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  • Publication . Conference object . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Oscar Alvear; Nicola Roberto Zema; Enrico Natalizio; Carlos T. Calafate;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | SUPER (ANR-11-IDEX-0004)

    Due to their deployment flexibility, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have been found suitable for many application areas, one of them being air pollution monitoring. In fact, deploying a fleet of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and using them to take environmental samples is an approach that has the potential to become one of the key enabling technologies to enforce pollution control in industrial or rural areas. In this paper, we propose to use an algorithm called Pollution-driven UAV Control (PdUC) that is based on a chemotaxis metaheuristic and a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) scheme that only uses local information. Our approach will be used by a monitoring Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to swiftly cover an area and map the distribution of its aerial pollution. We show that, when using PdUC, an implicit priority is applied in the construction of pollution maps, by focusing on areas where the pollutants' concentration is higher. In this way, accurate maps can be constructed in a faster manner when compared to other strategies. We compare PdUC against various standard mobility models through simulation, showing that our protocol achieves better performances, by finding the most polluted areas with more accuracy, within the time bounds defined by the UAV flight time.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Sergey Krivenko; Vladimir V. Lukin; Benoit Vozel; Kacem Chehdi;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    This paper describes a simple and fast way to predict efficiency of DCT-based filtering of images corrupted by signal dependent noise as this often happens for hyperspectral and radar remote sensing. Such prediction allows deciding in automatic way is it worth applying denoising to a given image under condition that parameters of signal-dependent noise are known a priori or pre-estimated with appropriate accuracy. It is shown that denoising efficiency can be predicted not only in terms of traditional quality criteria as output MSE or PSNR but also, with slightly less accuracy, in terms of visual quality metrics and PSNR-HVS-M.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Didier Lazaro; Daniel Boscher; Sebastien Bourdarie; A. Sicard-Piet; G. Rolland; Robert Ecoffet; Eric Lorfevre;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Two Radiation Belt Activity Indices, based on electron flux measurement >300 keV and >1.6 MeV, and one Solar Proton Event Alarm, based on proton flux measurement >75 MeV, are developed for post events analysis. Both indices and alarm are plotted over the last 30 days on the CRATERRE project web site and are daily updated.

  • Publication . Conference object . Article . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Scot Mcgregor; Simon Lacroix; Antoine Monmayrant;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; An adaptive, hyperspectral imager is presented. We propose a system with easily adaptable spectral resolution, adjustable acquisition time, and high spatial resolution which is independent of spectral resolution. The system yields the possibility to define a variety of acquisition schemes, and in particular near snapshot acquisitions that may be used to measure the spectral content of given or automatically detected regions of interest. The proposed system is modelled and simulated, and tests on a first prototype validate the approach to achieve near snapshot spectral acquisitions without resorting to any computa-tionally heavy post-processing, nor cumbersome calibration.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Frederic Rey; Nicolas Sinoir; C. Mazollier; Véronique Chable;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    All organic agricultural systems suffer from a lack of plant cultivars adapted to organic production. Within the framework of the European project SOLIBAM (Strategies for Organic and Low Input Breeding and Management) a study was undertaken to determine which cultivars farmers grow, why they grow them, and the expectations in plant breeding of organic stakeholders. A comprehensive range of investigations carried out between 2010 and 2012 provided information on the state of organic seed in France. Results fit with the hypothesis that the market is a significant factor influencing the choice of seeds and cultivars (local cultivars, landraces, modern cultivars). Expectations and practices of producers selling on a local market (i.e., direct sale) differ radically from those of producers selling to long food supply chains. This study shows that the availability and use of organic seeds have significantly improved over the last three years. A vast majority of organic producers willingly use organic seeds, with, on average, 45-70% (cereals) and 75%-100% (vegetables) of organic seeds being planted on farms. However, the total number of derogations remains quite high: there is still space for improvement in organic seed use and supply in France. Several limiting factors and levers were identified during the study, as well as farmers' expectations for the future on horticultural crops. The case study on tomatoes states the differences between producers selling on a local market and those of producers selling in long food supply chains regarding their practices (open field vs greenhouses) and the kind of cultivar they use or wish to have.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Christine Poncet; Cécile Bresch; Hicham Fatnassi; Ludovic Mailleret; Alexandre Bout; G. Perez; Jeannine Pizzol; L. Carlesso; B. Paris; Pia Parolin;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | PURE (265865)

