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  • 2019-2023
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  • Corona Virus Disease

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cartier, E.; Onysko, A.; Winter-Froemel, E.; Zenner, E.; +5 Authors

    The global reach of the COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing localized policy reactions provides a case to uncover how a global crisis translates into linguistic discourse. Based on the JSI Timestamped Web Corpora that are automatically POS-tagged and accessible via SketchEngine, this study compares French, German, Dutch, and English. After identifying the main names used to denote the virus and its disease, we extracted a total of 1,697 associated terms (according to logDice values) retrieved from news media data from January through October 2020. These associated words were then organized into categories describing the properties of the virus and the disease, their spatio-temporal features and their cause–effect dependencies. Analyzing the output cross-linguistically and across the first 10 months of the pandemic, a fairly stable semantic discourse space is found within and across each of the four languages, with an overall clear preference for visual and biomedical features as associated terms, though significant diatopic and diachronic shifts in the discourse space are also attested. Peer reviewed

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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: Radboud Repository
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    Lirias
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: Lirias
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    Open Linguistics
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: DOAJ
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      Radboud Repository
      Article . 2022
      Data sources: Radboud Repository
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      Lirias
      Article . 2022
      Data sources: Lirias
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Open Linguistics
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Caldarella, Lorenzo;

    Deze thesis tracht te achterhalen welke determinanten een belangrijke rol spelen in het behalen van lobbyingsucces op Europees niveau, meer specifiek gericht op de farmaceutische industrie. Zowel de Europese Unie als de farmaceutische industrie zijn namelijk belangrijke spelers geweest tijdens de COVID-19 crisis, hetgeen de relevantie van dit onderwerp duidt. Tijdens de COVID-19 crisis kwam de relatie tussen beide ter sprake, maar het blijkt nog steeds onduidelijk op welke manier lobbying succes behaald wordt. Wetenschappelijk onderzoek toont aan dat voornamelijk drie Europese instituties “targets” zijn voor lobbying-activiteiten: de Europese Commissie, het Europees Parlement en de Raad van de Europese Unie. Bronnen omschrijven bijvoorbeeld financiële middelen en coalitievorming als factoren voor lobbyingsucces van diverse organisaties en industrieën. Echter tracht dit onderzoek te achterhalen welke determinanten specifiek van toepassing zijn op de farmaceutische industrie. Zo poogt deze thesis een antwoord te bieden op volgende onderzoeksvraag: “Welke determinanten verklaren lobbyingsucces van de farmaceutische industrie op Europees niveau?”.

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    Authors: Marlies Gijs; Judith Veugen; Petra F. G. Wolffs; Paul H. M. Savelkoul; +7 Authors

    Purpose: The putative presence of SARS-CoV-2 in ocular specimen puts healthcare workers at risk. We thoroughly examined conjunctival swabs and tear fluid in a large cohort of COVID-19 patients. Methods: A total of 243 symptomatic laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in this observational multicenter study. Conjunctival swabs were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed to identify viral strains and to determine tissue tropism. Schirmer tear samples from 43 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 25 healthy controls were analyzed by multiplex cytokine immunoassays. Results: Viral SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in conjunctival swabs from 17 (7.0%) of 243 COVID-19 patients. Conjunctival samples were positive for viral SARS-CoV-2 RNA as long as 12 days after disease onset. Cycle threshold (Ct) values for conjunctival swabs (mean 34.5 +/- 5.1) were significantly higher than nasopharyngeal swabs (mean 16.7 +/- 3.6). No correlation between Ct values of conjunctival and nasopharyngeal swabs was observed. The majority of positive conjunctival samples were detected only once and primarily during the first visit. Next-generation sequencing analysis revealed that the virus strain found in the conjunctiva was most often identical to the one found in the nasopharynx. Tear cytokine levels IL-1 beta and IL-6 were elevated in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls. Conclusions: Conjunctival samples that were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA contained the same viral strain as the nasopharynx. Translational Relevance: The presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA and elevated cytokines in tear fluid confirm the involvement of the ocular surface in COVID-19 disease.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2021
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    European Journal of Internal Medicine
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      European Journal of Internal Medicine
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: N. Ahmad Aziz; Victor M. Corman; Antje K.C. Echterhoff; Anja Richter; +6 Authors

