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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olalekan O. Oluwole; Krimo Bouabdallah; Javier Munoz; Sophie de Guibert; Julie M. Vose; Nancy L. Bartlett; Yi Lin; Abhinav Deol; Peter A. McSweeney; Andre Goy; +17 more
    Country: Netherlands

    Summary ZUMA‐1 (NCT02348216) examined the safety and efficacy of axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi‐cel), an autologous CD19‐directed chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR)‐T cell therapy, in refractory large B‐cell lymphoma. To reduce treatment‐related toxicity, several exploratory safety management cohorts were added to ZUMA‐1. Specifically, cohort 6 investigated management of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurologic events (NEs) with prophylactic corticosteroids and earlier corticosteroid and tocilizumab intervention. CRS and NE incidence and severity were primary end‐points. Following leukapheresis, patients could receive optional bridging therapy per investigator discretion. All patients received conditioning chemotherapy (days −5 through −3), 2 × 106 CAR‐T cells/kg (day 0) and once‐daily oral dexamethasone [10 mg, day 0 (before axi‐cel) through day 2]. Forty patients received axi‐cel. CRS occurred in 80% of patients (all grade ≤2). Any grade and grade 3 or higher NEs occurred in 58% and 13% of patients respectively. Sixty‐eight per cent of patients did not experience CRS or NEs within 72 h of axi‐cel. With a median follow‐up of 8·9 months, objective and complete response rates were 95% and 80% respectively. Overall, prophylactic corticosteroids and earlier corticosteroid and/or tocilizumab intervention resulted in no grade 3 or higher CRS, a low rate of grade 3 or higher NEs and high response rates in this study population.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 1995
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Peres, Asher;

    Experimental tests of Bell inequalities ought to take into account all detection events. If the latter are postselected, and only some of these events are included in the statistical analysis, a Bell inequality may be violated, even by purely classical correlations. The paradoxical properties of Werner states, recently pointed out by Popescu, can be explained as the result of a postselection of the detection events, or, equivalently, as due to the preparation of a new state by means of a nonlocal process. 7 pages LaTeX

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Elisabeth Stelling; Melanie Ricke-Hoch; Sergej Erschow; Steve Hoffman; Anke K. Bergmann; Maren Heimerl; Stefan Pietzsch; Karin Battmer; Alexandra Haase; Britta Stapel; +4 more
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    AbstractCardiac levels of the signal transducer and activator of transcription factor-3 (STAT3) decline with age, and male but not female mice with a cardiomyocyte-specific STAT3 deficiency (CKO) display premature age-related heart failure associated with reduced cardiac capillary density. In the present study isolated male and female CKO-cardiomyocytes exhibit increased prostaglandin (PG)-generating cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. The PG-degrading hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase-15 (HPGD) expression is only reduced in male cardiomyocytes, which is associated with increased PGD2 secretion from isolated male but not female CKO-cardiomyocytes. Reduced HPGD expression in male cardiomyocytes derive from impaired androgen-receptor-(AR)-signaling due to loss of its co-factor STAT3. Elevated PGD2 secretion in males is associated with increased white adipocyte accumulation in aged male but not female hearts. Adipocyte differentiation is enhanced in isolated SCA-1+-cardiac-progenitor-cells (CPC) from young male CKO-mice compared to the adipocyte differentiation of male wildtype (WT)-CPC and CPC isolated from female mice. Epigenetic analysis in freshly isolated male CKO-CPC display hypermethylation in pro-angiogenic genes (Fgfr2, Epas1) and hypomethylation in the white adipocyte differentiation gene Zfp423 associated with upregulated ZFP423 expression and a shift from endothelial to white adipocyte differentiation compared to WT-CPC. The expression of the histone-methyltransferase EZH2 is reduced in male CKO-CPC compared to male WT-CPC whereas no differences in the EZH2 expression in female CPC were observed. Clonally expanded CPC can differentiate into endothelial cells or into adipocytes depending on the differentiation conditions. ZFP423 overexpression is sufficient to induce white adipocyte differentiation of clonal CPC. In isolated WT-CPC, PGD2 stimulation reduces the expression of EZH2 thereby upregulating ZFP423 expression and promoting white adipocyte differentiation.Thus, cardiomyocyte STAT3-deficiency leads to age-related and sex-specific cardiac remodeling and failure in part due to sex-specific alterations in PGD2 secretion and subsequent epigenetic impairment of the differentiation potential of CPC. Causally involved is the impaired AR signaling in absence of STAT3, which reduces the expression of the PG degrading enzyme HPGD.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Martin Anthony; Joel Ratsaby;
    Publisher: Elsevier B. V.
    Country: United Kingdom

