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4 Research products, page 1 of 1

  • 2018-2022
  • Open Access
  • Doctoral thesis
  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage

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  • Open Access Spanish; Castilian
    Authors: 
    Alejandro Campillo Unamunzaga;
    Country: Spain

    422 p. (T.1) 242 p. (T.2) Se estudia en esta tesis doctoral el proceso de descentralización de las operaciones censuales en el Estado romanodurante la última etapa republicana y la adecuación de los sistemas para la puesta en marcha de esta prácticaburocrática en Italia y en las provinciae del Occidente romano hasta el siglo IV d.C. Si bien en el siglo II a.C. sedocumentan diversos testimonios epigráficos que ponen de manifiesto la realización de estas operaciones porcensores en comunidades cívicas aliadas de Italia (coloniae Latinae y civitates foederatae) y, posteriormente, enotras de ciudadanos romanos (sine suffragio y optimo iure). Concluido el Bellum Sociorum, en los inicios del s. I a.C.Roma advirtió la necesidad de regular estas competencias y dotar de mayor efectividad a las operaciones censualesen el ámbito cívico ante el considerable incremento de cives Romani.Primero en Italia y luego en las provinciae del Occidente romano, los magistrados superiores de las coloniae ymunicipia de ciudadanos romanos asumieron las competencias ordinarias de la magistratura principal (duumviri,triumviri, quattuorviri) más las específicas para la realización del censo, aludiendo en varios casos a su potestascensoria empleando el epíteto quinquennalis, -e o el nombre sustantivo quinquennalis, -is, en referencia al período decinco años entre cada uno de los censos cívicos. Estos magistrados quinquennales constituyeron la auténtica élitepolítica y social de sus comunidades de origen o adscripción (coloniae y municipia civium Romanorum),constatándose cursus honorum destacados entre estos notables competentes, que en algunos casos accedieron aresponsabilidades extracívicas del ámbito provincial y/o estatal. Asimismo, estas aristocracias, integrantes de lasfamilias selectas del ámbito cívico, contribuyeron mediante prácticas evergéticas al embellecimiento y desarrollourbano de sus ciudades. La gestión eficiente de sus competencias, asimismo, fue distinguida en los ámbitos dondedesarrollaron sus atribuciones con la concesión de honores públicos.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Audy, Florent;
    Publisher: Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur
    Country: Sweden

    The use of coins as pendants is a common practice in the Scandinavian Viking Age (c. AD 800–1140). About three per cent of the coins circulating in Scandinavia show signs of having been adapted for suspension, either with a small hole or a loop. Modifying coins in this way changes the nature of the object. The pierced and looped coins move from having an economic function to having a display and symbolic function, at least temporarily. After being long neglected by both archaeologists and numismatists, the reuse of coins as pendants has started to receive attention in recent years. This arises mainly from a desire to approach coins from perspectives other than purely economic ones. Coins, like any other archaeological object, are part of material culture. It is therefore also relevant and necessary to investigate their social and cultural significance. The aim of this thesis is to understand why coins were adapted for suspension and worn as personal ornaments in Viking-Age Scandinavia. Unlike most ornaments of the time, the production of which necessarily involved craft specialists, the Viking-Age coin-pendants could be produced directly by their owners. Their study can thus provide unique insights into how the coins of which they are made, and the messages they carry, were perceived by those using them. What made coins so meaningful that they were often turned into pendants? The point of departure adopted here is the object, the ‘coin-pendant’ itself, but this object does not exist in a vacuum. Particular attention is paid to the different contexts that the coin-pendants have navigated throughout their lives, such as minting, use as currency or use as ornament. This contextual approach is combined with a semiotic one, so as to better understand how the meaning of the object was constructed. The relationship between coin-pendants and owners of coin-pendants can be explored by investigating several processes that reflect the owners’ intentions, such as coin selection, modification for suspension, orientation of the motives and combination with other ornaments. These processes allow us to understand how the coin-pendants were valued by those using them. However, it is not possible to fully understand this relationship without putting it into perspective. This means studying: (1) the wider social, economic, cultural and religious framework in which the practice of reusing coins as pendants is situated; (2) the objects with which the coin-pendants are metaphorically associated. The material forming the basis for this study is both archaeological and numismatic. It consists of two main components: 134 Scandinavian graves containing coin-pendants and a random sample of 80 Scandinavian hoards. The hoard material is primarily intended for quantitative purposes while the grave catalogue is primarily intended for qualitative purposes. The importance of studying the Viking-Age coin-pendants both in graves and in hoards cannot be overemphasised. None of these contexts directly reflects the reality of the practice. The study shows that the practice of using coins as pendants was very diverse and could be adapted to individual tastes. Within this diversity, however, a common denominator emerges: the object ‘coin’. It is clear that there was something special about coins in Viking-Age Scandinavia and that the meaning of the coin-pendants was largely derived from the ideas with which coins were associated.

