritage’, or converting it into heritage. This view of the concept allows the possibility to understand not only what has been valued, but also what has been forgotten and why. The main objective of this research is to explore the characteristics of a visual reasoning process in order to apply it to a heritage valuation. The goal of the process is not centered on producing an environment that is undifferentiated from physical reality. Thus, the objective of the process is to provide the ability to communicate the ‘polyhedral’ dimension of heritage. For this new process to be viable and sustainable, it is necessary to consider what is to be achieved: heritage valuation. It is important to note that it is a process in which the dynamics of learning, behavior and exploration heritage are directly related to its valuation. Therefore, we need to know how this valuation takes place in order to be able to develop a process that is adapted to these dynamic. The hypothesis of this thesis argues that a visual reasoning process for heritage valuation allows people involved in the process to initiate an interaction with a heritage and to build its mental image to reach certain conclusions regarding its value and meaning. The thesis describes the methodology that results in a visual reasoning process for heritage valuation, which has been based on a descriptive modeling process and have characterized three levels: meta, analysis and operational -level. The agents are the protagonists in the process, along with heritage. The proposed approach is not only about heritage but the complex relationship between people and heritage. Human operators give value to the testimonies of past life and imbue them with meaning. Therefore, this approach of a visual reasoning process is used to detect changes in the value of heritage and its multifaceted dimension in spatial and temporal terms. A new type of heritage required to support a visual reasoning process for heritage valuation has also been proposed. This type is supported by its usability and it covers the following types of heritage: available, captive, contextualized, decontextualized, original and vicarious. The development of a visual reasoning process for heritage valuation is innovative because it integrates the process for valuation of heritage, considering the multifaceted dimension of heritage and exploiting the potential of visual reasoning. In addition, potential users of the proposed process will have direct interaction with heritage and indirectly with the information about it, such as the metadata. Therefore, the proposed process enables potential users to be actively involved in their own heritage valuation.

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    Authors: Pintarić, Neven;

    Otvoreni istraživački podatci i otvorena znanost u području arheologije značajni su činitelji znanstveno-istraživačke infrastrukture te se mogu uporabitiza poduzimanje različitih znanstvenih istraživanja u svrhu ostvarenja novih spoznaja i dobrobiti. Za objavu, pretraživanje i pristup otvorenim istraživačkim podatcima važne su metapodatkovne sheme. U Hrvatskoj, otvoreni istraživački podatci u području arheologije i pripadajuće metapodatkovne sheme neistraženo su područje. Cilj ovog rada bio je istražiti i utvrditi važne metapodatkovne elemente u području arheologije u kontekstu otvorene znanosti, razviti konkretni aplikacijski profil te utvrditi njegovu korisnost za širi krug korisnika. U okviru teoretskog dijela istraženi su i definirani osnovni pojmovi. Nadalje analizirani su i sintetizirani tijek i dosezi u razvoju otvorenosti, životni ciklusa podataka, dijeljenje i ponovna uporaba podataka. Za područje arheologije opisani su digitalno okruženje i njegovičinitelji. Utvrđene su značajne metapodatkovne sheme i pripadajući entiteti. Formulirani su bitni činitelji pretraživanja, prepoznatljivosti i jednoznačnosti u digitalnom okruženju. Pregledom znanstvenih istraživanja utvrđeni su bitni metapodatkovni elementi. Njih su vrjednovali stručnjaci iz arheologije i to korištenjem Delphi metode te primjenom metrike za ostvarenje konsenzusa. Aplikacijski profil je izrađen na temelju definiranih funkcionalnih zahtjeva, modeliranjem domene, utvrđivanjem entiteta, njihove povezanosti i pripadajućih metapodatkovnih elemenata. Trajni identifikator za aplikacijski profil utvrđen je temeljem definiranih elemenata usporedbe i analizom njihovog ispunjavanja. Provjera aplikacijskog profila i istraživačkih baza podataka provedena je usporedbom elemenata i atributa. Korisnička percepcija aplikacijskog profila istražena je na dvije korisničke skupine (studenti/ce preddiplomskog i diplomskog studija). Za ovaj dio istraživanja bitne su digitalne kompetencije korisničke skupine koje su definirane povezivanjem funkcionalnih zahtjeva aplikacijskog profila i digitalnih kompetencija metodološkog okvira DigComp. Nadalje, korisnička percepcija aplikacijskog profila je istražena pomoću identifikacije važnih elemenata za pretraživanje i ponovnu uporabu, prosudbom važnosti postojećih elemenata aplikacijskog profila i odabirom metapodatkovnih elemenata u okviru stvarnih situacija za poduzimanje generičkih zadataka. Provedenim istraživanjem za područje arheologije u kontekstu otvorenosti i otvorenih istraživačkih podataka utvrđeno je 16 bitnih entiteta, s 283 elementa. Za potrebe opisivanja, pretraživanja i ponovne uporabe digitalnih objekta od strane stručnjaka u području postignut je konsenzus kod 30 elemenata. Aplikacijski profil dizajniran je s 31 elementomte opisan XML Schemom i dokumentom. Prepoznatljivost i jednoznačnost arheološkog entiteta putem aplikacijskog profila ostvarena je temeljem jedinstvenog identifikatora. Provedena analiza ukazuje da je najprikladniji trajni identifikator DOI. Postojeće istraživačke baza podataka sadrže pojedine elemente aplikacijskog profila, međutim putem njih nije moguće napraviti cjelovito odlučivanje o uporabljivosti za nova istraživanja. Digitalne kompetencije korisničkih skupina koje su sudjelovale u istraživanju su niže u odnosu na razinu definiranu za njihov stupanj obrazovanja. Utvrđena je razlika u vrsti digitalnih kompetencija koje posjeduju, a elemente aplikacijskog profila povezuju uz generičke zadatke pronalazak i identifikacija. Development and Optimization Metadata Schemes for Open Research Data in Field of Archaeology

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Croatian Scientific ...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Croatian Scientific ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Gianola, Lucie;

    L'analyse criminelle est une discipline d'appui aux enquêtes pratiquée au sein de la Gendarmerie Nationale. Elle repose sur l'exploitation des documents compilés dans le dossier de procédure judiciaire (auditions, perquisitions, rapports d'expertise, données téléphoniques et bancaires, etc.) afin de synthétiser les informations collectées et de proposer un regard neuf sur les faits examinés. Si l'analyse criminelle a recours à des logiciels de visualisation de données (i. e. Analyst's Notebook d'IBM) pour la mise en forme des hypothèses formulées, la gestion informatique et textuelle des documents de la procédure est entièrement manuelle. Or, l'analyse criminelle s'appuie entre autres sur le concept d'entités pour formaliser son travail. La présentation du contexte de recherche détaille la pratique de l'analyse criminelle ainsi que la constitution du dossier de procédure judiciaire en tant que corpus textuel. Nous proposons ensuite des perspectives pour l'adaptation des méthodes de traitement automatique de la langue (TAL) et d'extraction d'information au cas d'étude, notamment la mise en parallèle des concepts d'entité en analyse criminelle et d'entité nommée en TAL. Cette comparaison est réalisée sur les plans conceptuels et linguistiques. Une première approche de détection des entités dans les auditions de témoins est présentée. Enfin, le genre textuel étant un paramètre à prendre en compte lors de l'application de traitements automatiques à du texte, nous construisons une structuration du genre textuel « légal » en discours, genres et sous-genres par le biais d'une étude textométrique visant à caractériser différents types de textes (dont les auditions de témoins) produits par le domaine de la justice. Criminal analysis is a discipline that supports investigations practiced within the National Gendarmerie. It is based on the use of the documents compiled in the judicial procedure file (witness interviews, search warrants, expert reports, phone and bank data, etc.) to synthesize the information collected and to propose a new understanding of the facts examined. While criminal analysis uses data visualization software (i. e. IBM Analyst's Notebook) to display the hypotheses formulated, the digital and textual management of the file documents is entirely manual. However, criminal analysis relies on entities to formalize its practice. The presentation of the research context details the practice of criminal analysis as well as the constitution of judicial procedure files as textual corpora. We then propose perspectives for the adaptation of natural language processing (NLP) and information extraction methods to the case study, including a comparison of the concepts of entity in criminal analysis and named entity in NLP. This comparison is done on the conceptual and linguistic plans. A first approach to the detection of entities in witness interviews is presented. Finally, since textual genre is a parameter to be taken into account when applying automatic processing to text, we develop a structure of the 'legal' textual genre into discourse, genres, and sub-genres through a textometric study aimed at characterizing different types of texts (including witness interviews) produced by the field of justice.