    We present a family of binary classifiers and analyse their performance. Each classifier is determined by a set of 'prototypes', whose labels are given; and the classification of any other point depends on the labels of the prototypes to which it is sufficiently close, and on how close it is to these prototypes. More precisely, the classification of a given point is determined through the sign of a discriminant function. For each prototype, its sphere of influence is the largest sphere centred on it that contains no prototypes of opposite label, and, given a point to be classified, there is a contribution to the discriminant function at that point from precisely those prototypes whose spheres of influence contain the point, this contribution being positive from positive prototypes and negative from negative prototypes. Furthermore, these contributions are larger in absolute value the closer the point is (relative to the sphere's radius) to the prototype. We quantify the generalization error of such classifiers in a standard probabilistic learning model, and we do so in a way that involves the values of the discriminant function on the points of the random training sample.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Meysam Alizamir; Ozgur Kisi; Ali Najah Ahmed; Cihan Mert; Chow Ming Fai; Sungwon Kim; Nam-Won Kim; Ahmed El-Shafie;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science

    Soil temperature has a vital importance in biological, physical and chemical processes of terrestrial ecosystem and its modeling at different depths is very important for land-atmosphere interactions. The study compares four machine learning techniques, extreme learning machine (ELM), artificial neural networks (ANN), classification and regression trees (CART) and group method of data handling (GMDH) in estimating monthly soil temperatures at four different depths. Various combinations of climatic variables are utilized as input to the developed models. The models’ outcomes are also compared with multi-linear regression based on Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, root mean square error, and coefficient of determination statistics. ELM is found to be generally performs better than the other four alternatives in estimating soil temperatures. A decrease in performance of the models is observed by an increase in soil depth. It is found that soil temperatures at three depths (5, 10 and 50 cm) could be mapped utilizing only air temperature data as input while solar radiation and wind speed information are also required for estimating soil temperature at the depth of 100 cm.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Jensen Reckhow; Orit Kaidar-Person; Merav A Ben-David; Anna Ostrovski; Dina Ilinsky; Jeffrey Goldstein; Zvi Symon; Shira Galper;
    Country: Netherlands

    A dosimetric study to evaluate the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), with free-breathing (CPAP-FB) or with deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH-CPAP) an adjunct and alternative to DIBH to reduce heart and lung dose in the radiation therapy (RT) of breast cancer planned for left side RT with regional nodes and internal mammary. A retrospective analysis of 10 left-sided breast cancer patients whose heart or lung dose constraints were not met after RT planning based on FB or DIBH simulations and were referred for CPAP-based planning. All patients were simulated using FB, DIBH, CPAP-FB, and CPAP-DIBH. Treatment plans were calculated to cover the breast/chest wall and regional nodes using tangential field-in-field technique (FiF). Dose-volume parameters for heart, ipsilateral lung, and contralateral breast were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. For all RT plans, mean heart dose (Gy) was lower for treatment plans with CPAP: CPAP-FB (mean 3.4 vs 7.4, p = 0.001) and CPAP-DIBH (mean 2.5 vs 7.4, p = 0.006) compared to FB alone. CPAP-DIBH also significantly reduced MHD as compared to DIBH alone (mean 2.5 vs 4.3 Gy, p = 0.013). CPAP-DIBH significantly reduced mean lung dose as compared to both FB (mean 14.4 vs 20.1, p = 0.005) and DIBH alone (mean 14.4 vs 17.4, p = 0.007). Eight of 10 patients did not meet ipsilateral lung V20Gy dose constraints ( ?35% of lung receiving 20 Gy) in either the free breathing or DIBH plans, whereas 8 out of 10 met lung V20Gy goal constraints ( ?30% of lung receiving 20 Gy) in the CPAP-DIBH plans. Based on the outcomes of our study, CPAP could be a strategy for reducing lung and heart dose, both in patients not able to execute DIBH and as an adjunct in those not deriving sufficient dose reduction from DIBH alone. ? 2020 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Uria Moran; Uri Gottlieb; Arnon Gam; Shmuel Springer;
    Publisher: BioMed Central