    International audience; Protected cultivation or Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) system has increased tenfold in the last 25 years thanks to tremendous scientific and technical breakthroughs, mainly directed to increasing crop yields and adapting to tough ambient conditions. Currently, greenhouse areas are still spreading and the CEA system is one of the keystones for the agriculture forecasting scenario. However, the environmental acceptability of this very intensive agro-ecosystem is now being questioned. Energy inputs are source of the main economic and environmental weakness, especially for high-tech greenhouses, where IPM is well-established. Pesticides, common in low-cost greenhouses systems, are a major barrier-to IPM. To design and manage more robust CEA systems, both technological and ecological approaches have been chosen. This allowed for increased consideration of IPM issues among global greenhouse engineering innovation and better use of greenhouse system capacities to enhance dedicated IPM high-tech tools and management practices. On the other hand, ecological concepts were used to determine and characterize complex biotic interactions that lead to question the tenant of biological control as soon as IPM is implemented in greenhouses with sub-optimum physical pest control means. More specifically, microclimate at the boundary layer level has been investigated both from a physical and biological point of view in order to determine the best climate preferences of the main pests and beneficials. By the same token, the efficiency of diverse biocontrol plants to provide accurate shelter to natural enemies has been assessed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bei Cui; Wenjiang Huang; Huichun Ye; Qimin Cao;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Studying the spatial distribution characters of rubber yield and soil nutrients and the rule of spatial variability are important for suitable fertilization strategy in rubber plantation. This paper selected Hongquan Branch, Guangba Branch and Gongai Branch of Guangba Farm in Hainan province as study area and total of 327 samples were selected in the rubber plantation. The spatial distribution characters of rubber yield and five soil nutrients, including organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK), exchangeable calcium (Ga), were studied using traditional analysis method and geo-statistics analysis method. The results showed that: (1) The average value of rubber yield was 3.55 kg/hm2 with moderate spatial variability and the average values of OM, N, P, K and Ga were 11.65 g/kg, 0.07%, 16.23 mg/kg, 49.65 mg/kg and 84.44 mg/kg, respectively. Soil OM, TN, AK and Ga had moderate spatial variability but AP had strong spatial variability. (2) Rubber yield and soil total nitrogen (N) nutrient had strong spatial dependence; soil OM, AP, AK and Ga had moderate spatial dependence. (3) Based on the previous reports of normal range of soil nutrients, soil OM and TN nutrient content were very low in the studied rubber plantation of Guangba Farm. Therefore, more nitrogen fertilizer should be applied in the rubber plantation in future.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Sébastien GADAL;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Arctic and Subarctic cities and settlements depend of the economic, political and societal changes. In the Siberian arctic and subarctic territories as in Yakutia, the dynamics of urbanisation and un-urbanisation are strong. Abandoned mine’s tows, stable cities (Mirnyj), partially abandoned like Tiksi, fast urban growth and metropolisation in Yakutsk. Adaptation to the climate change, globalization and societal transformations constitute a heavy challenge, notably to the sustainable development issues. The Yakutsk region of Eastern Siberia has experienced unprecedented urbanization growth over the last 25 years with more than 330000 inhabitants in 2016 out of a total population of about 980000 people in the Republic of Sakha. It is located along the Lena River on the permafrost bioclimatic belt, which is subject to annual flooding of the ice breakup. The territory in Yakutsk metropolitan area is also dramatically impacted by water and aerosol pollution ("smoke" effects). The effects of global warming are de facto increasing the exposure of urban and peri-urban populations to the multi-dimensional risks associated with permafrost (weakening and collapse of buildings). Annual flooding of ice breakups in peri-urban areas can cause their