It is argued that Constantine concealed the Latin symbol for a thousand within a depiction of two apparent wreaths on the reverse of a type of solidus struck in 325/26, and that he did so in order to allude to the one-thousand year reign of the resurrected martyrs with Christ following the overthrow of Satan as described in the book of Revelation. In so doing, he was comparing his reign after his overthrow of Licinius to the reign of the martyrs with Christ after the overthrow of Satan. The message was that he would try to rule with Christ in the manner of those kings, that is, as a perfect Christian king.
Abstract Rationale: Foreign body (FB) aspiration in adults is occasionally encountered. The aspiration and impaction of a coin in the lower respiratory tract is an unusual accident. This report presents 2 rare adult cases of FB aspiration with coin impaction in larynx and trachea, respectively. Patient concerns: Two patients presented to the emergency department separately. Both had a similar history of inadvertent ingestion of a 5-jiao coin that was accidentally enveloped in dumplings. The ingestion was immediately followed by violent cough. Diagnosis: The diagnosis of foreign body aspiration was confirmed by chest x-ray. In the first patient, chest computed tomography (CT) confirmed the shape of the coin and it was located in the laryngeal area, facing C5. In the second patient, CT revealed a metal-density FB located in the tracheal carina. Interventions: In the first patient, direct laryngoscopy was performed and the 5-Jiao coin was removed in a direction parallel to the vocal cords. In the second patient, rigid bronchoscopy was used to remove the coin. Outcomes: The postoperative period was uneventful in both the patients. Lessons: During FB removal, the coin should be positioned parallel to the vocal cords during its retrieval through the glottis. Due attention must be paid to avoid asphyxia due to positional changes of the coin in the trachea. Early diagnosis and intervention is the key in such cases as delay can cause catastrophic complications.
India has witnessed a remarkable catch-up by the historically disadvantaged scheduled castes and tribes (SC/STs) towards non-SC/ST levels in their education attainment levels, occupation choices as well as wages during the period 1983-2012. Using a heterogenous agent, multi-sector model we show that sectoral productivity growth during this period can explain 75 percent of the observed wage convergence between the castes. Inter-sectoral net flows of workers are key as they account for 3/4 of the predicted convergence. Absent these net flows, the caste wage gaps would have marginally widened. Selection effects, while present in these net flows, account for just a quarter of the predicted wage convergence. We also find that affirmative action policies that reduced skilling costs for SC/STs may have reduced the levels of the caste wage gaps at all times but played a limited role in accounting for the dynamics of the wage gap. Growth was key for the dynamic wage convergence.
We introduce a generalized quarter-symmetric metric recurrent connection and study its geometrical properties. We also derive the Schur?s theorem for the generalized quarter-symmetric metric recurrent connection.
This study reviews prior literature on the relationship between the stock market and the economy and conducts a simple analysis on the same empirically for Philippines. The study utilizes quarterly data from 2003 to 2015. Results show that increases in past quarter real GDP growth causes a 0.56 increase in the present quarter real GDP growth. In addition, increases in past quarter PSI index returns cause a 0.04 increase in real GDP growth in the present quarter. Moreover, the study identifies an inflation-GDP growth puzzle for Philippines. Results support the permanent income and the financial accelerator views.
The study analyzes the relationship of personal income tax and economic growth in the long and short runs to show which type of income tax (progressive or proportional) is more compatible with Bulgaria’s economic growth. The methods of Vector Error Correction and Correlation are applied to determine the long-run and short-run impacts of the two types of income tax. The research covers the period from the first quarter of 1999 to the first quarter of 2020. Eurostat data (85 observations) were used. The empirical research has been divided into two periods. The long-run and short-run relationships between economic growth and tax revenue from progressive income tax in Bulgaria have first been studied, followed by the relationship between economic growth and the tax revenue from proportional income tax. The research results show that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship, but not a short-run relationship, between personal income tax and economic growth. The results imply that the progressive income tax is more compatible with economic growth than proportional income tax in Bulgaria in the long run. In the short run, the progressive income tax and proportional income tax have not shown statistically significant relationships with economic growth. Therefore, a progressive income tax leads to greater economic growth than a proportional income tax. From a long-run equilibrium standpoint, it is advisable that Bulgaria switch from proportional to progressive income taxation. It may be inferred that progressive taxation is more appropriate for economic growth than proportional taxation. The results are in conformity with the theory of endogenic growth and reject the neoclassical theory. For citation Tanchev S. Long-run equilibrium between personal income tax and economic growth in Bulgaria. Journal of Tax Reform. 2021;7(1):55–67. DOI: 10.15826/jtr.2021.7.1.090 Article info Received February 8, 2021; Revised March 2, 2021; Accepted April 8, 2021
Two new types of connections, Ricci quarter-symmetric metric recurrent connection and projective Ricci quarter-symmetric metric recurrent connection, were introduced and some interesting geometrical and physical characteristics were achieved.