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  • Authors: Alexandre Ferreira do Nascimento*; Anderson Ferreira;

    Static chambers are used to estimate the exchange of greenhouse gases between the soil and the atmosphere, but the presence of plants inside such chambers can alter gas fluxes. This study aimed to determine the influence of forage grass on N2O fluxes emanating from an oxisol in the southern Amazon region of Brazil. A randomized experiment comprising two treatments, namely static gas exchange Chambers with Grass (CWG) and Chambers with No Grass (CNG) with six replicates of each was performed to determine N2O fluxes over a period of one year. Soil N2O fluxes in the CWG were higher (19.08 µg N2O-N m-2 h-1) than those in the CNG (9.05 µg N2O-N m-2 h-1), most especially during the wet season. Cumulative N2O emissions were 1.60 and 0.72 kg N2O-N ha-1 for the CWG and CNG, respectively. The higher N2O estimates in the CWG may be attributed to the plant transpiration stream and/or to changes in soil attributes induced by the plants. Measurement of N2O emissions from a grass-covered oxisol inside gas exchange chambers may overestimate soil N2O flux in the tropical humid climate of the Southern Amazon.

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  • Authors: Liron Klipcan; Nina A Kamennaya; Naw Than Than Aye; Ruth Van-Oss-Pinhasi; +3 Authors

    Fairy Circles (FCs) are roughly circular, spatially periodic barren patches occurring both along the southwestern African coast, spanning the Namib Desert (NFCs), and in the Pilbara region of Western Australia (AFCs). The origin of both NFC and AFC patterns is still debatable and a subject of ongoing research. Recently, it was argued that pathogenic soil microbes may contribute to ring formation of the Triodia basedowii grass which is the same grass species that forms the AFCs. We have analyzed, under controlled laboratory conditions, soil samples taken from different parts of AFCs (center, periphery and m3atrix) for microbiological activities by Lettuce germination experiments under different manipulations. In seven different circles, out of an average of 13, root lengths of germinated seeds were strongly inhibited in the samples taken from the center, and to a lesser extent, in the samples taken from the periphery and the matrix. Quantitative analyses of the soil microbial community from the FC center found no support to the hypothesis that phytotoxic effect was caused by soil crust cyanobacteria due their low abundance. However, in soil of the FCs it identified both heterotrophic bacteria and fungi that may contribute to the phytotoxic effect. Although our study was not done with seeds of Triodia basedowii it supports the idea that microbial activities in the soil may contribute to AFC persistence by inhibiting plant germination and development in the bare soil gaps in addition to the physical soil crusts resulting from weathering. This suggests that negative plant-soil feedback can act in concert with the main driver mechanism of the AFCs, the scale-dependent plant-water feedback.

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  • Authors: Elizangela G Schemitt*; Carlos GS Rosa; Henrique S Fillmann; Alexandre S Dias; +2 Authors

    Severe Acute Liver Failure (SALF) is characterized by sudden dysfunction of liver cells in previously healthy persons without known underlying liver disease. Effective therapeutic approaches are necessary in an attempt to minimize the damage resulting from liver failure. Glutamine is considered to be an amino acid that plays many essential metabolic functions. This study was designed to evaluate the action of glutamine in protecting against cellular disturbances resulting from Thioacetamide (TAA)-induced SALF in rats. Two doses of thioacetamide (400 mg/kg) and 3 doses of glutamine (25 mg/kg) (ip) were administered. The experiment lasted 48 hours. Glutamine reduced blood levels of AST and ALT in TAA-treated rats. Histological evaluation indicated that glutamine acted in tissue protection by reducing the inflammatory infiltrate, ballooning and centrilobular necrosis induced by SALF, consequently restoring the hepatic parenchyma. Glutamine increased total protein levels and decreased carbonylated protein levels in the liver of SALF animals. Glutamine also acted by modulating HSF-1 and heat shock proteins expression, as well as by decreasing the expression of proteins involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress (GRP78, ATF6 and CHOP), and modifying the expression of apoptosis-related (Bcl -2, Bax and caspase 3) and autophagy-related (mTOR, Beclin1 and LC3α/β) proteins. These effects related to changes in PI3K, Akt and FOXO3a expression. Data obtained support a potential hepatoprotective role of glutamine in SALF.

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  • Authors: Satoshi Mitarai*; Jun Noda; Satoshi Gondaira; Ikuo Uchida; +1 Authors

    Background: An excessive demand for N95 respirators occurred during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Therefore, health care workers were obligated to reuse N95 respirators, which were intended to be disposable. Aim: The primary objective of this study was to establish a standard procedure for safe disinfection or sterilization that does not affect the performance of an N95 respirator. Methods: As disinfection or sterilization methods, immersion in 70% ethanol, 0.1% hypochlorous acid, 0.3% peracetic acid, 0.2% alkyldiaminoethylglycine hydrochloride aqueous solution, hypochlorous acid water, or plant mineral-activated water, autoclaving, pasteurization and hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization were used. After sterilization/disinfection, the filtration capacity of each N95 respirator was examined. Findings: The performance changes in the N95 respirator caused by each sterilization/disinfection method differed for each manufacturer’s product. Seventy percent ethanol, 0.1% sodium hypochlorite aqueous solution, 0.3% peracetic acid aqueous solution, autoclaving, hypochlorous acid water, and plant mineral-activated water significantly deteriorated the performance of N95 respirators. Performance degradation (increased permeability) was observed in 0.2% alkyldiaminoethylglycine hydrochloride aqueous solution and hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization, and the permeation performance significantly deteriorated by 50–70% in all N95 respirators tested. Only pasteurization resulted in no deterioration in performance, even after five repeated sterilizations. Conclusion: Verification of sterilization/disinfection methods for the reuse of N95 respirators has shown that the currently recommended hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization is inadequate as it increases permeability by more than 50% with a single treatment. In this study, pasteurization was found to be the optimal sterilization method.

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  • Authors: Arno Germond*; Garance F Upham;

    SARS-CoV-2 showed how measures against airborne pathogens are critical in clinical environments. Bacteria make no exception. Healthcare-associated or Hospital-Acquired Infections (HAIs) represent one of the major concerns in the Western world, impairing the clinical outcome of up to 15% of all hospitalized patients [1]. Every year in the European community about 3.2 million patients acquire a HAI, and 37,000 die as a direct consequence of HAI, and the presence of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria is a growing concern [1,2].

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  • Authors: Florian Scotte*; Carole Helissey; Vincent Launay Vacher; Thomas Lloret; +2 Authors

    The evaluation of anticancer drugs safety is currently based on considering the worst Adverse Event (AE) in a particular patient. The aim of the study was to define a new method which would better describe the impact of treatment on Quality of Life (QoL), combining Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) and the monitoring of all AEs. A comparative approach to the classic National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE) classification was performed to assess the interest of monitoring Area Under the Curve (AUC) of toxicities on quality of life. A negative impact on global health status, assessed by the VAS of EQ-5D-3L, was significantly identified for three AEs based on CTCAE grade alone versus seven when considering AUCtox assessment.

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  • Authors: SHI Jing; Yan Jiaqi; Yan Chenyang; Zhang Tingting; +1 Authors

    In a broad sense, if the oxygen partial pressure is higher than the oxygen partial pressure at atmospheric pressure (21kPa), they can be called high partial pressure oxygen or hyperoxia. Hyperoxia is often used in diving operations, underwater special operations and clinic treatment. When in diving operations. Hyperoxia can shorten the decompression time after diving and avoid decompression sickness. In underwater special operations, a fully closed breathing apparatus is used to breathe high partial pressure. Oxygen can also improve its concealment. Hyperoxia can also improve the function of ischemic and hypoxic tissues in clinic treatment. However, if the oxygen pressure exceeds a certain threshold, or the breathing oxygen exceeds a certain time, it will cause adverse effects on the body, that is, oxygen toxicity. Currently, oxygen toxicity is a major factor that limited oxygen use in diving operations, underwater special operations, and clinical treatment. Oxygen toxicity is divided into lung type, brain type and eye type. When the oxygen partial pressure is between at 60 ~ 200 kPa, the damage to the body is mainly manifested in the lungs. It is called pulmonary oxygen toxicity. When the oxygen partial pressure exceeds 300 kpa, the damage caused by oxygen toxicity is mainly manifested in the central nervous system, which is called central nervous system oxygen toxicity or brain-type oxygen toxicity.

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  • Authors: Gustavo Gollo*;

    In recent decades, it has become a consensus that mitochondria correspond to descendants of independent creatures that somehow became embedded within an archaeon, forming an inextricable association [1]. It is also considered that this association represents one of the early stages in the development of eukaryotes, the vast group that encompasses all creatures more complex than a bacterium [2].

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  • Authors: Yuan Zhou; Chongwen Ma; Ziyan Wei; Xuewen Kang*;

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to comprehensively analyze the application of robotic technology in spine surgery and display the current research status in this field. Methods: To investigate the distribution and characteristics of robotics in spinal surgery, the publications in PubMed and web of science was examined and analyzed. We utilized CiteSpace and VOSviewer to review and visualize academic literature from the previous 30 years on the use of robotic technology in spine surgery. Results: According to the findings of the research, it indicates that robotics is becoming more widespread in spine surgery, with robotics playing an important role in pedicle screw placement, intraoperative navigation, imaging guidance, and minimizing radiation exposure for surgeons and surgical teams. how to establish a set of standards, how to reduce personnel radiation exposure in the operating room, postoperative follow-up between traditional and robotic surgery, and the prognosis and incidence of complications such as spondylosis, and so on are all topics that will be discussed. Conclusion: The study looked into the recovery time following robotic surgery, the expense of hospitalization, the robotic technology in terms of time during surgical procedures, blood loss, and implant placement accuracy, which are all topics that will be investigated more in the future. While there are some discrepancies in government, physician, and patient views, expectations, and clinical data for robotic surgery, robots will increasingly be used in areas that demand great precision. The application of robotic technology in spine surgery will be extensive.

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  • Authors: Giovanna Paliares Monteiro; Carolina Carotenuto Ramos; Livia Airoldi Broekman; Aldrei Costa Araujo; +1 Authors

    Background: Rheumatic Fever (RF) is an immunological disorder related to exposure to group a streptococcus and rheumatic heart disease is an important cause of valve replacement. Bioprosthetic valves tend to degenerate faster in rheumatic patients, presumably due to immune mechanisms. Objectives: The study sought to assess whether classic risk factors for cardiovascular disease are related to Early Valve Degeneration (EVD) in patients with RF. Design: Case-control study. Methods: Patients with RF and EVD or Late Valve Degeneration (LVD) were selected. The cutoff point was 9 years for a second valve surgery. Data regarding cardiovascular risk of the two groups were obtained and compared. A data imputation analysis was used to deal with missing data. Results: Twenty valves were included in the primary outcome analysis and 33 were used for data imputation. The mean age for the first valve replacement was 40.6 (±6.2) years for the EVD group and 31.1 (±12.3) years for the LVD group, (p = 0.03), which remained significant after data imputation. For blood pressure, there was a non-statistically significant trend towards higher diastolic pressure in patients with EVD in relation to LVD (86.8 (±7.2) and 79 (±10.9) mmHg, respectively, p = 0.08), which after data imputation was statistically higher than that of the LVD group (88 [85.4-88.8] and 77 [73-84.5] mmHg, respectively, p = 0.001). Lipid profile was also worse on the EVD group. Conclusions: The data suggest that EVD may result more from aging and cardiovascular factors than from immunological mechanisms, suggesting stricter targets for cardiovascular disease in these patients.

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  • Authors: Alexandre Ferreira do Nascimento*; Anderson Ferreira;

    Static chambers are used to estimate the exchange of greenhouse gases between the soil and the atmosphere, but the presence of plants inside such chambers can alter gas fluxes. This study aimed to determine the influence of forage grass on N2O fluxes emanating from an oxisol in the southern Amazon region of Brazil. A randomized experiment comprising two treatments, namely static gas exchange Chambers with Grass (CWG) and Chambers with No Grass (CNG) with six replicates of each was performed to determine N2O fluxes over a period of one year. Soil N2O fluxes in the CWG were higher (19.08 µg N2O-N m-2 h-1) than those in the CNG (9.05 µg N2O-N m-2 h-1), most especially during the wet season. Cumulative N2O emissions were 1.60 and 0.72 kg N2O-N ha-1 for the CWG and CNG, respectively. The higher N2O estimates in the CWG may be attributed to the plant transpiration stream and/or to changes in soil attributes induced by the plants. Measurement of N2O emissions from a grass-covered oxisol inside gas exchange chambers may overestimate soil N2O flux in the tropical humid climate of the Southern Amazon.

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  • Authors: Liron Klipcan; Nina A Kamennaya; Naw Than Than Aye; Ruth Van-Oss-Pinhasi; +3 Authors

    Fairy Circles (FCs) are roughly circular, spatially periodic barren patches occurring both along the southwestern African coast, spanning the Namib Desert (NFCs), and in the Pilbara region of Western Australia (AFCs). The origin of both NFC and AFC patterns is still debatable and a subject of ongoing research. Recently, it was argued that pathogenic soil microbes may contribute to ring formation of the Triodia basedowii grass which is the same grass species that forms the AFCs. We have analyzed, under controlled laboratory conditions, soil samples taken from different parts of AFCs (center, periphery and m3atrix) for microbiological activities by Lettuce germination experiments under different manipulations. In seven different circles, out of an average of 13, root lengths of germinated seeds were strongly inhibited in the samples taken from the center, and to a lesser extent, in the samples taken from the periphery and the matrix. Quantitative analyses of the soil microbial community from the FC center found no support to the hypothesis that phytotoxic effect was caused by soil crust cyanobacteria due their low abundance. However, in soil of the FCs it identified both heterotrophic bacteria and fungi that may contribute to the phytotoxic effect. Although our study was not done with seeds of Triodia basedowii it supports the idea that microbial activities in the soil may contribute to AFC persistence by inhibiting plant germination and development in the bare soil gaps in addition to the physical soil crusts resulting from weathering. This suggests that negative plant-soil feedback can act in concert with the main driver mechanism of the AFCs, the scale-dependent plant-water feedback.

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  • Authors: Elizangela G Schemitt*; Carlos GS Rosa; Henrique S Fillmann; Alexandre S Dias; +2 Authors

    Severe Acute Liver Failure (SALF) is characterized by sudden dysfunction of liver cells in previously healthy persons without known underlying liver disease. Effective therapeutic approaches are necessary in an attempt to minimize the damage resulting from liver failure. Glutamine is considered to be an amino acid that plays many essential metabolic functions. This study was designed to evaluate the action of glutamine in protecting against cellular disturbances resulting from Thioacetamide (TAA)-induced SALF in rats. Two doses of thioacetamide (400 mg/kg) and 3 doses of glutamine (25 mg/kg) (ip) were administered. The experiment lasted 48 hours. Glutamine reduced blood levels of AST and ALT in TAA-treated rats. Histological evaluation indicated that glutamine acted in tissue protection by reducing the inflammatory infiltrate, ballooning and centrilobular necrosis induced by SALF, consequently restoring the hepatic parenchyma. Glutamine increased total protein levels and decreased carbonylated protein levels in the liver of SALF animals. Glutamine also acted by modulating HSF-1 and heat shock proteins expression, as well as by decreasing the expression of proteins involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress (GRP78, ATF6 and CHOP), and modifying the expression of apoptosis-related (Bcl -2, Bax and caspase 3) and autophagy-related (mTOR, Beclin1 and LC3α/β) proteins. These effects related to changes in PI3K, Akt and FOXO3a expression. Data obtained support a potential hepatoprotective role of glutamine in SALF.

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  • Authors: Satoshi Mitarai*; Jun Noda; Satoshi Gondaira; Ikuo Uchida; +1 Authors

    Background: An excessive demand for N95 respirators occurred during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Therefore, health care workers were obligated to reuse N95 respirators, which were intended to be disposable. Aim: The primary objective of this study was to establish a standard procedure for safe disinfection or sterilization that does not affect the performance of an N95 respirator. Methods: As disinfection or sterilization methods, immersion in 70% ethanol, 0.1% hypochlorous acid, 0.3% peracetic acid, 0.2% alkyldiaminoethylglycine hydrochloride aqueous solution, hypochlorous acid water, or plant mineral-activated water, autoclaving, pasteurization and hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization were used. After sterilization/disinfection, the filtration capacity of each N95 respirator was examined. Findings: The performance changes in the N95 respirator caused by each sterilization/disinfection method differed for each manufacturer’s product. Seventy percent ethanol, 0.1% sodium hypochlorite aqueous solution, 0.3% peracetic acid aqueous solution, autoclaving, hypochlorous acid water, and plant mineral-activated water significantly deteriorated the performance of N95 respirators. Performance degradation (increased permeability) was observed in 0.2% alkyldiaminoethylglycine hydrochloride aqueous solution and hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization, and the permeation performance significantly deteriorated by 50–70% in all N95 respirators tested. Only pasteurization resulted in no deterioration in performance, even after five repeated sterilizations. Conclusion: Verification of sterilization/disinfection methods for the reuse of N95 respirators has shown that the currently recommended hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization is inadequate as it increases permeability by more than 50% with a single treatment. In this study, pasteurization was found to be the optimal sterilization method.

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  • Authors: Arno Germond*; Garance F Upham;

    SARS-CoV-2 showed how measures against airborne pathogens are critical in clinical environments. Bacteria make no exception. Healthcare-associated or Hospital-Acquired Infections (HAIs) represent one of the major concerns in the Western world, impairing the clinical outcome of up to 15% of all hospitalized patients [1]. Every year in the European community about 3.2 million patients acquire a HAI, and 37,000 die as a direct consequence of HAI, and the presence of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria is a growing concern [1,2].

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  • Authors: Florian Scotte*; Carole Helissey; Vincent Launay Vacher; Thomas Lloret; +2 Authors

    The evaluation of anticancer drugs safety is currently based on considering the worst Adverse Event (AE) in a particular patient. The aim of the study was to define a new method which would better describe the impact of treatment on Quality of Life (QoL), combining Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) and the monitoring of all AEs. A comparative approach to the classic National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE) classification was performed to assess the interest of monitoring Area Under the Curve (AUC) of toxicities on quality of life. A negative impact on global health status, assessed by the VAS of EQ-5D-3L, was significantly identified for three AEs based on CTCAE grade alone versus seven when considering AUCtox assessment.

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