    ABSTRACTBackgroundAccurate estimates of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence are crucial for the implementation of effective public health measures, but are currently largely lacking in regions with low infection rates. This is further complicated by inadequate test performance of many widely used serological assays. We therefore aimed to assess SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in a region with low COVID-19 burden, especially focusing on neutralizing antibodies that presumably constitute a major component of acquired immunity.MethodsWe invited all individuals who were enrolled in the Rhineland Study, an ongoing community-based prospective cohort study in people aged 30 years and above in the city of Bonn, Germany (N=5427). Between April 24th and June 30th, 2020, 4771 (88%) of these individuals participated in the serosurvey. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were measured using an ELISA assay, and all positive or borderline results were subsequently examined through both a recombinant immunofluorescent assay and a plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT).FindingsSeroprevalence was 0·97% (95% CI: 0·72–1·30) by ELISA and 0·36% (95% CI: 0·21–0·61) by PRNT, and did not vary with either age or sex. All PRNT+ individuals reported having experienced at least one symptom (odds ratio (OR) of PRNT+ for each additional symptom: 1·12 (95% CI: 1·04–1·21)). Apart from living in a household with a SARS-CoV-2 confirmed or suspected person, a recent history of reduced taste or smell, fever, chills/hot flashes, pain while breathing, pain in arms/legs, as well as muscle pain and weakness were significantly associated with the presence of neutralizing antibodies in those with mild to moderate infection (ORs 3·44 to 9·97, all p<0·018).InterpretationOur findings indicate a relatively low SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in Bonn, Germany (until June 30th, 2020), with neutralizing antibodies detectable in only one third of those with a positive immunoassay result, implying that almost the entire population in this region remains susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection.FundingThe Rhineland Study is predominantly funded through the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Ministry of Culture and Science of the German State of North Rhine-Westphalia. The National Consultant Laboratory for Coronaviruses is funded by the Federal Ministry of Health (BMG). No additional funding was received for this seroprevalence study.

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    https://www.nature.com/article...
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    Authors: Deneys, Véronique; Buemi, Antoine; Chapelle, Virginie; Darius, Tom; +18 Authors