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    Authors: Chandna, Swati;

    Die rasanten Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre in den Bereichen Speicherkapazität, Rechenleistung und komplexen Algorithmen werden von Wissenschaftlern nahezu aller Disziplinen genutzt, Informationen aus ihren wissenschaftlichen Daten zu gewinnen. Auch den Digital Humanities, die computergestützte Methoden in geisteswissenschaftlichen Disziplinen anwenden, stehen vermehrt handschriftliche historische Dokumente zur Analyse und auf diese Weise zum Erkenntnisgewinn zur Verfügung. Durch eine Dokumentlayoutanalyse werden die physischen Regionen in Bildern des Dokuments identifiziert und zur Bestimmung präziser Informationen über diese Regionen verwendet. Traditionelle Methoden sind jedoch auf eine eingeschränkte Menge von Dokumentstrukturen festgelegt, produzieren proprietäre Datenformate und bieten keine Möglichkeit, die identifizierten physischen Regionen zu erkunden und Informationen abzuleiten. Gegenstand der vorliegenden Dissertation ist daher die Erforschung und Entwicklung einer generischen Methode, die auf eine Vielzahl von Dokumenten angewendet werden kann, reproduzierbare und deterministische Ergebnisse erzeugt und geisteswissenschaftlichen Forschen die Datenerkundung und das Ableiten wertvoller Erkenntnisse ermöglicht. Die erste Komponente der Methode ist ein generischer und vollautomatischer Ansatz zur Identifizierung physischer Regionen wie Text- und Bildregionen auf Dokumentenbildern sowie zur Extraktion vielfältiger Layoutmerkmale der Regionen. Die Ergebnisse sind auf Grund der Charakteristik des Ansatzes sowohl deterministisch als auch reproduzierbar und im Standformat der Dokumentenrepräsentation gespeichert, das Informationen über die Eigenschaften des Dokumentenbildes, die Layoutstruktur sowie den Seiteninhalt bereitstellt. Die Evaluation an Hand von Ground Truth Daten belegt qualitative Vergleichbarkeit von traditionellen Methoden mit dem vorgestellten Ansatz. Die zweite Komponente ist die Anwendung der Layoutanalyse und Merkmalsextraktion auf den großen und heterogenen Datensatz des „Virtuellen Skriptoriums St. Matthias“ mit 150.000 handgeschriebenen Manuskriptseiten. Die Anwendung bei gedruckten, spanischen Magazinen, PDF Dokumenten, Aristoteles Dokumenten, dem Parzival sowie Dokumenten der Sankt Gallen Datenbank zeigt die Übertragbarkeit und Allgemeingültigkeit des Ansatzes. Die dritte Komponente der Methode ist eine generische Designstrategie, die Entwicklern die effiziente Auswahl und Kombination von Techniken der Informationsvisualisierung abgestimmt auf den jeweiligen Anwendungsfall ermöglicht. In dieser Arbeit wird die Strategie verwendet, passende Techniken der Informationsvisualisierung für multidimensionale Textdokumentdaten abzuleiten. Die vierte Komponente ist das entwickelte Informationsvisualisierungsdesign, dessen vielfältige Elemente aufeinander abgestimmt sind und sich gegenseitig beeinflussen. Diese Komponente ermöglicht esWissenschaftlern, ihre Daten zu erkunden und wertvolle Informationen abzuleiten, die äußerliche Struktur zahlreicher Dokumente auf einen Blick zu erfassen sowie Korrelationen, Ausreißer, Cluster undWertebereiche zu bestimmen. Die qualitative Evaluierung und die Rückmeldungen der geisteswissenschaftlichen Forscher belegen, dass das Visualisierungsdesign die Untersuchung heterogener Informationen der handschriftlichen historischen Dokumente ermöglicht und wertvolle Informationen für eine präzisere physische Layoutanalyse bereitstellen kann. Zusammengefasst ermöglicht es diese Dissertation Fachwissenschaftlern aus dem Gebiet der Digital Humanities, die identifizierten physischen Regionen und Informationen zu erforschen, neuartige Erkenntnisse abzuleiten und bisher verborgene Zusammenhänge in ihren Daten zu entdecken.

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    https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
    Doctoral thesis . 2019
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      https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
      Doctoral thesis . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Patricia Martin-Rodilla;

    [EN] Software Engineering provides a repository of techniques, methods and tools to manage, process, use and exploit information. In recent decades, this corpus has not only been applied to domains that traditionally act as a receivers of software solutions, but also it has been expanded and enriched by contributions from other disciplines and domains with needs related to the information produced. One of the most common needs in these disciplines is the software assistance to experts or domain professionals in performing processes ranging from the analysis of raw gathered data to the generation of new knowledge based on these, thus allowing the continuous advance of the discipline. In order to assist knowledge generation processes through software, it is necessary a deep understanding of the Software Engineering corpus as well as the particularities of the domain assisted and how knowledge is generated inside it.This situation appears too in the Cultural Heritage domain, whose professionals produce and manage large amounts of data about evidences of our past and present, from which they create new knowledge that constitutes the knowledge about heritage of a particular community.Despite their relevance and the regular application of Software Engineering solutions to the Cultural Heritage domain, the knowledge generation process in Cultural Heritage poses a challenge for Software Engineering, mainly due to the low presence of formal studies of the process, making it difficult to assist it through software. The lack of formal studies implies that we do not know which particular processes in Cultural Heritage we must assist and what should be the appropriate assistance in each case. Furthermore, the Cultural Heritage domain and, in general, the humanities, possesses some particular characteristics that are especially difficult to deal with by software, such as the presence of high subjectivity, the fact that much information is uncertain or vague, and the importance of the temporal aspect in the information. In order to address these two challenges from a transdisciplinary perspective, this thesis presents a conceptual framework based on software models for the construction of software solutions to assist to the knowledge generation process in Cultural Heritage. Firstly, the thesis conducts a deep exploration of the knowledge generation processes in Cultural Heritage, whose inputs are mainly textual sources. As a result, the thesis proposes a methodology and a modelling language to use discourse analysis in Software Engineering. By using this approach, it is possible to relate elements of a text with the domain entities that are referenced and the argumentative mechanisms used during the knowledge generation process and captured in the text. Subsequently, the thesis proposes a conceptual framework whose implementation allows to manage the domain particularities mentioned above, providing a software assistance to the Cultural Heritage professionals through information visualization techniques.The proposed conceptual framework has been validated in two complementary ways. On the one hand, we have developed a full case study in the Cultural Heritage domain, for which we have instantiated all the software models proposed as part of the framework to represent a real-world scenario. This case study application has revealed the potential of the framework in terms of conceptual representation, technical support and software-assistance definition mechanisms.On the other hand, the proposed software models have been implemented as a functional iOS application prototype. The prototype has been validated empirically against professionals in Cultural Heritage, comparing the performance of knowledge generation processes using the proposed framework to the conventional ways without software assistance. The empirical validation has revealed how the proposed framework provides a robust solution for implementing software-assistance in Cultural Heritage. [ES] La ingeniería del software ofrece un repositorio de técnicas, métodos y herramientas como soluciones para el manejo, tratamiento, uso y explotación de información. En las últimas décadas, este corpus no sólo ha sido aplicado a dominios tradicionalmente receptores de soluciones software, sino que se ha expandido y enriquecido con aportaciones de diversas disciplinas y dominios con necesidades relacionadas con la información que producen.Una de las necesidades más habituales es la asistencia a los profesionales de dichas disciplinas durante el proceso evolutivo que realizan desde el análisis de los datos más primarios hasta la generación de conocimiento nuevo que permita avanzar en la disciplina involucrada. Este es el caso del Patrimonio Cultural, cuyos profesionales producen y manejan ingentes cantidades de datos acerca de evidencias sobre nuestro pasado y presente, y desde los cuáles descubren y generan conocimiento nuevo, que supone la herencia cultural propia de una comunidad. Este conocimiento define la comunidad en el presente y es transmitido a las generaciones presentes y futuras. Pese a su relevancia y a la habitual aplicación de determinadas soluciones de ingeniería software en el dominio, el proceso de generación de conocimiento en Patrimonio Cultural representa en sí mismo un reto para la ingeniería del software, debido fundamentalmente a la poca presencia de estudios formales acerca del mismo, lo que dificulta su asistencia mediante software. Esto implica que no sabemos qué tipo de subprocesos debemos asistir mediante software ni cuál es la asistencia más adecuada. Además, el corpus actual en ingeniería del software debe soportar especificidades del dominio patrimonial y, en general, de las humanidades, como son la presencia de una alta subjetividad, el hecho de que mucha información es incierta o vaga, y la importancia del aspecto temporal en los datos. Con el objetivo de abordar estos dos retos desde una perspectiva co-investigadora y transdisciplinar, la presente tesis doctoral presenta un marco conceptual basado en modelos software para la construcción de soluciones software que asistan a la generación de conocimiento en Patrimonio Cultural. La tesis explora a fondo el proceso de generación de conocimiento en Patrimonio Cultural, cuyas fuentes eminentemente textuales han dado lugar a la propuesta de una metodología completa y un lenguaje de modelado para utilizar análisis del discurso en ingeniería del software. Esta propuesta permite que se puedan relacionar elementos de un texto con las entidades del dominio que se referencian, así como los mecanismos argumentativos que se emplean.Posteriormente, la tesis propone un marco conceptual completo cuya implementación permite gestionar las especificidades del dominio antes señaladas, ofreciendo una asistencia mediante técnicas de visualización de información software a los especialistas en Patrimonio Cultural. El marco conceptual propuesto ha sido validado de dos maneras complementarias. Por un lado, se ha desarrollado un caso de estudio patrimonial completo, para el cual se han implementado todos los modelos software del marco conceptual propuesto, representando un escenario de aplicación completo del mundo real. Este caso de estudio ha permitido comprobar la potencia del marco conceptual propuesto en cuanto a representación, soporte y definición de mecanismos de asistencia software. Por otro lado, los modelos software que conforman el marco conceptual propuesto han sido implementados en un prototipo funcional en forma de aplicación iOS. Esto ha permitido contar con una implementación real de asistencia software en Patrimonio Cultural. Dicha solución se ha validado empíricamente con profesionales del dominio, comparándola con los modos de generación de conocimiento habituales sin dicha asistencia.La validación empírica ha permitido comprobar cómo el marco propuesto constituye una solución sólida para la construcci [CA] L'enginyeria del programari ofereix un repositori de tècniques, mètodes i eines com a suport per la manipulació, tractament, ús i explotació d'informació. En les darreres dècades, aquest corpus no sols ha sigut aplicat a dominis tradicionalment receptors de solucions de programari, si no que s'han extés i enriquit amb aportacions des de diferents disciplines i dominis amb necessitats relacionades amb l'informació que produeixen. Una de les necessitats més habituals és l'assistència als professionals d'aquestes disciplines durant el procés evolutiu que realitzen des de l'anàlisi de les dades més primàries fins la generació de nou coneixement que permet avançar en la disciplina involucrada. Aquest és el cas del Patrimoni Cultural, el professionals del qual produeixen i manipulen grans quantitats de dades sobre evidències del nostre passat i present, i des de les quals descobreixen i generen nou coneixement, que suposa l'herència cultural pròpia d'una comunitat. A pesar de la seua relevància i a la normal aplicació de determinades solucions d'enginyeria de programari al domini, el procés de generació de coneixement en Patrimoni Cultural representa, en sí mateix, un repte per a l'enginyeria del programari, fonamentalment per la poca presència d'estudis formals sobre aquest domini, cosa que dificulta la seua assistència per programari. Açò implica que no sabem quin tipus de subprocessos hem d'assistir amb programari ni quina és l'assitència més adient. A més a més, el corpus actual en l'enginyeria del programari ha de suportar especifitats del domini patrimonial i, en general, de les humanitats, com són la presència d'una alta subjectivitat, i el fet que molta informació és incerta o imprescisa, o la importància de la dimensió temporal en les dades. Amb l'objectiu d'abordar aquestos dos reptes des d'una perspectiva de recerca colaborativa i transdisciplinar, aquesta tesi doctoral presenta un marc conceptual basat en models de programari per a la construcció de solucions de programari que assistisquen a la generació de coneixement en Patrimoni Cultural. En primer lloc, la tesi explora en profunditat el procés de generació de coneixement en Patrimoni Cultural, les fonts de les quals són majoritàriament textuals han sigut l'orige per a la proposta d'una metodologia completa i un llenguatge de modelatge per emprar anàlisi del discurs en enginyeria de programari. Aquesta proposta permet que es puguen relacionar elements d'un text amb les entitats del domini que es referencien, així com els mecanismes argumentatius que s'empren. Posteriorment, la tesi proposa un marc conceptual complet amb una implementació que permet gestionar les especificitats del domini abans esmentades, oferint una assistència mitjançant tècniques de visualització d'informació de programari als especialistes en Patrimoni Cultural.El marc conceptual proposat ha sigut validat de dues maneres complementàries. Per una banda, s'ha desenvolupat un cas d'estudi patrimonial complet, implementant tots els models de programari del marc conceptual proposat, representant un escenari d'aplicació complet del món real. Aquest cas d'estudi ha permés comprovar la potència del marc conceptual proposat en quant a la representació, suport i definició de mecanismes d'assistència de programari. Per una altra banda, els models de programari que conformen el marc conceptual proposat s'han implementat en un prototipus funcional en forma d'aplicació iOS. Aquest fet ha permés comptar amb una implementació real d'assistència de programari en Patrimoni Cultural. Aquesta solució s'ha validat empíricament amb professionals del domini, comparant-la amb els modes de generació de coneixement habituals sense aquesta assistència. La validació empírica ha permés comprovar com el marc conceptual proposat constitueix una solució sòlida per a la construcció, a partir dels models de programari especificats, dels sistemes de prog

