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Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (1U01AG024904-01)
45 Research products (1 rule applied)

  • 2014-2023
  • Frontiers in Neuroscience

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jingjing, Gao; Jiaxin, Liu; Yuhang, Xu; Dawei, Peng; +1 Authors

    IntroductionAlzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that significantly impacts the quality of life of patients and their families. Neuroimaging-driven brain age prediction has been proposed as a potential biomarker to detect mental disorders, such as AD, aiding in studying its effects on functional brain networks. Previous studies have shown that individuals with AD display impaired resting-state functional connections. However, most studies on brain age prediction have used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with limited studies based on resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI).MethodsIn this study, we applied a graph neural network (GNN) model on controls to predict brain ages using rs-fMRI in patients with AD. We compared the performance of the GNN model with traditional machine learning models. Finally, the post hoc model was also used to identify the critical brain regions in AD.ResultsThe experimental results demonstrate that our GNN model can predict brain ages of normal controls using rs-fMRI data from the ADNI database. Moreover the differences between brain ages and chronological ages were more significant in AD patients than in normal controls. Our results also suggest that AD is associated with accelerated brain aging and that the GNN model based on resting-state functional connectivity is an effective tool for predicting brain age.DiscussionOur study provides evidence that rs-fMRI is a promising modality for brain age prediction in AD research, and the GNN model proves to be effective in predicting brain age. Furthermore, the effects of the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and amygdala on brain age prediction are verified.

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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Article . 2023
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurosc...arrow_drop_down
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Qinghua Liu; Yangyang Zhang; Lingyun Guo; ZhengXia Wang;

    IntroductionDue to the lack of devices and the difficulty of gathering patients, the small sample size is one of the most challenging problems in functional brain network (FBN) analysis. Previous studies have attempted to solve this problem of sample limitation through data augmentation methods, such as sample transformation and noise addition. However, these methods ignore the unique spatial-temporal information of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, which is essential for FBN analysis.MethodsTo address this issue, we propose a spatial-temporal data-augmentation-based classification (STDAC) scheme that can fuse the spatial-temporal information, increase the samples, while improving the classification performance. Firstly, we propose a spatial augmentation module utilizing the spatial prior knowledge, which was ignored by previous augmentation methods. Secondly, we design a temporal augmentation module by random discontinuous sampling period, which can generate more samples than former approaches. Finally, a tensor fusion method is used to combine the features from the above two modules, which can make efficient use of spatial-temporal information of fMRI simultaneously. Besides, we apply our scheme to different types of classifiers to verify the generalization performance. To evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme, we conduct extensive experiments on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset and REST-meta-MDD Project (MDD) dataset.ResultsExperimental results show that the proposed scheme achieves superior classification accuracy (ADNI: 82.942%, MDD: 63.406%) and feature interpretation on the benchmark datasets.DiscussionThe proposed STDAC scheme, utilizing both spatial and temporal information, can generate more diverse samples than former augmentation methods for brain disorder classification and analysis.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurosc...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Article . 2023
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    SSRN Electronic Journal
    Article . 2023
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Article . 2023
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      SSRN Electronic Journal
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Hinge, Christian; Henriksen, Otto Mølby; Lindberg, Ulrich; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers; +4 Authors

    PurposeBrain 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoroglucose ([18F]FDG-PET) is widely used in the diagnostic workup of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Current tools for uptake analysis rely on non-personalized templates, which poses a challenge as decreased glucose uptake could reflect neuronal dysfunction, or heterogeneous brain morphology associated with normal aging. Overcoming this, we propose a deep learning method for synthesizing a personalized [18F]FDG-PET baseline from the patient’s own MRI, and showcase its applicability in detecting AD pathology.MethodsWe included [18F]FDG-PET/MRI data from 123 patients of a local cohort and 600 patients from ADNI. A supervised, adversarial model with two connected Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) was trained on cognitive normal (CN) patients with transfer-learning to generate full synthetic baseline volumes (sbPET) (192 × 192 × 192) which reflect healthy uptake conditioned on brain anatomy. Synthetic accuracy was measured by absolute relative %-difference (Abs%), relative %-difference (RD%), and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). Lastly, we deployed the sbPET images in a fully personalized method for localizing metabolic abnormalities.ResultsThe model achieved a spatially uniform Abs% of 9.4%, RD% of 0.5%, and a PSNR of 26.3 for CN subjects. The sbPET images conformed to the anatomical information dictated by the MRI and proved robust in presence of atrophy. The personalized abnormality method correctly mapped the pathology of AD subjects while showing little to no anomalies for CN subjects.ConclusionThis work demonstrated the feasibility of synthesizing fully personalized, healthy-appearing [18F]FDG-PET images. Using these, we showcased a promising application in diagnosing AD, and theorized the potential value of sbPET images in other neuroimaging routines.