    L’année 2022 a été celle du retour progressif à la normale après la pandémie COVID-19. Une occasion d’optimiser les processus parfois mis à mal et de mettre à jour les procédures. Une opportunité de se lancer dans de nouveaux défis : réfléchir à l’acquisition de nouveaux équipements pour les années à venir, à l’implémentation de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles, plus rapides, mieux adaptées aux besoins des prescripteurs. Au sein du Laboratoire d’hématologie spéciale, et en particulier dans le secteur de l’hémostase spécialisée, l’automatisation du dosage de la protéine ADAMTS13 était indispensable pour le diagnostic et le suivi biologique des patients présentant un purpura thrombotique thrombocytopénique immun (PTTi). Le décours de cette affection, peu fréquente, peut être rapidement péjoratif en l’absence d’un diagnostic précoce et d’une prise en charge adaptée, guidée par le dosage d’ADAMTS13. Ce dernier permet également d’identifier les patients à risque de rechute qui doivent ainsi bénéficier d’un traitement préventif. La détermination des groupes sanguins érythrocytaires s’effectue la plupart du temps sans difficulté, par des techniques sérologiques. Cependant, dans certaines situations, il est nécessaire de recourir à des techniques de biologie moléculaire. Le Laboratoire d’immunohématologie – biologie moléculaire a implémenté une technique de PCR en temps réel qui permet de réaliser un génotypage érythrocytaire très étendu et de détecter des variants antigéniques passés inaperçus en technique sérologique. Il s’agit d’un outil indispensable pour la détermination de groupes sanguins chez des patients polytransfusés et pour la sélection de poches pour des personnes ayant un groupe sanguin variant ou en délétion. On sait depuis plus de 50 ans que le système HLA joue un rôle central dans l’immunité humaine et qu’il constitue aussi l'un des principaux obstacles à la transplantation d’organe. L’implication des anticorps anti-HLA dans le rejet précoce et tardif est indiscutable. Le Laboratoire d’immunologie leuco-plaquettaire a implémenté en 2021 un nouveau test pour une identification plus spécifique des anticorps anti-HLA cliniquement plus pertinents, permettant de faciliter l’attribution d’un greffon. Durant cette année 2022, les dossiers des patients en attente d’une greffe rénale et qui présentaient des anticorps anti-HLA ont été revus et des contrôles ont été réalisés sur d’anciens sérums en utilisant la nouvelle technique. Ceci a permis de retirer des spécificités anticorps « interdites » chez plus de la moitié des patients augmentant ainsi leur chance de bénéficier d’un greffon compatible. Six patients ont reçu un greffon rénal portant un antigène HLA précédemment répertorié comme interdit avec l’ancienne technologie et retiré après la révision. Actuellement, ces patients ont, tous, montré un greffon fonctionnel sans complication immunologique. Ces résultats seront présentés au congrès de l’EFI (European Foundation for Immunogenetics) en avril 2023. Bien que la transfusion soit une procédure thérapeutique courante et bénéfique pour le patient, elle peut s’accompagner de réactions transfusionnelles. Le diagnostic de celles-ci est parfois flou et malaisé. Le secteur Hémovigilance de la transfusion a dessiné de nouveaux algorithmes décisionnels à partir de la symptomatologie majeure présentée par le patient et du composant sanguin incriminé dans la réaction. Ces algorithmes ont pour but d’orienter vers un diagnostic et, pour ce faire, de déterminer les contrôles et les tests de laboratoire qui doivent être réalisés dans chaque situation. Ces algorithmes ont fait l’objet d’une publication dans la revue de la Société Francophone de Transfusion Sanguine. Bien que des prémices le laissaient suspecter déjà en 2021, la situation de l’approvisionnement en concentrés érythrocytaires de groupe sanguin O négatif s’est encore fortement aggravée durant l’année 2022. La Banque de sang, en concertation avec la direction médicale et le Comité de transfusion, a dû y faire face en mettant en place différentes actions pour tenter d’endiguer l’« hémorragie ». Ceci fait l’objet d’une procédure particulière : mise en place d’indicateurs très stricts et surveillés de façon très étroite, priorisation des indications transfusionnelles, distribution unitaire exclusive (en dehors des situations hémorragiques), décision médicale de transfuser des concentrés érythrocytaires Rh positifs à des receveurs Rh négatifs. Diverses évaluations très précises de cette situation sont encore en cours et seront soumises prochainement à publications. Une action concertée a été mise en place au sein des hôpitaux du réseau et des initiatives sont également prises au niveau national. Finalement, l’année 2022 a également été celle de la publication d’une nouvelle directive européenne et de nouveaux standards EDQM (European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines) définissant désormais le sang comme SoHO (Substance of Human Origin), au même titre que les cellules et les tissus. C’est la raison pour laquelle, il a été décidé que la Banque de sang et le laboratoire d’immunologie érythrocytaire rejoignaient le Département des Banques le 1er janvier 2023.

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    Authors: Marek Petráš; Ivana Králová Lesná;

    ABSTRACT Immunological memory is the ability of the adaptive immune system to ensure a persistent protective effect after immunization. However, it can also be a limitation to building a sufficient level of protective antibodies specific to new mutations of the virus. It is imperative to bear this phenomenon (called “original antigenic sin”) in mind and make every effort to overcome its inherent pitfalls when updating current and designing new vaccines.

