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24 Research products, page 1 of 3

  • Publications
  • 2013-2022
  • Open Access
  • 03 medical and health sciences
  • 0301 basic medicine

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  • Open Access Russian
    Authors: 
    O. B. Talibov;
    Publisher: OOO “Vashe Tsifrovoe Izdatelstvo”

    The article describes specific aspects of biosimilars research and development. The aim of the study was to analyse the ways to conduct comparative studies of biotechnological medicinal products and the main approaches to the assessment of the obtained data. The paper highlights that biotechnological products are associated with a much higher potential variability of chemical and pharmacological characteristics than small molecules. The author analyses the reasons of this phenomenon, describes mechanisms underlying the microheterogeneity of protein molecules, primarily post-translational modification. The latter has an impact on the pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacodynamics and immunogenicity of complex protein molecules, which increases the variability of test results and makes it difficult to conduct bioequivalence studies. In addition to bioequivalence studies, biosimilars research should include comparative studies of pharmacodynamics, evaluation of therapeutic equivalence and immunogenicity. Assessment of the medicines comparability should be based on the analysis of all data provided, which requires a more flexible and sometimes individual approach on the part of regulatory authorities.

  • Open Access Russian
    Authors: 
    D. P. Romodanovsky; A. L. Khokhlov; D. V. Goryachev;
    Publisher: OOO “Vashe Tsifrovoe Izdatelstvo”

    The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, which began in 2020, has affected all spheres of life, including clinical trial processes. Health authorities around the world issued recommendations aimed at minimising the risks of virus spreading and ensuring the safety of study participants. One of the types of clinical trials is bioequivalence studies of generic medicines. The aim of the study was to analyse current foreign approaches to planning and conduct of bioequivalence studies of medicines in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and to develop recommendations for planning of studies conducted in the Eurasian Economic Union and evaluation of their results. The paper discusses the main provisions of the current guidelines of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on the planning, conduct and evaluation of clinical trials and, in particular, bioequivalence studies of generic medicines. The paper substantiates the necessity of detailing the recommendations of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, published in an open letter to all market stakeholders and regulating the conduct of clinical trials of medicines in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. The results of the analysis helped to develop recommendations aimed at ensuring the protection of clinical trial participants, as well as maintaining an acceptable level of quality and reliability of study results.

  • Open Access Russian
    Authors: 
    A. V. Rybakova; M. N. Makarova; A. E. Kukharenko; A. S. Vichare; F. R. Rueffer;
    Publisher: OOO “Vashe Tsifrovoe Izdatelstvo”

    Today, within the context of harmonisation of requirements in the international pharmaceutical market, there is a trend towards development of common standards, including in the field of preclinical studies. The reliability and reproducibility of experimental data obtained in various laboratories using animals cannot be guaranteed unless the 3Rs principles are observed (the principles of humane experimental technique) to ensure the welfare of animals. The present paper analyses Russian and foreign recommendations on different administration routes and administered volumes as applied to mice, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits – the most frequently used laboratory animals. The paper systematises literature data on oral/intragastric, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous and intraperitoneal routes of administration. It assesses potential complications of each route of administration, and negative effects on both health and well-being of laboratory animals, as well as on the results of experiments. The paper also touches upon some anatomical and physiological characteristics of laboratory animals, potential opportunities for feed and water deprivation, ways of reducing pain in animals. The results of comparison of administered volumes helped to determine optimal recommended and maximum administered volumes.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    N. S. Tereshina; M. N. Lyakina; O. A. Naumova;
    Publisher: SCEEMP

    Sea water and sea salt obtained from it are widely used as substances in the production of medicinal products. Complex chemical composition of sea water which contains various salts, calls for the development of a common quality standard for sea water-based medicines. The aim of the study was to analyse and summarise available data on the sources of sea water-based medicines, and on the current test methods, as well as to develop a unified approach to quality control. The paper summarises information on the use of sea water for medical purposes. It presents comparative data on the chemical composition of sea water obtained from different sources, manufacturing technologies of sea water-based medicines, and composition of medicines produced from sea water or sea salt. The paper summarises data on the use of sea water for the production of various dosage forms: drops, sprays, aerosols. The study revealed qualitative and quantitative differences in the content of major cations and anions in drug products. The authors analysed the use of various chemical and physico-chemical test methods for qualitative and quantitative characterisation of medicines. It was concluded that there is a need to harmonise quality control methods for sea water-based medicines.