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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
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    Authors: Jiaye, Li; Hang, Xu; Hao, Yu; Zhihao, Jiang; +1 Authors

    In Alzheimer's disease, the researchers found that if the patients were treated at the early stage of the disease, it could effectively delay the development of the disease. At present, multi-modal feature selection is widely used in the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. However, existing multi-modal feature selection algorithms focus on learning the internal information of multiple modalities. They ignore the relationship between modalities, the importance of each modality and the local structure in the multi-modal data. In this paper, we propose a multi-modal feature selection algorithm with anchor graph for Alzheimer's disease. Specifically, we first use the least square loss and l2,1−norm to obtain the weight of the feature under each modality. Then we embed a modal weight factor into the objective function to obtain the importance of each modality. Finally, we use anchor graph to quickly learn the local structure information in multi-modal data. In addition, we also verify the validity of the proposed algorithm on the published ADNI dataset.

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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
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    Authors: Zhuopin, Sun; Steven, Meikle; Fernando, Calamante;

    BackgroundAdvancements in hybrid positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance (PET-MR) systems allow for combining the advantages of each modality. Integrating information from MRI and PET can be valuable for diagnosing and treating neurological disorders. However, combining diffusion MRI (dMRI) and PET data, which provide highly complementary information, has rarely been exploited in image post-processing. dMRI has the ability to investigate the white matter pathways of the brain through fibre tractography, which enables comprehensive mapping of the brain connection networks (the “connectome”). Novel methods are required to combine information present in the connectome and PET to increase the full potential of PET-MRI.MethodsWe developed a CONNectome-based Non-Local Means (CONN-NLM) filter to exploit synergies between dMRI-derived structural connectivity and PET intensity information to denoise PET images. PET-MR data are parcelled into a number of regions based on a brain atlas, and the inter-regional structural connectivity is calculated based on dMRI fibre-tracking. The CONN-NLM filter is then implemented as a post-reconstruction filter by combining the nonlocal means filter and a connectivity-based cortical smoothing. The effect of this approach is to weight voxels with similar PET intensity and highly connected voxels higher when computing the weighted-average to perform more informative denoising. The proposed method was first evaluated using a novel computer phantom framework to simulate realistic hybrid PET-MR images with different lesion scenarios. CONN-NLM was further assessed with clinical dMRI and tau PET examples.ResultsThe results showed that CONN-NLM has the capacity to improve the overall PET image quality by reducing noise while preserving lesion contrasts, and it outperformed a range of filters that did not use dMRI information. The simulations demonstrate that CONN-NLM can handle various lesion contrasts consistently, as well as lesions with different levels of inter-connectivity.ConclusionCONN-NLM has unique advantages of providing more informative and accurate PET smoothing by adding complementary structural connectivity information from dMRI, representing a new avenue to exploit synergies between MRI and PET.

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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
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    Authors: Wu, Fan; Cai, Jiahui; Wen, Canhong; Tan, Haizhu;

    Non-negative matrix factorization, which decomposes the input non-negative matrix into product of two non-negative matrices, has been widely used in the neuroimaging field due to its flexible interpretability with non-negativity property. Nowadays, especially in the neuroimaging field, it is common to have at least thousands of voxels while the sample size is only hundreds. The non-negative matrix factorization encounters both computational and theoretical challenge with such high-dimensional data, i.e., there is no guarantee for a sparse and part-based representation of data. To this end, we introduce a co-sparse non-negative matrix factorization method to high-dimensional data by simultaneously imposing sparsity in both two decomposed matrices. Instead of adding some sparsity induced penalty such as l1 norm, the proposed method directly controls the number of non-zero elements, which can avoid the bias issues and thus yield more accurate results. We developed an alternative primal-dual active set algorithm to derive the co-sparse estimator in a computationally efficient way. The simulation studies showed that our method achieved better performance than the state-of-art methods in detecting the basis matrix and recovering signals, especially under the high-dimensional scenario. In empirical experiments with two neuroimaging data, the proposed method successfully detected difference between Alzheimer's patients and normal person in several brain regions, which suggests that our method may be a valuable toolbox for neuroimaging studies.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
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    Authors: Daniel Agostinho; Francisco Caramelo; Ana Paula Moreira; Isabel Santana; +2 Authors

    Background: In recent years, classification frameworks using imaging data have shown that multimodal classification methods perform favorably over the use of a single imaging modality for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease. The currently used clinical approach often emphasizes the use of qualitative MRI and/or PET data for clinical diagnosis. Based on the hypothesis that classification of isolated imaging modalities is not predictive of their respective value in combined approaches, we investigate whether the combination of T1 Weighted MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can yield an equivalent performance as the combination of quantitative structural MRI (sMRI) with amyloid-PET.Methods: We parcellated the brain into regions of interest (ROI) following different anatomical labeling atlases. For each region of interest different metrics were extracted from the different imaging modalities (sMRI, PiB-PET, and DTI) to be used as features. Thereafter, the feature sets were reduced using an embedded-based feature selection method. The final reduced sets were then used as input in support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Three different base classifiers were created, one for each imaging modality, and validated using internal (n = 41) and external data from the ADNI initiative (n = 330 for sMRI, n = 148 for DTI and n = 55 for PiB-PET) sources. Finally, the classifiers were ensembled using a weighted method in order to evaluate the performance of different combinations.Results: For the base classifiers the following performance levels were found: sMRI-based classifier (accuracy, 92%; specificity, 97% and sensitivity, 87%), PiB-PET (accuracy, 91%; specificity, 89%; and sensitivity, 92%) and the lowest performance was attained with DTI (accuracy, 80%; specificity, 76%; and sensitivity, 82%). From the multimodal approaches, when integrating two modalities, the following results were observed: sMRI+PiB-PET (accuracy, 98%; specificity, 98%; and sensitivity, 99%), sMRI+DTI (accuracy, 97%; specificity, 99%; and sensitivity, 94%) and PiB-PET+DTI (accuracy, 91%; specificity, 90%; and sensitivity, 93%). Finally, the combination of all imaging modalities yielded an accuracy of 98%, specificity of 97% and sensitivity of 99%.Conclusion: Although DTI in isolation shows relatively poor performance, when combined with structural MR, it showed a surprising classification performance which was comparable to MR combined with amyloid PET. These results are consistent with the notion that white matter changes are also important in Alzheimer’s Disease.

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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
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    Authors: Danilo Pena; Jessika Suescun; Mya Schiess; Timothy M. Ellmore; +2 Authors

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It is one of the leading sources of morbidity and mortality in the aging population AD cardinal symptoms include memory and executive function impairment that profoundly alters a patient’s ability to perform activities of daily living. People with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) exhibit many of the early clinical symptoms of patients with AD and have a high chance of converting to AD in their lifetime. Diagnostic criteria rely on clinical assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many groups are working to help automate this process to improve the clinical workflow. Current computational approaches are focused on predicting whether or not a subject with MCI will convert to AD in the future. To our knowledge, limited attention has been given to the development of automated computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) systems able to provide an AD conversion diagnosis in MCI patient cohorts followed longitudinally. This is important as these CAD systems could be used by primary care providers to monitor patients with MCI. The method outlined in this paper addresses this gap and presents a computationally efficient pre-processing and prediction pipeline, and is designed for recognizing patterns associated with AD conversion. We propose a new approach that leverages longitudinal data that can be easily acquired in a clinical setting (e.g., T1-weighted magnetic resonance images, cognitive tests, and demographic information) to identify the AD conversion point in MCI subjects with AUC = 84.7. In contrast, cognitive tests and demographics alone achieved AUC = 80.6, a statistically significant difference (n = 669, p < 0.05). We designed a convolutional neural network that is computationally efficient and requires only linear registration between imaging time points. The model architecture combines Attention and Inception architectures while utilizing both cross-sectional and longitudinal imaging and clinical information. Additionally, the top brain regions and clinical features that drove the model’s decision were investigated. These included the thalamus, caudate, planum temporale, and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. We believe our method could be easily translated into the healthcare setting as an objective AD diagnostic tool for patients with MCI.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
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    Authors: Jianfeng Wu; Qunxi Dong; Qunxi Dong; Jie Zhang; +9 Authors

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and tau protein tangles in the brain are now widely recognized as the defining hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), followed by structural atrophy detectable on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. One of the particular neurodegenerative regions is the hippocampus to which the influence of Aβ/tau on has been one of the research focuses in the AD pathophysiological progress. This work proposes a novel framework, Federated Morphometry Feature Selection (FMFS) model, to examine subtle aspects of hippocampal morphometry that are associated with Aβ/tau burden in the brain, measured using positron emission tomography (PET). FMFS is comprised of hippocampal surface-based feature calculation, patch-based feature selection, federated group LASSO regression, federated screening rule-based stability selection, and region of interest (ROI) identification. FMFS was tested on two Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohorts to understand hippocampal alterations that relate to Aβ/tau depositions. Each cohort included pairs of MRI and PET for AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and cognitively unimpaired (CU) subjects. Experimental results demonstrated that FMFS achieves an 89× speedup compared to other published state-of-the-art methods under five independent hypothetical institutions. In addition, the subiculum and cornu ammonis 1 (CA1 subfield) were identified as hippocampal subregions where atrophy is strongly associated with abnormal Aβ/tau. As potential biomarkers for Aβ/tau pathology, the features from the identified ROIs had greater power for predicting cognitive assessment and for survival analysis than five other imaging biomarkers. All the results indicate that FMFS is an efficient and effective tool to reveal associations between Aβ/tau burden and hippocampal morphometry.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    Article . 2021
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
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    Authors: Silvia De Francesco; Samantha Galluzzi; Nicola Vanacore; Cristina Festari; +6 Authors

    IntroductionHippocampal volume is one of the main biomarkers of Alzheimer’s Dementia (AD). Over the years, advanced tools that performed automatic segmentation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) T13D scans have been developed, such as FreeSurfer (FS) and ACM-Adaboost (AA). Hippocampal volume is considered abnormal when it is below the 5th percentile of the normative population. The aim of this study was to set norms, established from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) population, for hippocampal volume measured with FS v.6.0 and AA tools in the neuGRID platform (www.neugrid2.eu) and demonstrate their applicability for the Italian population.MethodsNorms were set from a large group of 545 healthy controls belonging to ADNI. For each pipeline, subjects with segmentation errors were discarded, resulting in 532 valid segmentations for FS and 421 for AA (age range 56–90 years). The comparability of ADNI and the Italian Brain Normative Archive (IBNA), representative of the Italian general population, was assessed testing clinical variables, neuropsychological scores and normalized hippocampal volumes. Finally, percentiles were validated using the Italian Alzheimer’s disease Repository Without Borders (ARWiBo) as external independent data set to evaluate FS and AA generalizability.ResultsHippocampal percentiles were checked with the chi-square goodness of fit test. P-values were not significant, showing that FS and AA algorithm distributions fitted the data well. Clinical, neuropsychological and volumetric features were similar in ADNI and IBNA (p > 0.01). Hippocampal volumes measured with both FS and AA were associated with age (p < 0.001). The 5th percentile thresholds, indicating left/right hippocampal atrophy were respectively: (i) below 3,223/3,456 mm3 at 56 years and 2,506/2,415 mm3 at 90 years for FS; (ii) below 4,583/4,873 mm3 at 56 years and 3,831/3,870 mm3 at 90 years for AA. The average volumes computed on 100 cognitively intact healthy controls (CN) selected from ARWiBo were close to the 50th percentiles, while those for 100 AD patients were close to the abnormal percentiles.DiscussionNorms generated from ADNI through the automatic FS and AA segmentation tools may be used as normative references for Italian patients with suspected AD.