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    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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      Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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    Authors: Kolivras, Athanassios; Thompson, Curtis T; Richert, Bertrand;

    info:eu-repo/semantics/published

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    Authors: Emanuele Andreano; Ida Paciello; Giulio Pierleoni; Giuseppe Maccari; +12 Authors

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 Omicron BA.4 and BA.5 are characterized by high transmissibility and ability to escape natural and vaccine induced immunity. Here we test the neutralizing activity of 482 human monoclonal antibodies isolated from people who received two or three mRNA vaccine doses or from people vaccinated after infection. The BA.4 and BA.5 variants are neutralized only by approximately 15% of antibodies. Remarkably, the antibodies isolated after three vaccine doses target mainly the receptor binding domain Class 1/2, while antibodies isolated after infection recognize mostly the receptor binding domain Class 3 epitope region and the N-terminal domain. Different B cell germlines are used by the analyzed cohorts. The observation that mRNA vaccination and hybrid immunity elicit a different immunity against the same antigen is intriguing and its understanding may help to design the next generation of therapeutics and vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019. ispartof: NATURE COMMUNICATIONS vol:14 issue:1 ispartof: location:England status: published

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    Nature Communications
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    Lirias
    Article . 2023
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    Nature Communications
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    Authors: Goudsmit, Anouk; Cubilier, Edouard; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Aftimos, Philippe; +3 Authors

    Abstract Background Immunocompromised cancer patients are presumed to be at high risk of developing COVID-19 infection. Predisposing factors to contracting COVID-19 and to severe outcomes have been described in registries but were not compared between solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Method This retrospective single oncologic center study included adults with solid tumors or hematological malignancies referred to testing by naso-pharyngeal swab for a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR from March 10 to May 18, 2020. Results A total of 212 patients were included in the study. Forty-five (21%) were tested positive with SARS-CoV-2. The univariate analysis with positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR as a dependent variable reveals significant odds ratios (ORs) for age—with a mean of 62.5 years—(OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02–1.08), performance status ≥2 (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.22–4.70), inpatient status (OR: 2.36, 95%CI: 1.11–4.91), and hematological malignancies (OR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.23–4.96). In contrast, OR for solid tumors reveals a negative association (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.20–0.81). When integrating severe outcome (ICU admission or COVID-19-related death) as a dependent variable, the univariate logistic regression model shows significant ORs for pre-existing lymphopenia (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 1.17–15.04), hematological malignancies (OR: 3.73, 95% CI: 1.09–13.80), and a negative association for solid tumors (OR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.07–0.92). Conclusion In patients referred for SARS-CoV-2 testing, hematological malignancies were associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 infection and severe outcomes. Other factors were age and inpatient status.

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    Supportive Care in Cancer
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Supportive Care in Cancer
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    Authors: Loewenson, Rene; Accoe, Kirsten; Bajpai, Nitin; Buse, Kent; +10 Authors

    Global and national responses to the COVID-19 pandemic highlight a long-standing tension between biosecurity-focused, authoritarian and sometimes militarised approaches to public health and, in contrast, comprehensive, social determinants, participatory and rights-based approaches. Notwithstanding principles that may limit rights in the interests of public health and the role of central measures in some circumstances, effective public health in a protracted pandemic like COVID-19 requires cooperation, communication, participatory decision-making and action that safeguards the Siracusa principles, respect for people’s dignity and local-level realities and capacities. Yet there is mounting evidence of a dominant response to COVID-19 where decisions are being made and enforced in an overcentralised, non-transparent, top-down manner, often involving military coercion and abuse in communities, even while evidence shows the long-term harm to public health and human rights. In contrast, experiences of comprehensive, equity-focused, participatory public health approaches, which use diverse sources of knowledge, disciplines and capabilities, show the type of public health approach that will be more effective to meet the 21st century challenges of pandemics, climate, food and energy crises, growing social inequality, conflict and other threats to health.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    BMJ Global Health
    Article . 2020
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    BMJ Global Health
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    UCL Discovery
    Article . 2020
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      BMJ Global Health
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      BMJ Global Health
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      UCL Discovery
      Article . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cartier, E.; Onysko, A.; Winter-Froemel, E.; Zenner, E.; +5 Authors