    Abstract Background Inadequate quadriceps strength following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) often results in alterations in gait pattern that are usually reported during loading response. Neuro-muscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is frequently used to overcome this quadriceps weakness. Despite the beneficial effects of NMES, persistent deficits in strength and gait are reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying quadriceps functional electrical stimulation (FES) during walking in addition to standard rehabilitation, in the initial stage of ACLR rehabilitation. Methods Subjects were randomized to quadriceps FES synchronized with walking group (n = 10) or quadriceps NMES (duty cycle of 10 s on/10 s off) group (n = 13). Both interventions were performed for 10 min three days a week, in addition to a standard rehabilitation program. Assessments were performed up to 2 weeks before the ACLR (pre-ACLR), and 4 weeks postoperatively. Outcomes measured were gait speed, single limb stance gait symmetry, quadriceps isometric peak strength ratio (peak strength at 4 weeks/peak strength pre-ACLR) and peak strength inter-limb symmetry. Gait outcomes were also assessed 1-week post-surgery. Results Subjects in both groups regained pre-ACLR gait speed and symmetry after 4 weeks of rehabilitation, with no difference between groups. However, although pre-ACLR quadriceps peak strength was similar between groups (FES - 205 Nm, NMES − 225 Nm, p = 0.605), subjects in the FES group regained 82% of their pre-quadriceps strength compared to 47% in the NMES group (p = 0.02). In addition, after 4 weeks, the FES group had significantly better inter-limb strength symmetry 0.63 ± 0.15 vs. 0.39 ± 0.18 in the NMES group (p = 0.01). Conclusions Quadriceps FES combined with traditional rehabilitation is a feasible, early intervention treatment option, post-ACLR. Furthermore, at 4 weeks post-surgery, FES was more effective in recovering quadriceps muscle strength than was NMES. While spatiotemporal gait parameters did not differ between groups, kinetic and kinematic studies may be useful to further understand the effects of quadriceps FES post-ACLR. The promising results of this preliminary investigation suggest that such studies are warranted. Trial registration ISRCTN 02817399. First posted June 29, 2016.

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shalev-Shwartz, Shai; Shamir, Ohad; Shammah, Shaked;

    In recent years, Deep Learning has become the go-to solution for a broad range of applications, often outperforming state-of-the-art. However, it is important, for both theoreticians and practitioners, to gain a deeper understanding of the difficulties and limitations associated with common approaches and algorithms. We describe four types of simple problems, for which the gradient-based algorithms commonly used in deep learning either fail or suffer from significant difficulties. We illustrate the failures through practical experiments, and provide theoretical insights explaining their source, and how they might be remedied.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Adi Eindor Abarbanel; Timna Naftali; Nahum Ruhimovich; Ariella Bar-Gil Shitrit; Fabiana Sklerovsky-Benjaminov; Fred M. Konikoff; Shay Matalon; Haim Shirin; Yael Milgrom; Tomer Ziv-Baran; +1 more
    Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group

    IntroductionAnxiety and depression are common disturbances in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and were found to impact the disease course. Illness perceptions (IPs), self-efficacy (SE) and sense of coherence (SOC) are important psychological functions, used by the individual to cope with his chronic disease.Aimsto investigate the association of IP, SE and SOC on anxiety and depression among patients with IBD.Patients and methodsPatients filled questionnaires including: demographic, socioeconomic and clinical features. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. IP, SE and SOC were assessed using the Brief Illness perception Questionnaire, IBD-SE and SOC scales.ResultsThe study sample consisted of 299 patients with IBD, median age 34.15, 63% females, 70.9% had Crohn’s disease, filled the questionnaires. In the multivariate analysis, lower results in IP, SE and SOC were found to be associated with significantly increase anxiety (OR 8.35, p<0.001; OR 4.18, p=0.001; OR 4.67, p<0.001, respectively) and depression (OR 15.8, p=0.001; OR 10.99, p=0.029; OR 6.12, p=0.014ConclusionsAnxiety and depression are associated with IP, SE and SOC in patients with IBD. Clinicians should be aware of this impact, recognise their patients’ psychological abilities to cope with the disease and improve those abilities, when needed, in order to achieve a better coping with the disease and to prevent the development of anxiety and depression.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gill Levy; Dina Zilberg; Giuseppe Paladini; Sophie Fridman;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses and existing chemical therapeutants, often stressful to the fish, pose associated risks. As part of a recent trend to move towards the use of alternative, plant-based remedies for commonly occurring aquaculture-related diseases, the efficiency of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was investigated against the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy.In vitro trials revealed the clear anti-parasitic effects of ginger. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts, prepared from freeze dried ginger, were tested. An increase in extract concentration was associated with reduced time to parasite immobilisation, with ethanolic extract being more efficient; at 75 and 200 ppt aqueous ginger extract parasites died at 65.6±2.8 and 1.8±0.2min, respectively, whereas at 5 and 40 ppt ethanolic extract parasites died at 26.1±0.7 and 4.9±0.3min, respectively. Bathing G. turnbulli-infected fish in ethanolic ginger extract (i.e. 5 and 7.5 ppt for 90 and 30 min, respectively) significantly reduced infection prevalence and intensity when compared to the water and ethanol controls. The higher concentration (i.e.7.5 ppt) proved as equally effective as Praziquantel, the conventionally used chemical treatment for gyrodactylosis, with the fish appearing to be completely cleared of the infection in both cases. Oral treatments of G. turnbulli-infected guppies with diets supplemented with 10 and 20% ginger powder proved to be ineffective in decreasing parasite load. These findings demonstrate that immersion in ginger extract offers an effective, alternative treatment against monogenean infection in fish.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
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Include:
64,410 Research products, page 1 of 6,441
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olalekan O. Oluwole; Krimo Bouabdallah; Javier Munoz; Sophie de Guibert; Julie M. Vose; Nancy L. Bartlett; Yi Lin; Abhinav Deol; Peter A. McSweeney; Andre Goy; +17 more
    Country: Netherlands

    Summary ZUMA‐1 (NCT02348216) examined the safety and efficacy of axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi‐cel), an autologous CD19‐directed chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR)‐T cell therapy, in refractory large B‐cell lymphoma. To reduce treatment‐related toxicity, several exploratory safety management cohorts were added to ZUMA‐1. Specifically, cohort 6 investigated management of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurologic events (NEs) with prophylactic corticosteroids and earlier corticosteroid and tocilizumab intervention. CRS and NE incidence and severity were primary end‐points. Following leukapheresis, patients could receive optional bridging therapy per investigator discretion. All patients received conditioning chemotherapy (days −5 through −3), 2 × 106 CAR‐T cells/kg (day 0) and once‐daily oral dexamethasone [10 mg, day 0 (before axi‐cel) through day 2]. Forty patients received axi‐cel. CRS occurred in 80% of patients (all grade ≤2). Any grade and grade 3 or higher NEs occurred in 58% and 13% of patients respectively. Sixty‐eight per cent of patients did not experience CRS or NEs within 72 h of axi‐cel. With a median follow‐up of 8·9 months, objective and complete response rates were 95% and 80% respectively. Overall, prophylactic corticosteroids and earlier corticosteroid and/or tocilizumab intervention resulted in no grade 3 or higher CRS, a low rate of grade 3 or higher NEs and high response rates in this study population.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 1995
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Peres, Asher;

    Experimental tests of Bell inequalities ought to take into account all detection events. If the latter are postselected, and only some of these events are included in the statistical analysis, a Bell inequality may be violated, even by purely classical correlations. The paradoxical properties of Werner states, recently pointed out by Popescu, can be explained as the result of a postselection of the detection events, or, equivalently, as due to the preparation of a new state by means of a nonlocal process. 7 pages LaTeX