  • Open Access Russian
    Authors: 
    A. V. Tikhomirova;
    Publisher: OOO “Vashe Tsifrovoe Izdatelstvo”

    Criteria for evaluation of clinical efficacy make it possible to assess the risk-benefit ratio of anticancer medicines that patients receive, in particular, for the treatment of solid malignant tumors. A medicine’s efficacy is assessed using special criteria called the endpoints of clinical efficacy, allowing most objective assessment of study results. It was demonstrated that nowadays clinical efficacy of anticancer drugs is assessed using «patient-centered» (overall survival and quality of life) and «tumor-centered» (response to therapy, progression-free survival, disease-free survival) endpoints. «Patient-centered» endpoints make it possible to evaluate the direct clinical benefit of chemotherapy in patients, while «tumor-centered» endpoints allow for evaluation of efficacy at earlier stages, without directly reflecting the clinical benefit. The analysis of the most suitable endpoints with the aim of making them interchangeable with the primary outcome measure – overall survival – is becoming more and more relevant in oncology. The choice of criteria of efficacy should be made taking into account the specific features of a particular oncological disease, study population and duration of therapy. The authors of the study analysed Russian and foreign literary sources containing information on criteria of efficacy of anticancer medicines and highlighted the advantages and disadvantages of these criteria. The study showed that clinical endpoints should be clinically significant, sensitive to therapy, easy to measure and interpret. It was demonstrated that comprehensive evaluation of outcome measures makes it possible to adequately assess the risk-benefit ratio of anticancer medicines.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    T. A. Batuashvili; L. V. Simutenko; P. V. Shadrin; N. P. Neugodova;
    Publisher: SCEEMP

    The paper considers insulin’s specific action on the patient’s body, types of insulin preparations and insulin analogues which are used for the treatment of diabetes, as well as applicable requirements for these products. It was demonstrated that determination of biological activity is one of the key quality parameters of this type of medicines. The paper summarises the methods used for evaluation of insulin and its analogues, which are based both on the hormone’s general action on the body (in vivo: double crossing, euglycemic clamp, etc.), and on certain aspects of the hormone’s interaction with the body systems (in vitro: receptor-binding assay, phosphorylation, metabolic methods). Due to the appearance of insulin biosimilars on the pharmaceutical market, the article raises the issue that the «Biological potency» parameter tested in animals should be kept as part of the product specification. The analysis of the in vivo and in vitro methods of biological activity determination convincingly demonstrates that animal models can not be replaced with the modern analytical methods based on cell cultures. Consequently, animal models are still necessary, as they allow for an adequate assessment of the quality of insulins in terms of «Biological potency». Taking into account the global trend towards reduction of animal testing, the authors point out the need to develop modern methods, the results of which will be comparable to the results of in vivo determination of the biological activity.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    G. I. Gorodetskaya; V. V. Arkhipov; E. S. Melnikov; T. A. Rodina;
    Publisher: SCEEMP

    Rational use of glybenclamide products in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes remains a high-priority task. The paper offers a summary of the main groups of glibenclamide drugs and describes pharmacogenetics of glybenclamide. Glibenclamide is metabolized by the enzyme cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9). Individuals with genetically determined low CYP2C9 activity are at an increased risk of hypoglycaemia. Carriers of CYP2C9*3 and CYP2C9*2 alleles tend to have higher concentrations of glybenclamide in blood and increased insulin secretion. Pharmacogenetic testing of patients and drug concentration monitoring using HPLC-MS can help reduce the risk of hypoglycemia during glibenclamide treatment. Based on literature review the authors selected the method characterised by a simple sample preparation procedure, short analysis time, and a wide analytical range for the substances being determined. This method can be useful both for bioequivalence studies and evaluation of glibenclamide products interchangeability. Glibenclamide pharmacokinetics is characterised by high interindividual variability. This may lead to both an increased risk of hypoglycemia and drug inefficacy, therefore, when prescribing glibenclamide, a physician should carefully control the efficacy and safety of drug therapy.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    E. V. Shekunova; M. A. Kovaleva; M. N. Makarova; V. G. Makarov;
    Publisher: SCEEMP

    One of the major obstacles to effective translational medicine is the challenge of translating animal research results into clinical studies. Scientific literature mainly addresses the selection of the drug dose at initiation of clinical trials (Phase 1). Appropriate selection of doses is also essential for preclinical toxicology and pharmacology studies. Some basic principles that are used when translating dosages from animal models to humans are applicable to selection and justification of doses when planning and conducting preclinical studies. The paper provides an overview of the main methods that can be used for selection and justification of animal doses in preclinical studies, e.g. cross-species dose conversion using body surface area scaling. It summarises situations when doses may be directly converted based on body weight. The paper gives special attention to cross-species dose translation according to pharmacokinetic data. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to cross-species translation; dose conversion must be scientifically justified taking into consideration all information available on the test drug, i.e. its chemical structure, intended route of administration, pharmacokinetic parameters, preclinical and clinical data on pharmacodynamics, and inter-species differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

  • Open Access Russian
    Authors: 
    G. E. Kodina; A. O. Malysheva;
    Publisher: OOO “Vashe Tsifrovoe Izdatelstvo”

    One of the prerequisites for successful application of nuclear medicine technologies is the production and clinical use of radiopharmaceuticals (RPs) of a reliably high quality. The aim of the review is to discuss specific properties of RPs, which stipulate specific approaches to their production (or preparation) and quality control. The decisive requirement for the management of RPs at all stages of their life cycle is the observance of the radiation safety rules and regulations. The paper considers the main approaches to assessing the risks of medical radiation exposure to patients and radiation protection of nuclear medicine staff. The choice of a particular quality parameter and the corresponding analytical procedure should be made taking into account the duration of the test, which, like the production time, should be comparable with the radionuclide half-life. The feasibility of the analytical procedure should also be taken into account, given the high radioactivity of the samples tested. Now that theranostics has caught on, new approaches are being developed all over the world concerning regulatory aspects of transition from preclinical studies of RPs to clinical trials, because, according to experts, this is becoming a key condition for rapid implementation of nuclear medicine achievements. The results and conclusions of the present study can be used in the development and expert review of monographs and other specifications required for RP marketing and use. The results of the analysis suggest that it is necessary to develop specific requirements and guidelines for RP testing and evaluation for their successful promotion on the EAEU market.

  • Open Access Russian
    Authors: 
    E. A. Sоkоvа; R. A. Chilova; O. A. Demidova; K. O. Akopov;
    Publisher: OOO “Vashe Tsifrovoe Izdatelstvo”

    Spontaneous preterm birth is one of the most pressing issues in obstetrics, as it remains one of the leading causes of newborn morbidity and mortality. Pending issues of aetiology, pathogenesis, and absence of medicinal products indicated for the treatment of spontaneous preterm labour pose a challenge for rational pharmacotherapy. The paper presents the results of a scientific literature review on the problem of rational pharmacotherapy of spontaneous preterm labour using tocolytic drugs — calcium channel blockers, cyclooxygenase inhibitors. The paper summarises specific pharmacokinetic parameters of these drugs during pregnancy. It discusses pharmacogenetic aspects of using tocolytic drugs in pregnant women and their potential clinical effects. It was demonstrated that women with threatened miscarriage had high interindividual variability in nifedipine plasma concentrations depending onCYP3A5genotype. It was shown that certain genetic polymorphisms ofCYP2C9may lead to an increased metabolic rate and an increase in indomethacin clearance resulting in the reduction of its efficacy. Yet, there is minimal research regarding this issue. Therefore, further research is needed to assess the impact ofCYP3A5andCYP2C9genotypes on the efficacy and safety of nifedipine and indomethacin used as tocolytic drugs in obstetrics.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
24 Research products, page 1 of 3
  • Open Access Russian
    Authors: 
    O. B. Talibov;
    Publisher: OOO “Vashe Tsifrovoe Izdatelstvo”

    The article describes specific aspects of biosimilars research and development. The aim of the study was to analyse the ways to conduct comparative studies of biotechnological medicinal products and the main approaches to the assessment of the obtained data. The paper highlights that biotechnological products are associated with a much higher potential variability of chemical and pharmacological characteristics than small molecules. The author analyses the reasons of this phenomenon, describes mechanisms underlying the microheterogeneity of protein molecules, primarily post-translational modification. The latter has an impact on the pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacodynamics and immunogenicity of complex protein molecules, which increases the variability of test results and makes it difficult to conduct bioequivalence studies. In addition to bioequivalence studies, biosimilars research should include comparative studies of pharmacodynamics, evaluation of therapeutic equivalence and immunogenicity. Assessment of the medicines comparability should be based on the analysis of all data provided, which requires a more flexible and sometimes individual approach on the part of regulatory authorities.

  • Open Access Russian
    Authors: 
    D. P. Romodanovsky; A. L. Khokhlov; D. V. Goryachev;
    Publisher: OOO “Vashe Tsifrovoe Izdatelstvo”

    The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, which began in 2020, has affected all spheres of life, including clinical trial processes. Health authorities around the world issued recommendations aimed at minimising the risks of virus spreading and ensuring the safety of study participants. One of the types of clinical trials is bioequivalence studies of generic medicines. The aim of the study was to analyse current foreign approaches to planning and conduct of bioequivalence studies of medicines in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and to develop recommendations for planning of studies conducted in the Eurasian Economic Union and evaluation of their results. The paper discusses the main provisions of the current guidelines of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on the planning, conduct and evaluation of clinical trials and, in particular, bioequivalence studies of generic medicines. The paper substantiates the necessity of detailing the recommendations of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, published in an open letter to all market stakeholders and regulating the conduct of clinical trials of medicines in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. The results of the analysis helped to develop recommendations aimed at ensuring the protection of clinical trial participants, as well as maintaining an acceptable level of quality and reliability of study results.

  • Open Access Russian
    Authors: 
    A. V. Rybakova; M. N. Makarova; A. E. Kukharenko; A. S. Vichare; F. R. Rueffer;
    Publisher: OOO “Vashe Tsifrovoe Izdatelstvo”

    Today, within the context of harmonisation of requirements in the international pharmaceutical market, there is a trend towards development of common standards, including in the field of preclinical studies. The reliability and reproducibility of experimental data obtained in various laboratories using animals cannot be guaranteed unless the 3Rs principles are observed (the principles of humane experimental technique) to ensure the welfare of animals. The present paper analyses Russian and foreign recommendations on different administration routes and administered volumes as applied to mice, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits – the most frequently used laboratory animals. The paper systematises literature data on oral/intragastric, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous and intraperitoneal routes of administration. It assesses potential complications of each route of administration, and negative effects on both health and well-being of laboratory animals, as well as on the results of experiments. The paper also touches upon some anatomical and physiological characteristics of laboratory animals, potential opportunities for feed and water deprivation, ways of reducing pain in animals. The results of comparison of administered volumes helped to determine optimal recommended and maximum administered volumes.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    N. S. Tereshina; M. N. Lyakina; O. A. Naumova;
    Publisher: SCEEMP

    Sea water and sea salt obtained from it are widely used as substances in the production of medicinal products. Complex chemical composition of sea water which contains various salts, calls for the development of a common quality standard for sea water-based medicines. The aim of the study was to analyse and summarise available data on the sources of sea water-based medicines, and on the current test methods, as well as to develop a unified approach to quality control. The paper summarises information on the use of sea water for medical purposes. It presents comparative data on the chemical composition of sea water obtained from different sources, manufacturing technologies of sea water-based medicines, and composition of medicines produced from sea water or sea salt. The paper summarises data on the use of sea water for the production of various dosage forms: drops, sprays, aerosols. The study revealed qualitative and quantitative differences in the content of major cations and anions in drug products. The authors analysed the use of various chemical and physico-chemical test methods for qualitative and quantitative characterisation of medicines. It was concluded that there is a need to harmonise quality control methods for sea water-based medicines.

  • Open Access Russian
    Authors: 
    A. V. Tikhomirova;
    Publisher: OOO “Vashe Tsifrovoe Izdatelstvo”

    Criteria for evaluation of clinical efficacy make it possible to assess the risk-benefit ratio of anticancer medicines that patients receive, in particular, for the treatment of solid malignant tumors. A medicine’s efficacy is assessed using special criteria called the endpoints of clinical efficacy, allowing most objective assessment of study results. It was demonstrated that nowadays clinical efficacy of anticancer drugs is assessed using «patient-centered» (overall survival and quality of life) and «tumor-centered» (response to therapy, progression-free survival, disease-free survival) endpoints. «Patient-centered» endpoints make it possible to evaluate the direct clinical benefit of chemotherapy in patients, while «tumor-centered» endpoints allow for evaluation of efficacy at earlier stages, without directly reflecting the clinical benefit. The analysis of the most suitable endpoints with the aim of making them interchangeable with the primary outcome measure – overall survival – is becoming more and more relevant in oncology. The choice of criteria of efficacy should be made taking into account the specific features of a particular oncological disease, study population and duration of therapy. The authors of the study analysed Russian and foreign literary sources containing information on criteria of efficacy of anticancer medicines and highlighted the advantages and disadvantages of these criteria. The study showed that clinical endpoints should be clinically significant, sensitive to therapy, easy to measure and interpret. It was demonstrated that comprehensive evaluation of outcome measures makes it possible to adequately assess the risk-benefit ratio of anticancer medicines.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    T. A. Batuashvili; L. V. Simutenko; P. V. Shadrin; N. P. Neugodova;
    Publisher: SCEEMP

    The paper considers insulin’s specific action on the patient’s body, types of insulin preparations and insulin analogues which are used for the treatment of diabetes, as well as applicable requirements for these products. It was demonstrated that determination of biological activity is one of the key quality parameters of this type of medicines. The paper summarises the methods used for evaluation of insulin and its analogues, which are based both on the hormone’s general action on the body (in vivo: double crossing, euglycemic clamp, etc.), and on certain aspects of the hormone’s interaction with the body systems (in vitro: receptor-binding assay, phosphorylation, metabolic methods). Due to the appearance of insulin biosimilars on the pharmaceutical market, the article raises the issue that the «Biological potency» parameter tested in animals should be kept as part of the product specification. The analysis of the in vivo and in vitro methods of biological activity determination convincingly demonstrates that animal models can not be replaced with the modern analytical methods based on cell cultures. Consequently, animal models are still necessary, as they allow for an adequate assessment of the quality of insulins in terms of «Biological potency». Taking into account the global trend towards reduction of animal testing, the authors point out the need to develop modern methods, the results of which will be comparable to the results of in vivo determination of the biological activity.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    G. I. Gorodetskaya; V. V. Arkhipov; E. S. Melnikov; T. A. Rodina;
    Publisher: SCEEMP

    Rational use of glybenclamide products in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes remains a high-priority task. The paper offers a summary of the main groups of glibenclamide drugs and describes pharmacogenetics of glybenclamide. Glibenclamide is metabolized by the enzyme cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9). Individuals with genetically determined low CYP2C9 activity are at an increased risk of hypoglycaemia. Carriers of CYP2C9*3 and CYP2C9*2 alleles tend to have higher concentrations of glybenclamide in blood and increased insulin secretion. Pharmacogenetic testing of patients and drug concentration monitoring using HPLC-MS can help reduce the risk of hypoglycemia during glibenclamide treatment. Based on literature review the authors selected the method characterised by a simple sample preparation procedure, short analysis time, and a wide analytical range for the substances being determined. This method can be useful both for bioequivalence studies and evaluation of glibenclamide products interchangeability. Glibenclamide pharmacokinetics is characterised by high interindividual variability. This may lead to both an increased risk of hypoglycemia and drug inefficacy, therefore, when prescribing glibenclamide, a physician should carefully control the efficacy and safety of drug therapy.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    E. V. Shekunova; M. A. Kovaleva; M. N. Makarova; V. G. Makarov;
    Publisher: SCEEMP