    The global reach of the COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing localized policy reactions provides a case to uncover how a global crisis translates into linguistic discourse. Based on the JSI Timestamped Web Corpora that are automatically POS-tagged and accessible via SketchEngine, this study compares French, German, Dutch, and English. After identifying the main names used to denote the virus and its disease, we extracted a total of 1,697 associated terms (according to logDice values) retrieved from news media data from January through October 2020. These associated words were then organized into categories describing the properties of the virus and the disease, their spatio-temporal features and their cause–effect dependencies. Analyzing the output cross-linguistically and across the first 10 months of the pandemic, a fairly stable semantic discourse space is found within and across each of the four languages, with an overall clear preference for visual and biomedical features as associated terms, though significant diatopic and diachronic shifts in the discourse space are also attested. Peer reviewed

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2022
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    Lirias
    Article . 2022
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    Open Linguistics
    Article . 2022
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      Radboud Repository
      Article . 2022
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      Lirias
      Article . 2022
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      Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Caldarella, Lorenzo;

    Deze thesis tracht te achterhalen welke determinanten een belangrijke rol spelen in het behalen van lobbyingsucces op Europees niveau, meer specifiek gericht op de farmaceutische industrie. Zowel de Europese Unie als de farmaceutische industrie zijn namelijk belangrijke spelers geweest tijdens de COVID-19 crisis, hetgeen de relevantie van dit onderwerp duidt. Tijdens de COVID-19 crisis kwam de relatie tussen beide ter sprake, maar het blijkt nog steeds onduidelijk op welke manier lobbying succes behaald wordt. Wetenschappelijk onderzoek toont aan dat voornamelijk drie Europese instituties “targets” zijn voor lobbying-activiteiten: de Europese Commissie, het Europees Parlement en de Raad van de Europese Unie. Bronnen omschrijven bijvoorbeeld financiële middelen en coalitievorming als factoren voor lobbyingsucces van diverse organisaties en industrieën. Echter tracht dit onderzoek te achterhalen welke determinanten specifiek van toepassing zijn op de farmaceutische industrie. Zo poogt deze thesis een antwoord te bieden op volgende onderzoeksvraag: “Welke determinanten verklaren lobbyingsucces van de farmaceutische industrie op Europees niveau?”.

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    Authors: Marlies Gijs; Judith Veugen; Petra F. G. Wolffs; Paul H. M. Savelkoul; +7 Authors

    Purpose: The putative presence of SARS-CoV-2 in ocular specimen puts healthcare workers at risk. We thoroughly examined conjunctival swabs and tear fluid in a large cohort of COVID-19 patients. Methods: A total of 243 symptomatic laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in this observational multicenter study. Conjunctival swabs were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed to identify viral strains and to determine tissue tropism. Schirmer tear samples from 43 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 25 healthy controls were analyzed by multiplex cytokine immunoassays. Results: Viral SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in conjunctival swabs from 17 (7.0%) of 243 COVID-19 patients. Conjunctival samples were positive for viral SARS-CoV-2 RNA as long as 12 days after disease onset. Cycle threshold (Ct) values for conjunctival swabs (mean 34.5 +/- 5.1) were significantly higher than nasopharyngeal swabs (mean 16.7 +/- 3.6). No correlation between Ct values of conjunctival and nasopharyngeal swabs was observed. The majority of positive conjunctival samples were detected only once and primarily during the first visit. Next-generation sequencing analysis revealed that the virus strain found in the conjunctiva was most often identical to the one found in the nasopharynx. Tear cytokine levels IL-1 beta and IL-6 were elevated in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls. Conclusions: Conjunctival samples that were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA contained the same viral strain as the nasopharynx. Translational Relevance: The presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA and elevated cytokines in tear fluid confirm the involvement of the ocular surface in COVID-19 disease.

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    Translational Vision Science & Technology
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed