Here we present a new effective antibacterial material suitable for a coating, e.g., surface treatment of textiles, which is also time and financially undemanding. The most important role is played by hydrophobic carbon quantum dots, as a new type of photosensitizer, produced by carbonization of different carbon precursors, which are incorporated by swelling from solution into various polymer matrices in the form of thin films, in particular polyurethanes, which are currently commercially used for industrial surface treatment of textiles. The role of hydrophobic carbon quantum dots is to work as photosensitizers upon irradiation and produce reactive oxygen species, namely singlet oxygen, which is already known as the most effective radical for elimination different kinds of bacteria on the surface or in close proximity to such modified material. Therefore, we have mainly studied the effect of hydrophobic carbon quantum dots on Staphylococcus aureus and the cytotoxicity tests, which are essential for the safe handling of such material. Also, the production of singlet oxygen by several methods (electron paramagnetic spectroscopy, time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy), surface structures (atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurement), and the effect of radiation on polymer matrices were studied. The prepared material is easily modulated by end-user requirements.