destruction as in 1950’s and 1960’s in a context of urban growth and densification (verticalisation) often on sandy soils and subject to partial thaw. In addition, in urban areas, exposure to epidemiological risks linked to soil thaw can be a hidden issue or simply ignored. Thus, in addition to the effects of the Lena flood-break-up, localities are likely to increase the environmental risk and themselves become sources of local and global pollution. By exposing their own populations to risks, they reinforce the effects of global warming through their economic activities (shipping, mining industries, etc.). In light of these questions, there is the question of the coping capacities / resilience of circumpolar populations and cities with multiple risks and for some in a context of emerging metropolisation. Several challenges affect Yakutia territory in the triple context of climate changes, increasing exposure of natural risks, and massive urban transformations: metropolisation dynamics in Yakutsk, decreasing of populations in the Arctic settlements, multiple exposures of populations to the flooding, pollution, permafrost melting, etc. If the local populations would implement territorial strategies and develop specific behavioural patterns to the annual flooding for example, the massive transformations of the region of Yakutsk would generate new challenges and impose interdisciplinary approach combining local knowledge, participatory approach, GIS, and remote sensing monitoring. The lack of systematic data as well as monitoring of the fast territorial transformations and urban sprawl has broken the dynamics of resilience and adaptation made before by the local populations in the flooding areas, permafrost risk zones, and polluted spaces. This aspect constitutes a challenge for the sustainability of Yakutsk. The absence of clear scenarios, assessment of potential impacts and consequences of the climate change, territorial dynamics, and societal transformations also threatens sustainability of the city. Approach under development combines three methods: remote sensing monitoring of the urban and territorial transformations, spatial modelling of the gradient of risk exposures, monitoring and modelling of annual or constant geophysical and environmental hazard, and integrates human adaptation strategies and resilience. The institutional response in terms of planning was during the Soviet period to build a dyke protecting the historic city of ice breakup floods and the development of building construction methods on permafrost whose standards were in 2016 eased. The Soviet culture of this former closed territory associated with strong local land and real estate interests and strong family interrelations, irrigates the operating modes in terms of institutional, collective and individual responses. This culture of confidentiality makes it difficult to access even the most basic databases and collected cartographies; moreover, these data when they are accessible are most often obsolete. The only data available come from the use of civil satellite images in open sources and from American programs LANDSAT, French SPOT and more recently European Sentinel Earth observation constellations.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Pau Prats-Iraola; Matteo Nannini; Nestor Yague-Martinez; Muriel Pinheiro; Jun-Su Kim; Francesco Vecchioli; Federico Minati; Mario Costantini; Sven Borgstrom; Prospero De Martino; +3 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Germany, France

    The contribution focuses on the current status of the ESA study entitled “InSARAP Sentinel-1 Constellation Study”, which investigates the interferometric performance of the S1A/S1B units. General aspects like the interferometric compatibility in terms of common range and Doppler bandwidth and the burst synchronization are addressed. Besides the first interferometric results with both units, time series results over the pilot sites combining both satellites are also shown, as well as some investigations with fast moving (i.e., glaciers) scenarios.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Elio Mansour; Richard Chbeir; Philippe Arnould;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Recent technological advances have fueled the rise of connected environments (e.g., smart buildings and cities). Event Query Languages (EQL) have been used to define (and later detect) events in these environments. However, existing languages are limited to the definition of event patterns. They share the following limitations: (i) lack of consideration of the environment, sensor network, and application domain in their queries; (ii) lack of provided query types for the definition/handling of components/component instances; (iii) lack of considered data and datatypes (e.g., scalar, multimedia) needed for the definition of specific events; and (iv) difficulty in coping with the dynamicity of the environments. To address the aforementioned limitations, we propose here an EQL specifically designed for connected environments, denoted EQL-CE. We describe its framework, detail the used language, syntax, and queries. Finally, we illustrate the usage of EQL-CE in a smart mall example.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
2,488 Research products, page 1 of 249
  • Publication . Conference object . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Oscar Alvear; Nicola Roberto Zema; Enrico Natalizio; Carlos T. Calafate;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | SUPER (ANR-11-IDEX-0004)

    Due to their deployment flexibility, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have been found suitable for many application areas, one of them being air pollution monitoring. In fact, deploying a fleet of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and using them to take environmental samples is an approach that has the potential to become one of the key enabling technologies to enforce pollution control in industrial or rural areas. In this paper, we propose to use an algorithm called Pollution-driven UAV Control (PdUC) that is based on a chemotaxis metaheuristic and a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) scheme that only uses local information. Our approach will be used by a monitoring Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to swiftly cover an area and map the distribution of its aerial pollution. We show that, when using PdUC, an implicit priority is applied in the construction of pollution maps, by focusing on areas where the pollutants' concentration is higher. In this way, accurate maps can be constructed in a faster manner when compared to other strategies. We compare PdUC against various standard mobility models through simulation, showing that our protocol achieves better performances, by finding the most polluted areas with more accuracy, within the time bounds defined by the UAV flight time.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Sergey Krivenko; Vladimir V. Lukin; Benoit Vozel; Kacem Chehdi;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    This paper describes a simple and fast way to predict efficiency of DCT-based filtering of images corrupted by signal dependent noise as this often happens for hyperspectral and radar remote sensing. Such prediction allows deciding in automatic way is it worth applying denoising to a given image under condition that parameters of signal-dependent noise are known a priori or pre-estimated with appropriate accuracy. It is shown that denoising efficiency can be predicted not only in terms of traditional quality criteria as output MSE or PSNR but also, with slightly less accuracy, in terms of visual quality metrics and PSNR-HVS-M.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Didier Lazaro; Daniel Boscher; Sebastien Bourdarie; A. Sicard-Piet; G. Rolland; Robert Ecoffet; Eric Lorfevre;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Two Radiation Belt Activity Indices, based on electron flux measurement >300 keV and >1.6 MeV, and one Solar Proton Event Alarm, based on proton flux measurement >75 MeV, are developed for post events analysis. Both indices and alarm are plotted over the last 30 days on the CRATERRE project web site and are daily updated.

  • Publication . Conference object . Article . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Scot Mcgregor; Simon Lacroix; Antoine Monmayrant;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; An adaptive, hyperspectral imager is presented. We propose a system with easily adaptable spectral resolution, adjustable acquisition time, and high spatial resolution which is independent of spectral resolution. The system yields the possibility to define a variety of acquisition schemes, and in particular near snapshot acquisitions that may be used to measure the spectral content of given or automatically detected regions of interest. The proposed system is modelled and simulated, and tests on a first prototype validate the approach to achieve near snapshot spectral acquisitions without resorting to any computa-tionally heavy post-processing, nor cumbersome calibration.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Frederic Rey; Nicolas Sinoir; C. Mazollier; Véronique Chable;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    All organic agricultural systems suffer from a lack of plant cultivars adapted to organic production. Within the framework of the European project SOLIBAM (Strategies for Organic and Low Input Breeding and Management) a study was undertaken to determine which cultivars farmers grow, why they grow them, and the expectations in plant breeding of organic stakeholders. A comprehensive range of investigations carried out between 2010 and 2012 provided information on the state of organic seed in France. Results fit with the hypothesis that the market is a significant factor influencing the choice of seeds and cultivars (local cultivars, landraces, modern cultivars). Expectations and practices of producers selling on a local market (i.e., direct sale) differ radically from those of producers selling to long food supply chains. This study shows that the availability and use of organic seeds have significantly improved over the last three years. A vast majority of organic producers willingly use organic seeds, with, on average, 45-70% (cereals) and 75%-100% (vegetables) of organic seeds being planted on farms. However, the total number of derogations remains quite high: there is still space for improvement in organic seed use and supply in France. Several limiting factors and levers were identified during the study, as well as farmers' expectations for the future on horticultural crops. The case study on tomatoes states the differences between producers selling on a local market and those of producers selling in long food supply chains regarding their practices (open field vs greenhouses) and the kind of cultivar they use or wish to have.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Christine Poncet; Cécile Bresch; Hicham Fatnassi; Ludovic Mailleret; Alexandre Bout; G. Perez; Jeannine Pizzol; L. Carlesso; B. Paris; Pia Parolin;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | PURE (265865)

    International audience; Protected cultivation or Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) system has increased tenfold in the last 25 years thanks to tremendous scientific and technical breakthroughs, mainly directed to increasing crop yields and adapting to tough ambient conditions. Currently, greenhouse areas are still spreading and the CEA system is one of the keystones for the agriculture forecasting scenario. However, the environmental acceptability of this very intensive agro-ecosystem is now being questioned. Energy inputs are source of the main economic and environmental weakness, especially for high-tech greenhouses, where IPM is well-established. Pesticides, common in low-cost greenhouses systems, are a major barrier-to IPM. To design and manage more robust CEA systems, both technological and ecological approaches have been chosen. This allowed for increased consideration of IPM issues among global greenhouse engineering innovation and better use of greenhouse system capacities to enhance dedicated IPM high-tech tools and management practices. On the other hand, ecological concepts were used to determine and characterize complex biotic interactions that lead to question the tenant of biological control as soon as IPM is implemented in greenhouses with sub-optimum physical pest control means. More specifically, microclimate at the boundary layer level has been investigated both from a physical and biological point of view in order to determine the best climate preferences of the main pests and beneficials. By the same token, the efficiency of diverse biocontrol plants to provide accurate shelter to natural enemies has been assessed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bei Cui; Wenjiang Huang; Huichun Ye; Qimin Cao;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Studying the spatial distribution characters of rubber yield and soil nutrients and the rule of spatial variability are important for suitable fertilization strategy in rubber plantation. This paper selected Hongquan Branch, Guangba Branch and Gongai Branch of Guangba Farm in Hainan province as study area and total of 327 samples were selected in the rubber plantation. The spatial distribution characters of rubber yield and five soil nutrients, including organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK), exchangeable calcium (Ga), were studied using traditional analysis method and geo-statistics analysis method. The results showed that: (1) The average value of rubber yield was 3.55 kg/hm2 with moderate spatial variability and the average values of OM, N, P, K and Ga were 11.65 g/kg, 0.07%, 16.23 mg/kg, 49.65 mg/kg and 84.44 mg/kg, respectively. Soil OM, TN, AK and Ga had moderate spatial variability but AP had strong spatial variability. (2) Rubber yield and soil total nitrogen (N) nutrient had strong spatial dependence; soil OM, AP, AK and Ga had moderate spatial dependence. (3) Based on the previous reports of normal range of soil nutrients, soil OM and TN nutrient content were very low in the studied rubber plantation of Guangba Farm. Therefore, more nitrogen fertilizer should be applied in the rubber plantation in future.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Sébastien GADAL;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Arctic and Subarctic cities and settlements depend of the economic, political and societal changes. In the Siberian arctic and subarctic territories as in Yakutia, the dynamics of urbanisation and un-urbanisation are strong. Abandoned mine’s tows, stable cities (Mirnyj), partially abandoned like Tiksi, fast urban growth and metropolisation in Yakutsk. Adaptation to the climate change, globalization and societal transformations constitute a heavy challenge, notably to the sustainable development issues. The Yakutsk region of Eastern Siberia has experienced unprecedented urbanization growth over the last 25 years with more than 330000 inhabitants in 2016 out of a total population of about 980000 people in the Republic of Sakha. It is located along the Lena River on the permafrost bioclimatic belt, which is subject to annual flooding of the ice breakup. The territory in Yakutsk metropolitan area is also dramatically impacted by water and aerosol pollution ("smoke" effects). The effects of global warming are de facto increasing the exposure of urban and peri-urban populations to the multi-dimensional risks associated with permafrost (weakening and collapse of buildings). Annual flooding of ice breakups in peri-urban areas can cause their destruction as in 1950’s and 1960’s in a context of urban growth and densification (verticalisation) often on sandy soils and subject to partial thaw. In addition, in urban areas, exposure to epidemiological risks linked to soil thaw can be a hidden issue or simply ignored. Thus, in addition to the effects of the Lena flood-break-up, localities are likely to increase the environmental risk and themselves become sources of local and global pollution. By exposing their own populations to risks, they reinforce the effects of global warming through their economic activities (shipping, mining industries, etc.). In light of these questions, there is the question of the coping capacities / resilience of circumpolar populations and cities with multiple risks and for some in a context of emerging metropolisation. Several challenges affect Yakutia territory in the triple context of climate changes, increasing exposure of natural risks, and massive urban transformations: metropolisation dynamics in Yakutsk, decreasing of populations in the Arctic settlements, multiple exposures of populations to the flooding, pollution, permafrost melting, etc. If the local populations would implement territorial strategies and develop specific behavioural patterns to the annual flooding for example, the massive transformations of the region of Yakutsk would generate new challenges and impose interdisciplinary approach combining local knowledge, participatory approach, GIS, and remote sensing monitoring. The lack of systematic data as well as monitoring of the fast territorial transformations and urban sprawl has broken the dynamics of resilience and adaptation made before by the local populations in the flooding areas, permafrost risk zones, and polluted spaces. This aspect constitutes a challenge for the sustainability of Yakutsk. The absence of clear scenarios, assessment of potential impacts and consequences of the climate change, territorial dynamics, and societal transformations also threatens sustainability of the city. Approach under development combines three methods: remote sensing monitoring of the urban and territorial transformations, spatial modelling of the gradient of risk exposures, monitoring and modelling of annual or constant geophysical and environmental hazard, and integrates human adaptation strategies and resilience. The institutional response in terms of planning was during the Soviet period to build a dyke protecting the historic city of ice breakup floods and the development of building construction methods on permafrost whose standards were in 2016 eased. The Soviet culture of this former closed territory associated with strong local land and real estate interests and strong family interrelations, irrigates the operating modes in terms of institutional, collective and individual responses. This culture of confidentiality makes it difficult to access even the most basic databases and collected cartographies; moreover, these data when they are accessible are most often obsolete. The only data available come from the use of civil satellite images in open sources and from American programs LANDSAT, French SPOT and more recently European Sentinel Earth observation constellations.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Pau Prats-Iraola; Matteo Nannini; Nestor Yague-Martinez; Muriel Pinheiro; Jun-Su Kim; Francesco Vecchioli; Federico Minati; Mario Costantini; Sven Borgstrom; Prospero De Martino; +3 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Germany, France

    The contribution focuses on the current status of the ESA study entitled “InSARAP Sentinel-1 Constellation Study”, which investigates the interferometric performance of the S1A/S1B units. General aspects like the interferometric compatibility in terms of common range and Doppler bandwidth and the burst synchronization are addressed. Besides the first interferometric results with both units, time series results over the pilot sites combining both satellites are also shown, as well as some investigations with fast moving (i.e., glaciers) scenarios.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Elio Mansour; Richard Chbeir; Philippe Arnould;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Recent technological advances have fueled the rise of connected environments (e.g., smart buildings and cities). Event Query Languages (EQL) have been used to define (and later detect) events in these environments. However, existing languages are limited to the definition of event patterns. They share the following limitations: (i) lack of consideration of the environment, sensor network, and application domain in their queries; (ii) lack of provided query types for the definition/handling of components/component instances; (iii) lack of considered data and datatypes (e.g., scalar, multimedia) needed for the definition of specific events; and (iv) difficulty in coping with the dynamicity of the environments. To address the aforementioned limitations, we propose here an EQL specifically designed for connected environments, denoted EQL-CE. We describe its framework, detail the used language, syntax, and queries. Finally, we illustrate the usage of EQL-CE in a smart mall example.

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