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Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (1U01AG024904-01)
45 Research products (1 rule applied)
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jingjing, Gao; Jiaxin, Liu; Yuhang, Xu; Dawei, Peng; +1 Authors

    IntroductionAlzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that significantly impacts the quality of life of patients and their families. Neuroimaging-driven brain age prediction has been proposed as a potential biomarker to detect mental disorders, such as AD, aiding in studying its effects on functional brain networks. Previous studies have shown that individuals with AD display impaired resting-state functional connections. However, most studies on brain age prediction have used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with limited studies based on resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI).MethodsIn this study, we applied a graph neural network (GNN) model on controls to predict brain ages using rs-fMRI in patients with AD. We compared the performance of the GNN model with traditional machine learning models. Finally, the post hoc model was also used to identify the critical brain regions in AD.ResultsThe experimental results demonstrate that our GNN model can predict brain ages of normal controls using rs-fMRI data from the ADNI database. Moreover the differences between brain ages and chronological ages were more significant in AD patients than in normal controls. Our results also suggest that AD is associated with accelerated brain aging and that the GNN model based on resting-state functional connectivity is an effective tool for predicting brain age.DiscussionOur study provides evidence that rs-fMRI is a promising modality for brain age prediction in AD research, and the GNN model proves to be effective in predicting brain age. Furthermore, the effects of the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and amygdala on brain age prediction are verified.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurosc...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Article . 2023
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Qinghua Liu; Yangyang Zhang; Lingyun Guo; ZhengXia Wang;

    IntroductionDue to the lack of devices and the difficulty of gathering patients, the small sample size is one of the most challenging problems in functional brain network (FBN) analysis. Previous studies have attempted to solve this problem of sample limitation through data augmentation methods, such as sample transformation and noise addition. However, these methods ignore the unique spatial-temporal information of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, which is essential for FBN analysis.MethodsTo address this issue, we propose a spatial-temporal data-augmentation-based classification (STDAC) scheme that can fuse the spatial-temporal information, increase the samples, while improving the classification performance. Firstly, we propose a spatial augmentation module utilizing the spatial prior knowledge, which was ignored by previous augmentation methods. Secondly, we design a temporal augmentation module by random discontinuous sampling period, which can generate more samples than former approaches. Finally, a tensor fusion method is used to combine the features from the above two modules, which can make efficient use of spatial-temporal information of fMRI simultaneously. Besides, we apply our scheme to different types of classifiers to verify the generalization performance. To evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme, we conduct extensive experiments on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset and REST-meta-MDD Project (MDD) dataset.ResultsExperimental results show that the proposed scheme achieves superior classification accuracy (ADNI: 82.942%, MDD: 63.406%) and feature interpretation on the benchmark datasets.DiscussionThe proposed STDAC scheme, utilizing both spatial and temporal information, can generate more diverse samples than former augmentation methods for brain disorder classification and analysis.

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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Article . 2023
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    SSRN Electronic Journal
    Article . 2023
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Article . 2023
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      SSRN Electronic Journal
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Hinge, Christian; Henriksen, Otto Mølby; Lindberg, Ulrich; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers; +4 Authors

    PurposeBrain 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoroglucose ([18F]FDG-PET) is widely used in the diagnostic workup of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Current tools for uptake analysis rely on non-personalized templates, which poses a challenge as decreased glucose uptake could reflect neuronal dysfunction, or heterogeneous brain morphology associated with normal aging. Overcoming this, we propose a deep learning method for synthesizing a personalized [18F]FDG-PET baseline from the patient’s own MRI, and showcase its applicability in detecting AD pathology.MethodsWe included [18F]FDG-PET/MRI data from 123 patients of a local cohort and 600 patients from ADNI. A supervised, adversarial model with two connected Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) was trained on cognitive normal (CN) patients with transfer-learning to generate full synthetic baseline volumes (sbPET) (192 × 192 × 192) which reflect healthy uptake conditioned on brain anatomy. Synthetic accuracy was measured by absolute relative %-difference (Abs%), relative %-difference (RD%), and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). Lastly, we deployed the sbPET images in a fully personalized method for localizing metabolic abnormalities.ResultsThe model achieved a spatially uniform Abs% of 9.4%, RD% of 0.5%, and a PSNR of 26.3 for CN subjects. The sbPET images conformed to the anatomical information dictated by the MRI and proved robust in presence of atrophy. The personalized abnormality method correctly mapped the pathology of AD subjects while showing little to no anomalies for CN subjects.ConclusionThis work demonstrated the feasibility of synthesizing fully personalized, healthy-appearing [18F]FDG-PET images. Using these, we showcased a promising application in diagnosing AD, and theorized the potential value of sbPET images in other neuroimaging routines.

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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Article . 2022
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