    One of the major obstacles to effective translational medicine is the challenge of translating animal research results into clinical studies. Scientific literature mainly addresses the selection of the drug dose at initiation of clinical trials (Phase 1). Appropriate selection of doses is also essential for preclinical toxicology and pharmacology studies. Some basic principles that are used when translating dosages from animal models to humans are applicable to selection and justification of doses when planning and conducting preclinical studies. The paper provides an overview of the main methods that can be used for selection and justification of animal doses in preclinical studies, e.g. cross-species dose conversion using body surface area scaling. It summarises situations when doses may be directly converted based on body weight. The paper gives special attention to cross-species dose translation according to pharmacokinetic data. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to cross-species translation; dose conversion must be scientifically justified taking into consideration all information available on the test drug, i.e. its chemical structure, intended route of administration, pharmacokinetic parameters, preclinical and clinical data on pharmacodynamics, and inter-species differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

  • Open Access Russian
    Authors: 
    G. E. Kodina; A. O. Malysheva;
    Publisher: OOO “Vashe Tsifrovoe Izdatelstvo”

    One of the prerequisites for successful application of nuclear medicine technologies is the production and clinical use of radiopharmaceuticals (RPs) of a reliably high quality. The aim of the review is to discuss specific properties of RPs, which stipulate specific approaches to their production (or preparation) and quality control. The decisive requirement for the management of RPs at all stages of their life cycle is the observance of the radiation safety rules and regulations. The paper considers the main approaches to assessing the risks of medical radiation exposure to patients and radiation protection of nuclear medicine staff. The choice of a particular quality parameter and the corresponding analytical procedure should be made taking into account the duration of the test, which, like the production time, should be comparable with the radionuclide half-life. The feasibility of the analytical procedure should also be taken into account, given the high radioactivity of the samples tested. Now that theranostics has caught on, new approaches are being developed all over the world concerning regulatory aspects of transition from preclinical studies of RPs to clinical trials, because, according to experts, this is becoming a key condition for rapid implementation of nuclear medicine achievements. The results and conclusions of the present study can be used in the development and expert review of monographs and other specifications required for RP marketing and use. The results of the analysis suggest that it is necessary to develop specific requirements and guidelines for RP testing and evaluation for their successful promotion on the EAEU market.

  • Open Access Russian
    Authors: 
    E. A. Sоkоvа; R. A. Chilova; O. A. Demidova; K. O. Akopov;
    Publisher: OOO “Vashe Tsifrovoe Izdatelstvo”

    Spontaneous preterm birth is one of the most pressing issues in obstetrics, as it remains one of the leading causes of newborn morbidity and mortality. Pending issues of aetiology, pathogenesis, and absence of medicinal products indicated for the treatment of spontaneous preterm labour pose a challenge for rational pharmacotherapy. The paper presents the results of a scientific literature review on the problem of rational pharmacotherapy of spontaneous preterm labour using tocolytic drugs — calcium channel blockers, cyclooxygenase inhibitors. The paper summarises specific pharmacokinetic parameters of these drugs during pregnancy. It discusses pharmacogenetic aspects of using tocolytic drugs in pregnant women and their potential clinical effects. It was demonstrated that women with threatened miscarriage had high interindividual variability in nifedipine plasma concentrations depending onCYP3A5genotype. It was shown that certain genetic polymorphisms ofCYP2C9may lead to an increased metabolic rate and an increase in indomethacin clearance resulting in the reduction of its efficacy. Yet, there is minimal research regarding this issue. Therefore, further research is needed to assess the impact ofCYP3A5andCYP2C9genotypes on the efficacy and safety of nifedipine and indomethacin used as tocolytic drugs in obstetrics.

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