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  • Authors: Nurra, Federico;

    The issue of this PhD thesis is a Web Mapping platform on a global scale based on XML interchange protocols and accepted standards.The focus was on the minimum specifications that the archaeological data should have in order to be uniform and interoperable, and above all, on the geometric and cartographic characteristics that would allow the production of a homogeneous archaeological mapping. Until this moment, the proposals for the production of archaeological cartography have been developed at local, regional, national or, with rare exceptions, continental scale.Thanks to recent advances in information technology, it is now possible to create an open platform for the implementation, storage, exchange, discussion and verification of spatial archaeological data on a global scale.We have identified the primary categories for the acquisition of archaeological data, by defining the minimum standards of compliance of the data, without, however, trivialize the data themselves, thus avoiding a dangerous loss of historical-topographical information. The identification of the four coordinates of objects acquired and a minimum data set of attributes, plus a set of metadata was fundamental.The proposal is therefore the development of a Web Mapping platform, open and collaborative, for positioning and representation of archaeological remains, a sort of "cadaster", and an analytical and detailed knowledge base to assist, support and address each territorial study.; L’objet de cette thèse de doctorat est une plate-forme de cartographie en ligne à l’échelle mondiale basée sur les protocoles d'échange XML et des normes standardisées.L’accent a été mis sur les spécifications minimales que les données archéologiques devraient avoir afin d’être uniformes et interopérables et, surtout, sur les caractéristiques géométriques et cartographiques qui permettraient la production d'une cartographie archéologique homogène. Jusqu’à présent, les propositions pour la production de la cartographie archéologique ont été élaborées à l'échelle locale, régionale, nationale ou, à de rares exceptions près, continentale.Grâce aux récents progrès des technologies de l’information, il est maintenant possible de créer une plate-forme ouverte pour la mise en œuvre, le stockage, l’échange, la discussion et la vérification de données archéologiques spatiales à l’échelle mondiale.Nous avons identifié les principales catégories pour l’acquisition de données archéologiques, en définissant les normes minimales de conformité des données, sans toutefois banaliser les données elles-mêmes, en évitant ainsi une perte dangereuse d’informations historico-topographiques. L’identification des quatre coordonnées des objets acquis et d’un ensemble minimal de données descriptives, plus un ensemble de métadonnées, a été fondamentale.La proposition consiste donc à développer une plateforme de cartographie en ligne, ouverte et collaborative, pour le positionnement et la représentation des vestiges archéologiques ; une sorte de « cadastre », et une base de connaissances analytique et détaillée pour aider, soutenir et traiter chaque étude territoriale.

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  • Authors: Khemakhem, Mohamed;

    Dictionaries could be considered as the most comprehensive reservoir of human knowledge, which carry not only the lexical description of words in one or more languages, but also the common awareness of a certain communityabout every known piece of knowledge in a time frame. Print dictionaries are the principle resources which enable the documentation and transfer of such knowledge. They already exist in abundant numbers, while new onesare continuously compiled, even with the recent strong move to digital resources.However, a majority of these dictionaries, even when available digitally, is still not fully structured due to the absence of scalable methods and techniques that can cover the variety of corresponding material. Moreover, the relatively few existing structured resources present limited exchange and query alternatives, given the discrepancy of their data models and formats.In this thesis we address the task of parsing lexical information in print dictionaries through the design of computer models that enable their automatic structuring. Solving this task goes hand in hand with finding a standardised output for these models to guarantee a maximum interoperability among resources and usability for downstream tasks.First, we present different classifications of the dictionaric resources to delimit the category of print dictionaries we aim to process. Second, we introduce the parsing task by providing an overview of the processing challengesand a study of the state of the art. Then, we present a novel approach based on a top-down parsing of the lexical information. We also outline the archiecture of the resulting system, called GROBID-Dictionaries, and the methodology we followed to close the gap between the conception of the system and its applicability to real-world scenarios.After that, we draw the landscape of the leading standards for structured lexical resources. In addition, we provide an analysis of two ongoing initiatives, TEI-Lex-0 and LMF, that aim at the unification of modelling the lexical information in print and electronic dictionaries. Based on that, we present a serialisation format that is inline with the schemes of the two standardisation initiatives and fits the approach implemented in our parsing system.After presenting the parsing and standardised serialisation facets of our lexical models, we provide an empirical study of their performance and behaviour. The investigation is based on a specific machine learning setup andseries of experiments carried out with a selected pool of varied dictionaries.We try in this study to present different ways for feature engineering and exhibit the strength and the limits of the best resulting models. We also dedicate two series of experiments for exploring the scalability of our models with regard to the processed documents and the employed machine learning technique.Finally, we sum up this thesis by presenting the major conclusions and opening new perspectives for extending our investigations in a number of research directions for parsing entry-based documents.; Les dictionnaires peuvent être considérés comme le réservoir le plus compréhensible de connaissances humaines, qui contiennent non seulement la description lexicale des mots dans une ou plusieurs langues, mais aussi la conscience commune d’une certaine communauté sur chaque élément de connaissance connu dans une période de temps donnée. Les dictionnaires imprimés sont les principales ressources qui permettent la documentation et le transfert de ces connaissances. Ils existent déjà en grand nombre, et de nouveaux dictionnaires sont continuellement compilés.Cependant, la majorité de ces dictionnaires dans leur version numérique n’est toujours pas structurée en raison de l’absence de méthodes et de techniques évolutives pouvant couvrir le nombre du matériel croissant et sa variété. En outre, les ressources structurées existantes, relativement peu nombreuses, présentent des alternatives d’échange et de recherche limitées, en raison d’un sérieux manque de synchronisation entre leurs schémas de structure.Dans cette thèse, nous abordons la tâche d’analyse des informations lexicales dans les dictionnaires imprimés en construisant des modèles qui permettent leur structuration automatique. La résolution de cette tâche va depair avec la recherche d’une sortie standardisée de ces modèles afin de garantir une interopérabilité maximale entre les ressources et une facilité d’utilisation pour les tâches en aval.Nous commençons par présenter différentes classifications des ressources dictionnaires pour délimiter les catégories des dictionnaires imprimés sur lesquelles ce travail se focalise. Ensuite, nous définissions la tâche d’analyse en fournissant un aperçu des défis de traitement et une étude de l’état de l’art.Nous présentons par la suite une nouvelle approche basée sur une analyse en cascade de l’information lexicale. Nous décrivons également l’architecture du système résultant, appelé GROBID-Dictionaries, et la méthodologie quenous avons suivie pour rapprocher la conception du système de son applicabilité aux scénarios du monde réel.Ensuite, nous prestons des normes clés pour les ressources lexicales structurées. En outre, nous fournissons une analyse de deux initiatives en cours, TEI-Lex-0 et LMF, qui visent à unifier la modélisation de l’information lexicale dans les dictionnaires imprimés et électroniques. Sur cette base, nous présentons un format de sérialisation conforme aux schémas des deux initiatives de normalisation et qui est assorti à l’approche développée dans notresystème d’analyse lexicale.Après avoir présenté les facettes d’analyse et de sérialisation normalisées de nos modèles lexicaux, nous fournissons une étude empirique de leurs performances et de leurs comportements. L’étude est basée sur une configuration spécifique d’apprentissage automatique et sur une série d’expériences menées avec un ensemble sélectionné de dictionnaires variés. Dans cette étude, nous essayons de présenter différentes manières d’ingénierie des caractéristiques et de montrer les points forts et les limites des meilleurs modèles résultants. Nous consacrons également deux séries d’expériences pour explorer l’extensibilité de nos modèles en ce qui concerne les documents traités et la technique d’apprentissage automatique employée.Enfin, nous clôturons cette thèse en présentant les principales conclusions et en ouvrant de nouvelles perspectives pour l’extension de nos investigations dans un certain nombre de directions de recherche pour l’analyse des documents structurés en un ensemble d’entrées.

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    Authors: Gruson-Daniel, Célya;

    Cette recherche prend la forme d’une enquête au sein des milieux de production des savoirs français contemporains et vise à comprendre les différentes significations du terme open en sciences. J’ai considéré le qualificatif open comme une formule. L’analyse de ses traductions en français (ouvert, libre, gratuit), tout autant que des noms qui lui sont associés (science, data, access), constitue le fil directeur de mon étude. Cette enquête, qui a débuté en 2013, s’est surtout centrée sur un évènement particulier, la consultation sur le projet de loi pour une République numérique (septembre-octobre 2015), en particulier l’article 9 sur « le libre accès aux publications scientifiques de la recherche publique ». Cette consultation en ligne a donné une envergure nationale et publique aux problématiques d’accès aux savoirs. En tant qu’épreuve de réalité « équipée » d’un dispositif numérique participatif, elle a été l’occasion d’observer presque « en direct » la défense de différentes conceptions de « ce que devrait être » le régime contemporain des savoirs en France. M’inscrivant dans une démarche par théorisation ancrée, j’ai constitué progressivement, à propos de ce moment particulier de cristallisation des débats sur l’open en sciences, un corpus de documents reflétant le déploiement des échanges sur des espaces/dispositifs numériques distincts : site web de la consultation, blogs scientifiques, revues académiques, médias « grand public », rapports. Les mouvements itératifs de cette enquête, alliant méthodes numériques (réalisation d’une cartographie de similarité des votes) et analyse qualitative du corpus, tout autant que les concepts théoriques mobilisés à la croisée entre sciences de l’information et de la communication et sociologie pragmatique de la critique, ont donné lieu à une modélisation. Cette dernière expose les perspectives argumentatives et les stratégies dans l’épreuve mises en œuvre par diverses parties prenantes pour faire valoir leurs conceptions. Elle montre qu’elles sont sous-tendues par des logiques que j’ai rattachées à des esprits successifs du régime français des savoirs. Par la suite, en passant de la modélisation à une théorisation transposable à d’autres terrains de recherche, je montre comment, derrière les discours sur l’open, la distinction entre deux logiques (technoindustrielle ou processuelle) peut être pertinente pour analyser les reconfigurations actuelles d’autres agencements sociétaux. Les stratégies dans l’épreuve employées lors de la consultation illustrent dans ce sens la coexistence de deux conceptions « numériques » de la démocratie (représentative étendue ou contributive), présentes dans le design même de la plateforme consultative. Dans la dernière partie, je propose d’expliquer les dynamiques de reconfiguration d’un esprit et d’un agencement sociétal dans une interprétation énactive en considérant les couplages permanents entre cognition, actions médiées par les technologies et environnement sociotechnique. L’expérience même du doctorat narrée tout au long de ce récit constitue aussi l’exemple d’un processus d’énaction sur mes propres conceptions de l’open. En ce sens, elle ouvre une piste de réflexion sur la nature située et incarnée de toute production de savoirs, qui n'échappe pas aux limites tout autant qu’aux potentialités de la métacognition. THE FRENCH REGIME OF KNOWLEDGES AND ITS DYNAMICS: OPEN IN SCIENCES AND DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES IN DEBATE. THE CASE STUDY OF THE FRENCH BILL FOR A "DIGITAL REPUBLIC" (2015) This research investigates the worlds of contemporary French knowledge production in order to understand the different meanings of the term 'open' in sciences. Specific attention has been drawn to the qualifying adjective 'open' in relation to the French translations (ouvert, libre gratuit) as well as associated terms (science, data, access) with this formula. This inquiry began in 2013 and focused mainly on a specific event, the consultation on the bill for a "Digital Republic" (September-October 2015), in particular Article 9 on "open access to scientific publications in public research". This online consultation has allowed for a national and public scope to the issue of access to knowledges. As an "equipped" reality test via a participative website, arose the opportunity to observe almost "live" the defense of different conceptions of "what should be" the contemporary regime of knowledges in France. Through a grounded theory approach around this particular crystallisation moment of the debates on open in sciences has led me to gradually constitute a corpus of documents, reflecting the deployment of the exchanges on different digital spaces/apparatus (consultation website, scientific blogs, academic notebooks, mainstream press, etc.). Within an iterative research process, I combined digital methods (digital mapping of the similarity of votes) and qualitative analysis of the corpus, as well as the theoretical concepts mobilized at the crossroads between information and communication sciences and "pragmatic sociology of critique". This enabled the development of a model which shows that the argumentative perspectives and the strategies in the test implemented by various stakeholders to promote their own conceptions are underpinned by logics, which I have attached to "spirits" of the French regime of knowledges. Subsequently, by switching from modeling to transposable theorization into other fields of research, I show how the distinction between two logics (technoindustrial or processual), behind the discourses on open, can be relevant to analyze the current reconfigurations of other "societal arrangements". The consultation by itself illustrates this point with the coexistence of two "digital" conceptions of democracy (extended representative or contributive), embodied in the design of the consultative platform. In the last part, I propose to explain the dynamics between the reconfiguration of a spirit and its social arrangement, by considering the permanent coupling between cognition, technologically mediated actions and socio-technical environment. Finally, the PhD experience narrated throughout this inquiry is also an example of an enaction process on my own conceptions of open. In this sense, it opens further reflections on the situated and incarnated nature of any production of knowledges, which escapes neither the limits nor the potentialities of metacognition. Keywords: open, regime of knowledges, democracy, debate, digital technologies, enaction

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2018
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    ZENODO
    Other literature type . 2018
    Data sources: ZENODO
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Frosini, Luca;

    This current PhD thesis aims at researching solutions to the long-standing gap in the research infrastructure field of formal modelling and discovery of information. Research Infrastructures (RIs) are facilities, resources and services used by the research community to conduct research and promote innovation. They provide access to tools, data and algorithms, pooled on working environments named Virtual Research Environments (VREs). Due to their nature, Research Infrastructures (RIs) are a heterogeneous landscape of resource types and diverse, often redundant, models for describing the same resource entities. Such diversity drastically diminishes the capabilities of a consistent fruition of the knowledge and skills available within an infrastructure, and ultimately limits the creation of federations of RI. The current state of knowledge in the field is even more complex due to the emerging concept of Hybrid Data Infrastructures (HDIs), which combine on-premises resources with resources provisioned by cloud and/or grid computing infrastructures. The focus of this study is to address the critical aspects of this heterogeneity and provides to the research infrastructure field both the conceptual and analytical instruments for expanding the scale at which the infrastructures currently operate. The following research questions are investigated in this study: - Research question 1: Is it possible to formalise a uniform resource model to seamlessly federate research infrastructures? - Research question 2: To what extent do state-of-the-art discovery algorithms need to be amended to properly handle VREs across Hybrid Data Infrastructures? - Research question 3: To what extent does the interface of a discovery service can support the new model and algorithms? First objective is attained with the definition of a resource model open by design. An accurate mathematical notation presents a minimal but powerful model consisting of few constructs. This is an abstract model, which can be instantiated to accommodate almost every possible scenario. Second objective is confronted with the design of a novel communication model based on the concept of transaction. Transactional models are not a new idea; rather they have been extensively described in the literature since the 80s. However, this work identifies a misapplication of these models in the context of research infrastructure and proposes changes to support the emerging requirements in the field. Lastly, the third objective refers to the impact that the first two questions have on architectural aspects of the services devoted to distribute the information in a research infrastructure. This point is deeply investigated with a detailed design of a production-ready solution to prove the validity and accuracy of the theoretical aspects of this thesis. The originality of the proposed thesis consists also in its methodology. In fact, this dissertation offers an innovative analytical and methodological approach to address these research questions. A key-enabling component of modern Hybrid Data Infrastructures, the Information System (IS), is used as platform to validate this work. An IS is central to all the themes tackled in this thesis. It exploits the resource model, plays the role of registry inside the infrastructure, deals with an intensive communication with all the other actors and works with the heterogeneity of such a context. Its ultimate goal is to provide uniform views of the resources assigned to each VRE, regardless of their origin. The study presented in this thesis has been conducted within the InfraScience group, the research group pioneering the Enabling Scientific Data Infrastructures field in the past two decades. The group operates at the Institute of Information Science and Technologies (ISTI), an institute of the Italian National Research Council (CNR). This invaluable environment provided a unique ground to develop and validate the theories illustrated in the thesis. Focusing on the validation, the abstract resource model has been instantiated in the gCube model of the D4Science HDI, while the transactional model has been translated in the design of the IS, successfully implemented and adopted by the same HDI. The dissertation carries innovative theoretical, methodological and analytical value in the research infrastructure field and especially in the emerging Hybrid Data Infrastructures. Importantly, this work has been validated in one of the most challenging contexts available. The thesis is organised in chapters: Chapters 1 and 2 describe the problem statement; Chapter 3 provides a state-of-the-art overview of the problem; Chapter 4 develops the theoretical framework by describing both the abstract and gCube resource models; Chapters 5 presents transaction model, how it can be used, and why it focuses on the transaction technique; Chapter 6 offers the core methodological support with the description of the IS to support the abstract resource model and the transaction model and; Chapters 7 and 8 conclude with the validation of proposed study and the contribution to the literature it provides.

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    ISTI Open Portal
    Doctoral thesis . 2019
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    CNR ExploRA
    Doctoral thesis . 2019
    Data sources: CNR ExploRA
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    ZENODO
    Other literature type . 2019
    Data sources: ZENODO
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      ISTI Open Portal
      Doctoral thesis . 2019
      Data sources: ISTI Open Portal
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      CNR ExploRA
      Doctoral thesis . 2019
      Data sources: CNR ExploRA
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      ZENODO
      Other literature type . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Respaldiza Hidalgo, María Aránzazu;

    El tema de la presente tesis es la valoración del patrimonio y en ella se considera que el patrimonio es un proceso cultural interesado en negociar, crear y recrear recuerdos, valores y significados culturales. Actualmente el patrimonio como proceso se está consolidando en la literatura científica, aunque la idea de que es una ‘cosa’ es dominante en el debate internacional y está respaldada tanto por políticas como prácticas de la UNESCO. El considerar el patrimonio como un proceso permite una mirada crítica, que subraya la significación. Es decir, supone el correlato que conlleva definir algo como ‘patrimonio’, o hacer que lo vaya siendo. Esta visión del concepto permite la posibilidad de comprender no sólo lo que se ha valorado, sino también lo que se ha olvidado y el porqué. El principal objetivo de esta investigación es explorar las características de un proceso de razonamiento visual para aplicarlo en el de valoración del patrimonio. Éste que se presenta, implica la creación de representaciones visuales y sus relaciones, además su meta no está centrada en producir un ambiente que sea indiferenciado de la realidad física. Con él se pretende ofrecer la posibilidad de comunicar la dimensión ‘poliédrica’ del patrimonio. Para que este nuevo proceso que propongo sea viable y sostenible, existe la necesidad de tener en cuenta el fin que se quiere lograr: la valoración. Es importante considerar que es un proceso en el cual las dinámicas de aprendizaje, comportamientos y exploración del patrimonio están directamente relacionadas con su valoración. Por lo tanto, hay que saber cómo se genera la valoración del patrimonio, con el fin de ser capaces de desarrollar el proceso adaptado a estas dinámicas. La hipótesis de esta tesis defiende que un proceso de razonamiento visual para la valoración del patrimonio permite que las personas involucradas en el proceso inicien un proceso de interacción con un elemento patrimonial y su imagen mental para llegar a ciertas conclusiones con respecto a su valor y significado. El trabajo describe la metodología que da lugar al proceso de razonamiento visual para el patrimonio, que ha sido concebido sobre un modelado descriptivo de procesos, donde se han caracterizado tres niveles: meta-nivel, de análisis y operacional. En el modelado del proceso los agentes, junto con el patrimonio, son los protagonistas. El enfoque propuesto no es sólo sobre el patrimonio, sino sobre la compleja relación entre las personas y el patrimonio. Los agentes humanos dan valor a los testimonios de la vida pasada y les imbuyen de significado. Por lo tanto, este enfoque de un proceso de razonamiento visual sirve para detectar los cambios en el valor del patrimonio, además de su dimensión poliédrica en términos espaciales y temporales. Además se ha propuesto una nueva tipología de patrimonio necesaria para sustentar un proceso de razonamiento visual para su valoración. Esta tipología está apoyada en la usabilidad del patrimonio y dentro de ella se encuentran los siguientes tipos de patrimonio: accesible, cautivo, contextualizado, descontextualizado, original y vicarial. El desarrollo de un proceso de razonamiento visual para el patrimonio es una propuesta innovadora porque integra el proceso para su valoración, contemplando la dimensión poliédrica del patrimonio y explotando la potencialidad del razonamiento visual. Además, los posibles usuarios del proceso propuesto van a tener interacción de manera directa con el patrimonio e indirecta con la información relativa a él, como por ejemplo, con los metadatos. Por tanto, el proceso propuesto posibilita que los posibles usuarios se impliquen activamente en la propia valoración del patrimonio. ABSTRACT The subject of this thesis is heritage valuation and it argues that heritage is a cultural process that is inherited, transmitted, and transformed by individuals who are interested in negotiating, creating and recreating memories and cultural meanings. Recently heritage as a process has seen a consolidation in the research, although the idea that heritage is a ‘thing’ is dominant in the international debate and is supported by policies and practice of UNESCO. Seeing heritage as a process enables a critical view, underscoring the significance. That is, it is the correlate involved in defining something as ‘heritage’, or converting it into heritage. This view of the concept allows the possibility to understand not only what has been valued, but also what has been forgotten and why. The main objective of this research is to explore the characteristics of a visual reasoning process in order to apply it to a heritage valuation. The goal of the process is not centered on producing an environment that is undifferentiated from physical reality. Thus, the objective of the process is to provide the ability to communicate the ‘polyhedral’ dimension of heritage. For this new process to be viable and sustainable, it is necessary to consider what is to be achieved: heritage valuation. It is important to note that it is a process in which the dynamics of learning, behavior and exploration heritage are directly related to its valuation. Therefore, we need to know how this valuation takes place in order to be able to develop a process that is adapted to these dynamic. The hypothesis of this thesis argues that a visual reasoning process for heritage valuation allows people involved in the process to initiate an interaction with a heritage and to build its mental image to reach certain conclusions regarding its value and meaning. The thesis describes the methodology that results in a visual reasoning process for heritage valuation, which has been based on a descriptive modeling process and have characterized three levels: meta, analysis and operational -level. The agents are the protagonists in the process, along with heritage. The proposed approach is not only about heritage but the complex relationship between people and heritage. Human operators give value to the testimonies of past life and imbue them with meaning. Therefore, this approach of a visual reasoning process is used to detect changes in the value of heritage and its multifaceted dimension in spatial and temporal terms. A new type of heritage required to support a visual reasoning process for heritage valuation has also been proposed. This type is supported by its usability and it covers the following types of heritage: available, captive, contextualized, decontextualized, original and vicarious. The development of a visual reasoning process for heritage valuation is innovative because it integrates the process for valuation of heritage, considering the multifaceted dimension of heritage and exploiting the potential of visual reasoning. In addition, potential users of the proposed process will have direct interaction with heritage and indirectly with the information about it, such as the metadata. Therefore, the proposed process enables potential users to be actively involved in their own heritage valuation.

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    Authors: Pintarić, Neven;

    Otvoreni istraživački podatci i otvorena znanost u području arheologije značajni su činitelji znanstveno-istraživačke infrastrukture te se mogu uporabitiza poduzimanje različitih znanstvenih istraživanja u svrhu ostvarenja novih spoznaja i dobrobiti. Za objavu, pretraživanje i pristup otvorenim istraživačkim podatcima važne su metapodatkovne sheme. U Hrvatskoj, otvoreni istraživački podatci u području arheologije i pripadajuće metapodatkovne sheme neistraženo su područje. Cilj ovog rada bio je istražiti i utvrditi važne metapodatkovne elemente u području arheologije u kontekstu otvorene znanosti, razviti konkretni aplikacijski profil te utvrditi njegovu korisnost za širi krug korisnika. U okviru teoretskog dijela istraženi su i definirani osnovni pojmovi. Nadalje analizirani su i sintetizirani tijek i dosezi u razvoju otvorenosti, životni ciklusa podataka, dijeljenje i ponovna uporaba podataka. Za područje arheologije opisani su digitalno okruženje i njegovičinitelji. Utvrđene su značajne metapodatkovne sheme i pripadajući entiteti. Formulirani su bitni činitelji pretraživanja, prepoznatljivosti i jednoznačnosti u digitalnom okruženju. Pregledom znanstvenih istraživanja utvrđeni su bitni metapodatkovni elementi. Njih su vrjednovali stručnjaci iz arheologije i to korištenjem Delphi metode te primjenom metrike za ostvarenje konsenzusa. Aplikacijski profil je izrađen na temelju definiranih funkcionalnih zahtjeva, modeliranjem domene, utvrđivanjem entiteta, njihove povezanosti i pripadajućih metapodatkovnih elemenata. Trajni identifikator za aplikacijski profil utvrđen je temeljem definiranih elemenata usporedbe i analizom njihovog ispunjavanja. Provjera aplikacijskog profila i istraživačkih baza podataka provedena je usporedbom elemenata i atributa. Korisnička percepcija aplikacijskog profila istražena je na dvije korisničke skupine (studenti/ce preddiplomskog i diplomskog studija). Za ovaj dio istraživanja bitne su digitalne kompetencije korisničke skupine koje su definirane povezivanjem funkcionalnih zahtjeva aplikacijskog profila i digitalnih kompetencija metodološkog okvira DigComp. Nadalje, korisnička percepcija aplikacijskog profila je istražena pomoću identifikacije važnih elemenata za pretraživanje i ponovnu uporabu, prosudbom važnosti postojećih elemenata aplikacijskog profila i odabirom metapodatkovnih elemenata u okviru stvarnih situacija za poduzimanje generičkih zadataka. Provedenim istraživanjem za područje arheologije u kontekstu otvorenosti i otvorenih istraživačkih podataka utvrđeno je 16 bitnih entiteta, s 283 elementa. Za potrebe opisivanja, pretraživanja i ponovne uporabe digitalnih objekta od strane stručnjaka u području postignut je konsenzus kod 30 elemenata. Aplikacijski profil dizajniran je s 31 elementomte opisan XML Schemom i dokumentom. Prepoznatljivost i jednoznačnost arheološkog entiteta putem aplikacijskog profila ostvarena je temeljem jedinstvenog identifikatora. Provedena analiza ukazuje da je najprikladniji trajni identifikator DOI. Postojeće istraživačke baza podataka sadrže pojedine elemente aplikacijskog profila, međutim putem njih nije moguće napraviti cjelovito odlučivanje o uporabljivosti za nova istraživanja. Digitalne kompetencije korisničkih skupina koje su sudjelovale u istraživanju su niže u odnosu na razinu definiranu za njihov stupanj obrazovanja. Utvrđena je razlika u vrsti digitalnih kompetencija koje posjeduju, a elemente aplikacijskog profila povezuju uz generičke zadatke pronalazak i identifikacija. Development and Optimization Metadata Schemes for Open Research Data in Field of Archaeology

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    ZENODO
    Other literature type . 2020
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      ZENODO
      Other literature type . 2020
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    Authors: Gianola, Lucie;

    L'analyse criminelle est une discipline d'appui aux enquêtes pratiquée au sein de la Gendarmerie Nationale. Elle repose sur l'exploitation des documents compilés dans le dossier de procédure judiciaire (auditions, perquisitions, rapports d'expertise, données téléphoniques et bancaires, etc.) afin de synthétiser les informations collectées et de proposer un regard neuf sur les faits examinés. Si l'analyse criminelle a recours à des logiciels de visualisation de données (i. e. Analyst's Notebook d'IBM) pour la mise en forme des hypothèses formulées, la gestion informatique et textuelle des documents de la procédure est entièrement manuelle. Or, l'analyse criminelle s'appuie entre autres sur le concept d'entités pour formaliser son travail. La présentation du contexte de recherche détaille la pratique de l'analyse criminelle ainsi que la constitution du dossier de procédure judiciaire en tant que corpus textuel. Nous proposons ensuite des perspectives pour l'adaptation des méthodes de traitement automatique de la langue (TAL) et d'extraction d'information au cas d'étude, notamment la mise en parallèle des concepts d'entité en analyse criminelle et d'entité nommée en TAL. Cette comparaison est réalisée sur les plans conceptuels et linguistiques. Une première approche de détection des entités dans les auditions de témoins est présentée. Enfin, le genre textuel étant un paramètre à prendre en compte lors de l'application de traitements automatiques à du texte, nous construisons une structuration du genre textuel « légal » en discours, genres et sous-genres par le biais d'une étude textométrique visant à caractériser différents types de textes (dont les auditions de témoins) produits par le domaine de la justice. Criminal analysis is a discipline that supports investigations practiced within the National Gendarmerie. It is based on the use of the documents compiled in the judicial procedure file (witness interviews, search warrants, expert reports, phone and bank data, etc.) to synthesize the information collected and to propose a new understanding of the facts examined. While criminal analysis uses data visualization software (i. e. IBM Analyst's Notebook) to display the hypotheses formulated, the digital and textual management of the file documents is entirely manual. However, criminal analysis relies on entities to formalize its practice. The presentation of the research context details the practice of criminal analysis as well as the constitution of judicial procedure files as textual corpora. We then propose perspectives for the adaptation of natural language processing (NLP) and information extraction methods to the case study, including a comparison of the concepts of entity in criminal analysis and named entity in NLP. This comparison is done on the conceptual and linguistic plans. A first approach to the detection of entities in witness interviews is presented. Finally, since textual genre is a parameter to be taken into account when applying automatic processing to text, we develop a structure of the 'legal' textual genre into discourse, genres, and sub-genres through a textometric study aimed at characterizing different types of texts (including witness interviews) produced by the field of justice.

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    Authors: Chandna, Swati;

    Die rasanten Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre in den Bereichen Speicherkapazität, Rechenleistung und komplexen Algorithmen werden von Wissenschaftlern nahezu aller Disziplinen genutzt, Informationen aus ihren wissenschaftlichen Daten zu gewinnen. Auch den Digital Humanities, die computergestützte Methoden in geisteswissenschaftlichen Disziplinen anwenden, stehen vermehrt handschriftliche historische Dokumente zur Analyse und auf diese Weise zum Erkenntnisgewinn zur Verfügung. Durch eine Dokumentlayoutanalyse werden die physischen Regionen in Bildern des Dokuments identifiziert und zur Bestimmung präziser Informationen über diese Regionen verwendet. Traditionelle Methoden sind jedoch auf eine eingeschränkte Menge von Dokumentstrukturen festgelegt, produzieren proprietäre Datenformate und bieten keine Möglichkeit, die identifizierten physischen Regionen zu erkunden und Informationen abzuleiten. Gegenstand der vorliegenden Dissertation ist daher die Erforschung und Entwicklung einer generischen Methode, die auf eine Vielzahl von Dokumenten angewendet werden kann, reproduzierbare und deterministische Ergebnisse erzeugt und geisteswissenschaftlichen Forschen die Datenerkundung und das Ableiten wertvoller Erkenntnisse ermöglicht. Die erste Komponente der Methode ist ein generischer und vollautomatischer Ansatz zur Identifizierung physischer Regionen wie Text- und Bildregionen auf Dokumentenbildern sowie zur Extraktion vielfältiger Layoutmerkmale der Regionen. Die Ergebnisse sind auf Grund der Charakteristik des Ansatzes sowohl deterministisch als auch reproduzierbar und im Standformat der Dokumentenrepräsentation gespeichert, das Informationen über die Eigenschaften des Dokumentenbildes, die Layoutstruktur sowie den Seiteninhalt bereitstellt. Die Evaluation an Hand von Ground Truth Daten belegt qualitative Vergleichbarkeit von traditionellen Methoden mit dem vorgestellten Ansatz. Die zweite Komponente ist die Anwendung der Layoutanalyse und Merkmalsextraktion auf den großen und heterogenen Datensatz des „Virtuellen Skriptoriums St. Matthias“ mit 150.000 handgeschriebenen Manuskriptseiten. Die Anwendung bei gedruckten, spanischen Magazinen, PDF Dokumenten, Aristoteles Dokumenten, dem Parzival sowie Dokumenten der Sankt Gallen Datenbank zeigt die Übertragbarkeit und Allgemeingültigkeit des Ansatzes. Die dritte Komponente der Methode ist eine generische Designstrategie, die Entwicklern die effiziente Auswahl und Kombination von Techniken der Informationsvisualisierung abgestimmt auf den jeweiligen Anwendungsfall ermöglicht. In dieser Arbeit wird die Strategie verwendet, passende Techniken der Informationsvisualisierung für multidimensionale Textdokumentdaten abzuleiten. Die vierte Komponente ist das entwickelte Informationsvisualisierungsdesign, dessen vielfältige Elemente aufeinander abgestimmt sind und sich gegenseitig beeinflussen. Diese Komponente ermöglicht esWissenschaftlern, ihre Daten zu erkunden und wertvolle Informationen abzuleiten, die äußerliche Struktur zahlreicher Dokumente auf einen Blick zu erfassen sowie Korrelationen, Ausreißer, Cluster undWertebereiche zu bestimmen. Die qualitative Evaluierung und die Rückmeldungen der geisteswissenschaftlichen Forscher belegen, dass das Visualisierungsdesign die Untersuchung heterogener Informationen der handschriftlichen historischen Dokumente ermöglicht und wertvolle Informationen für eine präzisere physische Layoutanalyse bereitstellen kann. Zusammengefasst ermöglicht es diese Dissertation Fachwissenschaftlern aus dem Gebiet der Digital Humanities, die identifizierten physischen Regionen und Informationen zu erforschen, neuartige Erkenntnisse abzuleiten und bisher verborgene Zusammenhänge in ihren Daten zu entdecken.

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    KITopen
    Doctoral thesis . 2019
    Data sources: KITopen
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    https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
    Doctoral thesis . 2019
    Data sources: Datacite
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      KITopen
      Doctoral thesis . 2019
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      https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
      Doctoral thesis . 2019
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    Authors: Patricia Martin-Rodilla;

    [EN] Software Engineering provides a repository of techniques, methods and tools to manage, process, use and exploit information. In recent decades, this corpus has not only been applied to domains that traditionally act as a receivers of software solutions, but also it has been expanded and enriched by contributions from other disciplines and domains with needs related to the information produced. One of the most common needs in these disciplines is the software assistance to experts or domain professionals in performing processes ranging from the analysis of raw gathered data to the generation of new knowledge based on these, thus allowing the continuous advance of the discipline. In order to assist knowledge generation processes through software, it is necessary a deep understanding of the Software Engineering corpus as well as the particularities of the domain assisted and how knowledge is generated inside it.This situation appears too in the Cultural Heritage domain, whose professionals produce and manage large amounts of data about evidences of our past and present, from which they create new knowledge that constitutes the knowledge about heritage of a particular community.Despite their relevance and the regular application of Software Engineering solutions to the Cultural Heritage domain, the knowledge generation process in Cultural Heritage poses a challenge for Software Engineering, mainly due to the low presence of formal studies of the process, making it difficult to assist it through software. The lack of formal studies implies that we do not know which particular processes in Cultural Heritage we must assist and what should be the appropriate assistance in each case. Furthermore, the Cultural Heritage domain and, in general, the humanities, possesses some particular characteristics that are especially difficult to deal with by software, such as the presence of high subjectivity, the fact that much information is uncertain or vague, and the importance of the temporal aspect in the information. In order to address these two challenges from a transdisciplinary perspective, this thesis presents a conceptual framework based on software models for the construction of software solutions to assist to the knowledge generation process in Cultural Heritage. Firstly, the thesis conducts a deep exploration of the knowledge generation processes in Cultural Heritage, whose inputs are mainly textual sources. As a result, the thesis proposes a methodology and a modelling language to use discourse analysis in Software Engineering. By using this approach, it is possible to relate elements of a text with the domain entities that are referenced and the argumentative mechanisms used during the knowledge generation process and captured in the text. Subsequently, the thesis proposes a conceptual framework whose implementation allows to manage the domain particularities mentioned above, providing a software assistance to the Cultural Heritage professionals through information visualization techniques.The proposed conceptual framework has been validated in two complementary ways. On the one hand, we have developed a full case study in the Cultural Heritage domain, for which we have instantiated all the software models proposed as part of the framework to represent a real-world scenario. This case study application has revealed the potential of the framework in terms of conceptual representation, technical support and software-assistance definition mechanisms.On the other hand, the proposed software models have been implemented as a functional iOS application prototype. The prototype has been validated empirically against professionals in Cultural Heritage, comparing the performance of knowledge generation processes using the proposed framework to the conventional ways without software assistance. The empirical validation has revealed how the proposed framework provides a robust solution for implementing software-assistance in Cultural Heritage. [ES] La ingeniería del software ofrece un repositorio de técnicas, métodos y herramientas como soluciones para el manejo, tratamiento, uso y explotación de información. En las últimas décadas, este corpus no sólo ha sido aplicado a dominios tradicionalmente receptores de soluciones software, sino que se ha expandido y enriquecido con aportaciones de diversas disciplinas y dominios con necesidades relacionadas con la información que producen.Una de las necesidades más habituales es la asistencia a los profesionales de dichas disciplinas durante el proceso evolutivo que realizan desde el análisis de los datos más primarios hasta la generación de conocimiento nuevo que permita avanzar en la disciplina involucrada. Este es el caso del Patrimonio Cultural, cuyos profesionales producen y manejan ingentes cantidades de datos acerca de evidencias sobre nuestro pasado y presente, y desde los cuáles descubren y generan conocimiento nuevo, que supone la herencia cultural propia de una comunidad. Este conocimiento define la comunidad en el presente y es transmitido a las generaciones presentes y futuras. Pese a su relevancia y a la habitual aplicación de determinadas soluciones de ingeniería software en el dominio, el proceso de generación de conocimiento en Patrimonio Cultural representa en sí mismo un reto para la ingeniería del software, debido fundamentalmente a la poca presencia de estudios formales acerca del mismo, lo que dificulta su asistencia mediante software. Esto implica que no sabemos qué tipo de subprocesos debemos asistir mediante software ni cuál es la asistencia más adecuada. Además, el corpus actual en ingeniería del software debe soportar especificidades del dominio patrimonial y, en general, de las humanidades, como son la presencia de una alta subjetividad, el hecho de que mucha información es incierta o vaga, y la importancia del aspecto temporal en los datos. Con el objetivo de abordar estos dos retos desde una perspectiva co-investigadora y transdisciplinar, la presente tesis doctoral presenta un marco conceptual basado en modelos software para la construcción de soluciones software que asistan a la generación de conocimiento en Patrimonio Cultural. La tesis explora a fondo el proceso de generación de conocimiento en Patrimonio Cultural, cuyas fuentes eminentemente textuales han dado lugar a la propuesta de una metodología completa y un lenguaje de modelado para utilizar análisis del discurso en ingeniería del software. Esta propuesta permite que se puedan relacionar elementos de un texto con las entidades del dominio que se referencian, así como los mecanismos argumentativos que se emplean.Posteriormente, la tesis propone un marco conceptual completo cuya implementación permite gestionar las especificidades del dominio antes señaladas, ofreciendo una asistencia mediante técnicas de visualización de información software a los especialistas en Patrimonio Cultural. El marco conceptual propuesto ha sido validado de dos maneras complementarias. Por un lado, se ha desarrollado un caso de estudio patrimonial completo, para el cual se han implementado todos los modelos software del marco conceptual propuesto, representando un escenario de aplicación completo del mundo real. Este caso de estudio ha permitido comprobar la potencia del marco conceptual propuesto en cuanto a representación, soporte y definición de mecanismos de asistencia software. Por otro lado, los modelos software que conforman el marco conceptual propuesto han sido implementados en un prototipo funcional en forma de aplicación iOS. Esto ha permitido contar con una implementación real de asistencia software en Patrimonio Cultural. Dicha solución se ha validado empíricamente con profesionales del dominio, comparándola con los modos de generación de conocimiento habituales sin dicha asistencia.La validación empírica ha permitido comprobar cómo el marco propuesto constituye una solución sólida para la construcci [CA] L'enginyeria del programari ofereix un repositori de tècniques, mètodes i eines com a suport per la manipulació, tractament, ús i explotació d'informació. En les darreres dècades, aquest corpus no sols ha sigut aplicat a dominis tradicionalment receptors de solucions de programari, si no que s'han extés i enriquit amb aportacions des de diferents disciplines i dominis amb necessitats relacionades amb l'informació que produeixen. Una de les necessitats més habituals és l'assistència als professionals d'aquestes disciplines durant el procés evolutiu que realitzen des de l'anàlisi de les dades més primàries fins la generació de nou coneixement que permet avançar en la disciplina involucrada. Aquest és el cas del Patrimoni Cultural, el professionals del qual produeixen i manipulen grans quantitats de dades sobre evidències del nostre passat i present, i des de les quals descobreixen i generen nou coneixement, que suposa l'herència cultural pròpia d'una comunitat. A pesar de la seua relevància i a la normal aplicació de determinades solucions d'enginyeria de programari al domini, el procés de generació de coneixement en Patrimoni Cultural representa, en sí mateix, un repte per a l'enginyeria del programari, fonamentalment per la poca presència d'estudis formals sobre aquest domini, cosa que dificulta la seua assistència per programari. Açò implica que no sabem quin tipus de subprocessos hem d'assistir amb programari ni quina és l'assitència més adient. A més a més, el corpus actual en l'enginyeria del programari ha de suportar especifitats del domini patrimonial i, en general, de les humanitats, com són la presència d'una alta subjectivitat, i el fet que molta informació és incerta o imprescisa, o la importància de la dimensió temporal en les dades. Amb l'objectiu d'abordar aquestos dos reptes des d'una perspectiva de recerca colaborativa i transdisciplinar, aquesta tesi doctoral presenta un marc conceptual basat en models de programari per a la construcció de solucions de programari que assistisquen a la generació de coneixement en Patrimoni Cultural. En primer lloc, la tesi explora en profunditat el procés de generació de coneixement en Patrimoni Cultural, les fonts de les quals són majoritàriament textuals han sigut l'orige per a la proposta d'una metodologia completa i un llenguatge de modelatge per emprar anàlisi del discurs en enginyeria de programari. Aquesta proposta permet que es puguen relacionar elements d'un text amb les entitats del domini que es referencien, així com els mecanismes argumentatius que s'empren. Posteriorment, la tesi proposa un marc conceptual complet amb una implementació que permet gestionar les especificitats del domini abans esmentades, oferint una assistència mitjançant tècniques de visualització d'informació de programari als especialistes en Patrimoni Cultural.El marc conceptual proposat ha sigut validat de dues maneres complementàries. Per una banda, s'ha desenvolupat un cas d'estudi patrimonial complet, implementant tots els models de programari del marc conceptual proposat, representant un escenari d'aplicació complet del món real. Aquest cas d'estudi ha permés comprovar la potència del marc conceptual proposat en quant a la representació, suport i definició de mecanismes d'assistència de programari. Per una altra banda, els models de programari que conformen el marc conceptual proposat s'han implementat en un prototipus funcional en forma d'aplicació iOS. Aquest fet ha permés comptar amb una implementació real d'assistència de programari en Patrimoni Cultural. Aquesta solució s'ha validat empíricament amb professionals del domini, comparant-la amb els modes de generació de coneixement habituals sense aquesta assistència. La validació empírica ha permés comprovar com el marc conceptual proposat constitueix una solució sòlida per a la construcció, a partir dels models de programari especificats, dels sistemes de prog

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  • Authors: Nurra, Federico;

    The issue of this PhD thesis is a Web Mapping platform on a global scale based on XML interchange protocols and accepted standards.The focus was on the minimum specifications that the archaeological data should have in order to be uniform and interoperable, and above all, on the geometric and cartographic characteristics that would allow the production of a homogeneous archaeological mapping. Until this moment, the proposals for the production of archaeological cartography have been developed at local, regional, national or, with rare exceptions, continental scale.Thanks to recent advances in information technology, it is now possible to create an open platform for the implementation, storage, exchange, discussion and verification of spatial archaeological data on a global scale.We have identified the primary categories for the acquisition of archaeological data, by defining the minimum standards of compliance of the data, without, however, trivialize the data themselves, thus avoiding a dangerous loss of historical-topographical information. The identification of the four coordinates of objects acquired and a minimum data set of attributes, plus a set of metadata was fundamental.The proposal is therefore the development of a Web Mapping platform, open and collaborative, for positioning and representation of archaeological remains, a sort of "cadaster", and an analytical and detailed knowledge base to assist, support and address each territorial study.; L’objet de cette thèse de doctorat est une plate-forme de cartographie en ligne à l’échelle mondiale basée sur les protocoles d'échange XML et des normes standardisées.L’accent a été mis sur les spécifications minimales que les données archéologiques devraient avoir afin d’être uniformes et interopérables et, surtout, sur les caractéristiques géométriques et cartographiques qui permettraient la production d'une cartographie archéologique homogène. Jusqu’à présent, les propositions pour la production de la cartographie archéologique ont été élaborées à l'échelle locale, régionale, nationale ou, à de rares exceptions près, continentale.Grâce aux récents progrès des technologies de l’information, il est maintenant possible de créer une plate-forme ouverte pour la mise en œuvre, le stockage, l’échange, la discussion et la vérification de données archéologiques spatiales à l’échelle mondiale.Nous avons identifié les principales catégories pour l’acquisition de données archéologiques, en définissant les normes minimales de conformité des données, sans toutefois banaliser les données elles-mêmes, en évitant ainsi une perte dangereuse d’informations historico-topographiques. L’identification des quatre coordonnées des objets acquis et d’un ensemble minimal de données descriptives, plus un ensemble de métadonnées, a été fondamentale.La proposition consiste donc à développer une plateforme de cartographie en ligne, ouverte et collaborative, pour le positionnement et la représentation des vestiges archéologiques ; une sorte de « cadastre », et une base de connaissances analytique et détaillée pour aider, soutenir et traiter chaque étude territoriale.

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  • Authors: Khemakhem, Mohamed;

    Dictionaries could be considered as the most comprehensive reservoir of human knowledge, which carry not only the lexical description of words in one or more languages, but also the common awareness of a certain communityabout every known piece of knowledge in a time frame. Print dictionaries are the principle resources which enable the documentation and transfer of such knowledge. They already exist in abundant numbers, while new onesare continuously compiled, even with the recent strong move to digital resources.However, a majority of these dictionaries, even when available digitally, is still not fully structured due to the absence of scalable methods and techniques that can cover the variety of corresponding material. Moreover, the relatively few existing structured resources present limited exchange and query alternatives, given the discrepancy of their data models and formats.In this thesis we address the task of parsing lexical information in print dictionaries through the design of computer models that enable their automatic structuring. Solving this task goes hand in hand with finding a standardised output for these models to guarantee a maximum interoperability among resources and usability for downstream tasks.First, we present different classifications of the dictionaric resources to delimit the category of print dictionaries we aim to process. Second, we introduce the parsing task by providing an overview of the processing challengesand a study of the state of the art. Then, we present a novel approach based on a top-down parsing of the lexical information. We also outline the archiecture of the resulting system, called GROBID-Dictionaries, and the methodology we followed to close the gap between the conception of the system and its applicability to real-world scenarios.After that, we draw the landscape of the leading standards for structured lexical resources. In addition, we provide an analysis of two ongoing initiatives, TEI-Lex-0 and LMF, that aim at the unification of modelling the lexical information in print and electronic dictionaries. Based on that, we present a serialisation format that is inline with the schemes of the two standardisation initiatives and fits the approach implemented in our parsing system.After presenting the parsing and standardised serialisation facets of our lexical models, we provide an empirical study of their performance and behaviour. The investigation is based on a specific machine learning setup andseries of experiments carried out with a selected pool of varied dictionaries.We try in this study to present different ways for feature engineering and exhibit the strength and the limits of the best resulting models. We also dedicate two series of experiments for exploring the scalability of our models with regard to the processed documents and the employed machine learning technique.Finally, we sum up this thesis by presenting the major conclusions and opening new perspectives for extending our investigations in a number of research directions for parsing entry-based documents.; Les dictionnaires peuvent être considérés comme le réservoir le plus compréhensible de connaissances humaines, qui contiennent non seulement la description lexicale des mots dans une ou plusieurs langues, mais aussi la conscience commune d’une certaine communauté sur chaque élément de connaissance connu dans une période de temps donnée. Les dictionnaires imprimés sont les principales ressources qui permettent la documentation et le transfert de ces connaissances. Ils existent déjà en grand nombre, et de nouveaux dictionnaires sont continuellement compilés.Cependant, la majorité de ces dictionnaires dans leur version numérique n’est toujours pas structurée en raison de l’absence de méthodes et de techniques évolutives pouvant couvrir le nombre du matériel croissant et sa variété. En outre, les ressources structurées existantes, relativement peu nombreuses, présentent des alternatives d’échange et de recherche limitées, en raison d’un sérieux manque de synchronisation entre leurs schémas de structure.Dans cette thèse, nous abordons la tâche d’analyse des informations lexicales dans les dictionnaires imprimés en construisant des modèles qui permettent leur structuration automatique. La résolution de cette tâche va depair avec la recherche d’une sortie standardisée de ces modèles afin de garantir une interopérabilité maximale entre les ressources et une facilité d’utilisation pour les tâches en aval.Nous commençons par présenter différentes classifications des ressources dictionnaires pour délimiter les catégories des dictionnaires imprimés sur lesquelles ce travail se focalise. Ensuite, nous définissions la tâche d’analyse en fournissant un aperçu des défis de traitement et une étude de l’état de l’art.Nous présentons par la suite une nouvelle approche basée sur une analyse en cascade de l’information lexicale. Nous décrivons également l’architecture du système résultant, appelé GROBID-Dictionaries, et la méthodologie quenous avons suivie pour rapprocher la conception du système de son applicabilité aux scénarios du monde réel.Ensuite, nous prestons des normes clés pour les ressources lexicales structurées. En outre, nous fournissons une analyse de deux initiatives en cours, TEI-Lex-0 et LMF, qui visent à unifier la modélisation de l’information lexicale dans les dictionnaires imprimés et électroniques. Sur cette base, nous présentons un format de sérialisation conforme aux schémas des deux initiatives de normalisation et qui est assorti à l’approche développée dans notresystème d’analyse lexicale.Après avoir présenté les facettes d’analyse et de sérialisation normalisées de nos modèles lexicaux, nous fournissons une étude empirique de leurs performances et de leurs comportements. L’étude est basée sur une configuration spécifique d’apprentissage automatique et sur une série d’expériences menées avec un ensemble sélectionné de dictionnaires variés. Dans cette étude, nous essayons de présenter différentes manières d’ingénierie des caractéristiques et de montrer les points forts et les limites des meilleurs modèles résultants. Nous consacrons également deux séries d’expériences pour explorer l’extensibilité de nos modèles en ce qui concerne les documents traités et la technique d’apprentissage automatique employée.Enfin, nous clôturons cette thèse en présentant les principales conclusions et en ouvrant de nouvelles perspectives pour l’extension de nos investigations dans un certain nombre de directions de recherche pour l’analyse des documents structurés en un ensemble d’entrées.