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Elisabeth Stelling; Melanie Ricke-Hoch; Sergej Erschow; Steve Hoffman; Anke K. Bergmann; Maren Heimerl; Stefan Pietzsch; Karin Battmer; Alexandra Haase; Britta Stapel; +4 more
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    AbstractCardiac levels of the signal transducer and activator of transcription factor-3 (STAT3) decline with age, and male but not female mice with a cardiomyocyte-specific STAT3 deficiency (CKO) display premature age-related heart failure associated with reduced cardiac capillary density. In the present study isolated male and female CKO-cardiomyocytes exhibit increased prostaglandin (PG)-generating cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. The PG-degrading hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase-15 (HPGD) expression is only reduced in male cardiomyocytes, which is associated with increased PGD2 secretion from isolated male but not female CKO-cardiomyocytes. Reduced HPGD expression in male cardiomyocytes derive from impaired androgen-receptor-(AR)-signaling due to loss of its co-factor STAT3. Elevated PGD2 secretion in males is associated with increased white adipocyte accumulation in aged male but not female hearts. Adipocyte differentiation is enhanced in isolated SCA-1+-cardiac-progenitor-cells (CPC) from young male CKO-mice compared to the adipocyte differentiation of male wildtype (WT)-CPC and CPC isolated from female mice. Epigenetic analysis in freshly isolated male CKO-CPC display hypermethylation in pro-angiogenic genes (Fgfr2, Epas1) and hypomethylation in the white adipocyte differentiation gene Zfp423 associated with upregulated ZFP423 expression and a shift from endothelial to white adipocyte differentiation compared to WT-CPC. The expression of the histone-methyltransferase EZH2 is reduced in male CKO-CPC compared to male WT-CPC whereas no differences in the EZH2 expression in female CPC were observed. Clonally expanded CPC can differentiate into endothelial cells or into adipocytes depending on the differentiation conditions. ZFP423 overexpression is sufficient to induce white adipocyte differentiation of clonal CPC. In isolated WT-CPC, PGD2 stimulation reduces the expression of EZH2 thereby upregulating ZFP423 expression and promoting white adipocyte differentiation.Thus, cardiomyocyte STAT3-deficiency leads to age-related and sex-specific cardiac remodeling and failure in part due to sex-specific alterations in PGD2 secretion and subsequent epigenetic impairment of the differentiation potential of CPC. Causally involved is the impaired AR signaling in absence of STAT3, which reduces the expression of the PG degrading enzyme HPGD.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Martin Anthony; Joel Ratsaby;
    Publisher: Elsevier B. V.
    Country: United Kingdom

    We present a family of binary classifiers and analyse their performance. Each classifier is determined by a set of 'prototypes', whose labels are given; and the classification of any other point depends on the labels of the prototypes to which it is sufficiently close, and on how close it is to these prototypes. More precisely, the classification of a given point is determined through the sign of a discriminant function. For each prototype, its sphere of influence is the largest sphere centred on it that contains no prototypes of opposite label, and, given a point to be classified, there is a contribution to the discriminant function at that point from precisely those prototypes whose spheres of influence contain the point, this contribution being positive from positive prototypes and negative from negative prototypes. Furthermore, these contributions are larger in absolute value the closer the point is (relative to the sphere's radius) to the prototype. We quantify the generalization error of such classifiers in a standard probabilistic learning model, and we do so in a way that involves the values of the discriminant function on the points of the random training sample.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Meysam Alizamir; Ozgur Kisi; Ali Najah Ahmed; Cihan Mert; Chow Ming Fai; Sungwon Kim; Nam-Won Kim; Ahmed El-Shafie;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science