  • Open Access German
    Authors: 
    Sbardella, Emanuele;
    Publisher: Technische Universität Berlin
    Country: Germany

    In seiner hiermit ver��ffentlichten Dissertation setzt sich der Autor mit der Entstehung und dem Aufbau des Geldmuseums der Reichsbank auseinander und rekonstruiert die Mitte der 1930er Jahre angebahnte numismatische Sammelt��tigkeit der Zentralbank des Deutschen Reiches. Seine historiographischen Bestrebungen gehen mit seinem Versuch einher, die untersuchten Geschehnisse epistemologisch zu deuten und in ihren kulturwissenschaftlichen Kontext einzubetten. W��hrend die Reichsbank (wie jede moderne Zentralbank) die staatliche W��hrungspolitik mitgestaltet und verwaltet hat, stellt es ein Novum der NS-Zeit dar, dass sie eine Rolle und sogar eine zentrale Rolle in der ��ffentlichen Sammelpolitik spielte. Sobald die bis dahin numismatischen Belangen fernstehende Reichsbank den Auftrag erhielt, die enorme Menge an numismatischem Material zu verwalten, das j��dischen Sammlern und H��ndlern entzogen wurde, trat eine historische und zugleich wissenschaftsgeschichtliche Z��sur ein. Das Geldmuseum ��� ein ambitioniertes Museumsprojekt (Musikalien) unter dem allgegenw��rtigen Einfluss kriegsvorbereitender R��stungspolitik (Munitionen). Die Reichsbank instrumentalisierte bewusst den kulturellen Auftrag, den die Bezeichnung Geldmuseum evoziert, um kriegswirtschaftliche Zwecke zu verfolgen: Sie erwarb und verkaufte M��nzen vertriebener Juden ��� sie handelte mit Musikalien, es handelte sich jedoch um Munitionen. In his dissertation the author analyses the origins and structure of the Reichsbank's Geldmuseum (Money Museum) and reconstructs the numismatic collecting activities of the Central Bank of the German Reich, that began in the mid-1930s. His historiographical endeavors go hand in hand with his attempt to interpret epistemologically the examined events and to embed them in their cultural studies context. While the Reichsbank (like every modern central bank) helped to shape and administer the state's monetary policy, it was a novelty of the Nazi era that it played a role and even a central role in public collection policy. As soon as the Reichsbank, which up until then had been remote from numismatic interests, was given the task of administering the enormous amount of numismatic material that was withdrawn from Jewish collectors and dealers, it occourred an historical and epistemological turning point at the same time. The Geldmuseum - an ambitious museum project (the "Musikalien"-side of the coin) which has been created under the omnipresent influence of war-preparing armaments policy ("Munitionen"-side of the coin). The Reichsbank deliberately exploited the cultural mission evoked by the concept of a museum in order to pursue war economic purposes.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Bouzas Sabater, Marc;
    Publisher: Universitat de Girona

    The main objective of this thesis is to establish the circulation dynamics of late roman coinage in the roman ciuitates of Girona and Empúries during the historical period known as the Late Roman Empire. To do so, we studied the coins recovered during archaeological works in the aforementioned territories, which lead to the constitution of an exhaustive catalogue of the coinage. In turn, the catalogue allowed the statistical analyses of the same, as well as the generation of a global vision of the coinage found in the region. Under the premise that regional economies differ among themselves, we believe that the local study of regional economies, such as the one studied here, can provide a better understanding of the global roman dynamics of the Empire. The present thesis goes beyond the study of coinage circulation, and extends to topics such as the nature of the economy – attempting to determine whether the economy was monetary or weight based – as well as the conception of the coin in the economic system, while also determining if it had a trust or a weight value. We also pretend to characterize the circulating coinage on the basis of an array of factors: metal, type, chronology, mint, and emissary. Through the study of these factors we can determine which were the coins that reached the studied territory. Moreover, the importance of the imitative coinage is also evaluated, given that it is a key to understand the economy in the zone. Finally, we compare data extracted of the studied territory with other published data from different territories of Spain and Europe, in an attempt to see if there are overarching similar dynamics between those appreciated in the Girona and Empúries territories during the Late Roman Empire and their Spanish and European counterparts. Aquest treball té com a principal objectiu establir els patrons de circulació de la moneda baiximperial al territori de les ciuitates de Girona i Empúries durant el període que es coneix com a baix Imperi romà. Serà a través d’un exhaustiu estudi de tot el material numismàtic recuperat en excavacions arqueològiques, que quedarà agrupat en un catàleg, des d’on s’elaboren les estadístiques i el buidatge de dades que permeten definir quin tipus de moneda fou la més present en el territori i plantejar-nos el perquè. Partim de la premissa que les economies regionals poden ser molt diferents i que és a través d’estudis locals com el que aquí plantegem des d’on es pot abordar la confecció de models econòmics globals per al baix Imperi, així com veure l’afectació real de les reformes i els canvis en el valor nominal de la moneda sobre el terreny. A més de la circulació pròpiament dita s’aborden altres temes, essent un dels més destacats establir quina era el tipus d’economia imperant al territori: de base natural o per contra monetitzada; però també quina era la concepció de la pròpia moneda dins el sistema econòmic: si posseïa un valor fiduciari o era un valor de base ponderal. Es realitza també una caracterització de diferents aspectes de la moneda circulant, tant del tipus majoritari com de la resta. Així doncs a partir de l’estudi del metall, el nominal, la cronologia, la procedència i l’emissor s’estableixen quines són les monedes que més arribaren al territori i plantegem quines foren les més usades de manera plausible. El pes de les monedes d’imitació dins dels circuits monetaris també és avaluat, atès que és un element clau en l’aproximació al tipus d’economia. Finalment, es comparen les dades extretes en aquest territori amb les que altres estudiosos han analitzat en altres zones, amb la voluntat de copsar possibles dinàmiques similars en altres regions imperials.

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