    Soil temperature has a vital importance in biological, physical and chemical processes of terrestrial ecosystem and its modeling at different depths is very important for land-atmosphere interactions. The study compares four machine learning techniques, extreme learning machine (ELM), artificial neural networks (ANN), classification and regression trees (CART) and group method of data handling (GMDH) in estimating monthly soil temperatures at four different depths. Various combinations of climatic variables are utilized as input to the developed models. The models’ outcomes are also compared with multi-linear regression based on Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, root mean square error, and coefficient of determination statistics. ELM is found to be generally performs better than the other four alternatives in estimating soil temperatures. A decrease in performance of the models is observed by an increase in soil depth. It is found that soil temperatures at three depths (5, 10 and 50 cm) could be mapped utilizing only air temperature data as input while solar radiation and wind speed information are also required for estimating soil temperature at the depth of 100 cm.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Jensen Reckhow; Orit Kaidar-Person; Merav A Ben-David; Anna Ostrovski; Dina Ilinsky; Jeffrey Goldstein; Zvi Symon; Shira Galper;
    Country: Netherlands

    A dosimetric study to evaluate the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), with free-breathing (CPAP-FB) or with deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH-CPAP) an adjunct and alternative to DIBH to reduce heart and lung dose in the radiation therapy (RT) of breast cancer planned for left side RT with regional nodes and internal mammary. A retrospective analysis of 10 left-sided breast cancer patients whose heart or lung dose constraints were not met after RT planning based on FB or DIBH simulations and were referred for CPAP-based planning. All patients were simulated using FB, DIBH, CPAP-FB, and CPAP-DIBH. Treatment plans were calculated to cover the breast/chest wall and regional nodes using tangential field-in-field technique (FiF). Dose-volume parameters for heart, ipsilateral lung, and contralateral breast were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. For all RT plans, mean heart dose (Gy) was lower for treatment plans with CPAP: CPAP-FB (mean 3.4 vs 7.4, p = 0.001) and CPAP-DIBH (mean 2.5 vs 7.4, p = 0.006) compared to FB alone. CPAP-DIBH also significantly reduced MHD as compared to DIBH alone (mean 2.5 vs 4.3 Gy, p = 0.013). CPAP-DIBH significantly reduced mean lung dose as compared to both FB (mean 14.4 vs 20.1, p = 0.005) and DIBH alone (mean 14.4 vs 17.4, p = 0.007). Eight of 10 patients did not meet ipsilateral lung V20Gy dose constraints ( ?35% of lung receiving 20 Gy) in either the free breathing or DIBH plans, whereas 8 out of 10 met lung V20Gy goal constraints ( ?30% of lung receiving 20 Gy) in the CPAP-DIBH plans. Based on the outcomes of our study, CPAP could be a strategy for reducing lung and heart dose, both in patients not able to execute DIBH and as an adjunct in those not deriving sufficient dose reduction from DIBH alone. ? 2020 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Uria Moran; Uri Gottlieb; Arnon Gam; Shmuel Springer;
    Publisher: BioMed Central

    Abstract Background Inadequate quadriceps strength following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) often results in alterations in gait pattern that are usually reported during loading response. Neuro-muscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is frequently used to overcome this quadriceps weakness. Despite the beneficial effects of NMES, persistent deficits in strength and gait are reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying quadriceps functional electrical stimulation (FES) during walking in addition to standard rehabilitation, in the initial stage of ACLR rehabilitation. Methods Subjects were randomized to quadriceps FES synchronized with walking group (n = 10) or quadriceps NMES (duty cycle of 10 s on/10 s off) group (n = 13). Both interventions were performed for 10 min three days a week, in addition to a standard rehabilitation program. Assessments were performed up to 2 weeks before the ACLR (pre-ACLR), and 4 weeks postoperatively. Outcomes measured were gait speed, single limb stance gait symmetry, quadriceps isometric peak strength ratio (peak strength at 4 weeks/peak strength pre-ACLR) and peak strength inter-limb symmetry. Gait outcomes were also assessed 1-week post-surgery. Results Subjects in both groups regained pre-ACLR gait speed and symmetry after 4 weeks of rehabilitation, with no difference between groups. However, although pre-ACLR quadriceps peak strength was similar between groups (FES - 205 Nm, NMES − 225 Nm, p = 0.605), subjects in the FES group regained 82% of their pre-quadriceps strength compared to 47% in the NMES group (p = 0.02). In addition, after 4 weeks, the FES group had significantly better inter-limb strength symmetry 0.63 ± 0.15 vs. 0.39 ± 0.18 in the NMES group (p = 0.01). Conclusions Quadriceps FES combined with traditional rehabilitation is a feasible, early intervention treatment option, post-ACLR. Furthermore, at 4 weeks post-surgery, FES was more effective in recovering quadriceps muscle strength than was NMES. While spatiotemporal gait parameters did not differ between groups, kinetic and kinematic studies may be useful to further understand the effects of quadriceps FES post-ACLR. The promising results of this preliminary investigation suggest that such studies are warranted. Trial registration ISRCTN 02817399. First posted June 29, 2016.

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shalev-Shwartz, Shai; Shamir, Ohad; Shammah, Shaked;

    In recent years, Deep Learning has become the go-to solution for a broad range of applications, often outperforming state-of-the-art. However, it is important, for both theoreticians and practitioners, to gain a deeper understanding of the difficulties and limitations associated with common approaches and algorithms. We describe four types of simple problems, for which the gradient-based algorithms commonly used in deep learning either fail or suffer from significant difficulties. We illustrate the failures through practical experiments, and provide theoretical insights explaining their source, and how they might be remedied.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Adi Eindor Abarbanel; Timna Naftali; Nahum Ruhimovich; Ariella Bar-Gil Shitrit; Fabiana Sklerovsky-Benjaminov; Fred M. Konikoff; Shay Matalon; Haim Shirin; Yael Milgrom; Tomer Ziv-Baran; +1 more
    Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group

    IntroductionAnxiety and depression are common disturbances in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and were found to impact the disease course. Illness perceptions (IPs), self-efficacy (SE) and sense of coherence (SOC) are important psychological functions, used by the individual to cope with his chronic disease.Aimsto investigate the association of IP, SE and SOC on anxiety and depression among patients with IBD.Patients and methodsPatients filled questionnaires including: demographic, socioeconomic and clinical features. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. IP, SE and SOC were assessed using the Brief Illness perception Questionnaire, IBD-SE and SOC scales.ResultsThe study sample consisted of 299 patients with IBD, median age 34.15, 63% females, 70.9% had Crohn’s disease, filled the questionnaires. In the multivariate analysis, lower results in IP, SE and SOC were found to be associated with significantly increase anxiety (OR 8.35, p<0.001; OR 4.18, p=0.001; OR 4.67, p<0.001, respectively) and depression (OR 15.8, p=0.001; OR 10.99, p=0.029; OR 6.12, p=0.014ConclusionsAnxiety and depression are associated with IP, SE and SOC in patients with IBD. Clinicians should be aware of this impact, recognise their patients’ psychological abilities to cope with the disease and improve those abilities, when needed, in order to achieve a better coping with the disease and to prevent the development of anxiety and depression.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gill Levy; Dina Zilberg; Giuseppe Paladini; Sophie Fridman;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses and existing chemical therapeutants, often stressful to the fish, pose associated risks. As part of a recent trend to move towards the use of alternative, plant-based remedies for commonly occurring aquaculture-related diseases, the efficiency of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was investigated against the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy.In vitro trials revealed the clear anti-parasitic effects of ginger. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts, prepared from freeze dried ginger, were tested. An increase in extract concentration was associated with reduced time to parasite immobilisation, with ethanolic extract being more efficient; at 75 and 200 ppt aqueous ginger extract parasites died at 65.6±2.8 and 1.8±0.2min, respectively, whereas at 5 and 40 ppt ethanolic extract parasites died at 26.1±0.7 and 4.9±0.3min, respectively. Bathing G. turnbulli-infected fish in ethanolic ginger extract (i.e. 5 and 7.5 ppt for 90 and 30 min, respectively) significantly reduced infection prevalence and intensity when compared to the water and ethanol controls. The higher concentration (i.e.7.5 ppt) proved as equally effective as Praziquantel, the conventionally used chemical treatment for gyrodactylosis, with the fish appearing to be completely cleared of the infection in both cases. Oral treatments of G. turnbulli-infected guppies with diets supplemented with 10 and 20% ginger powder proved to be ineffective in decreasing parasite load. These findings demonstrate that immersion in ginger extract offers an effective, alternative treatment against monogenean infection in fish.

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