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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ambrus, István;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ELTE Digital Institu...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ELTE Digital Institu...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Albert-Lőrincz, Eniko; Paulik, Edit; Szabo, Bela; Foley, Kristie; +1 Authors

    ABSTRACT Objective To identify the effect of social capital on adolescent smoking. Method A stratified random sample of 1313 7th and 8th grade students from three counties in Transylvania, Romania, completed a self-administered questionnaire on smoking-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. The impact of social capital was measured (personal and community activities, school achievements and smoking-related knowledge). Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were used to measure the association between social participation and smoking. Results Experimenting with smoking was mostly related to knowledge about smoking, academic performance and second-hand tobacco smoke exposure at home. The strongest risk factor of adolescent smoking was the smoking behaviour of classmates: those who reported a significant proportion of smokers among their classmates were nine times more likely to smoke themselves than in other cases (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 9.05). Those who considered smoking to be harmless were 4 times more likely to be smokers than those who considered this behaviour to be dangerous (aOR: 4.28). Poor academic results increased adolescents’ smoking (aOR: 3.22 and 2.66). The odds were significantly higher for smoking, if they had an active social life (aOR: 2.54). Regular church attendance proved to be a protective factor (aOR: 0.45). Conclusions Several social capital factors can play a role in adolescent smoking. The organization and the development of community activities aimed at prevention must strengthen the factors related to the community's social capital to reduce the likelihood of teenage smoking. RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar el efecto del capital social sobre el consumo de tabaco en adolescentes. Método El estudio se realizó en un grupo aleatorizado y estratificado compuesto por 1313 estudiantes de séptimo y octavo grado de tres municipios en Transilvania (Rumanía). Los participantes contestaron un cuestionario autocumplimentado en relación con el consumo de tabaco y sobre actitudes y comportamientos respecto a este. El impacto del capital social, entendido como actividades personales y comunitarias, así como el desarrollo académico y la información sobre el consumo de tabaco, fueron algunas de las medidas. Resultados Experimentar con el hábito de fumar se relaciona principalmente con el conocimiento sobre dicha adicción, el rendimiento académico y la exposición al consumo de tabaco en el hogar. El mayor riesgo para el consumo se deriva de la interacción con compañeros de clase que incurren en el consumo de tabaco. En tal caso, la probabilidad de consumo aumenta nueve veces (odds ratio ajustada [ORa]: 9,05). Quienes consideraron que fumar es inofensivo tuvieron cuatro veces más probabilidades de ser fumadores que quienes consideraron este comportamiento como peligroso (ORa: 4,28). En cuanto a los/las estudiantes con bajo rendimiento académico se observa un mayor incremento del consumo (ORa: 3,22 y 2,66). Al mismo tiempo, dicho patrón también se observa entre aquellos/as con un entorno social activo (ORa: 2,54). La asistencia a la iglesia de manera regular es un factor protector (ORa: 0,45). Conclusiones Diferentes aspectos relacionados con el capital social se asocian al consumo de tabaco en adolescentes. La organización de actividades y el desarrollo comunitario deberán tener en cuenta estos aspectos para prevenir el consumo de tabaco. Hay que prestar especial atención a la clase social con el fin de reducir las probabilidades de consumo en adolescentes.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scientific Electroni...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Formisano, Annarita; Hunsberger, Monica; Bammann, Karin; Vanaelst, Barbara; +7 Authors

    AbstractObjectiveTo analyse the association between family structure and adiposity in children.DesignCross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study cohort.SettingPrimary schools and kindergartens.SubjectsChildren (n12 350; aged 7·9 (sd1·8) years) for the cross-sectional analysis and children (n5236; at baseline: normal weight, aged 5·9 (sd1·8) years) for the longitudinal study underwent anthropometry. Family structure was analysed as (i) number and type of cohabiting adults and (ii) number of siblings.ResultsIn the cross-sectional analysis, after controlling for covariates, children living with grandparents had significantly higher BMIZ-score than those living with both parents (0·63; 95 % CI 0·33, 0·92v. 0·19; 95 % CI 0·17, 0·22;P< 0·01); in addition, the higher the number of siblings, the lower the BMIZ-score (only child = 0·31; 95 % CI 0·24, 0·38; 1 sibling = 0·19; 95 % CI 0·16, 0·23; 2 siblings = 0·15; 95 % CI 0·09, 0·20; >2 siblings = 0·07, 95 % CI 0·04, 0·19;P< 0·001). Over the 2-year follow-up, differences in weight gain were observed across family-structure categories. Further, the risk of incidence of overweight/obesity was significantly lower the higher the number of siblings living in the household (v. only child: 1 sibling = 0·74, 95 % CI 0·57, 0·96; 2 siblings = 0·63, 95 % CI 0·45, 0·88; >2 siblings = 0·40, 95 % CI 0·21, 0·77), independently of confounders.ConclusionsThe study suggests that an independent association between family structure and childhood obesity exists.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Public Health Nutrit...arrow_drop_down
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    Public Health Nutrition
    Article . 2013
    License: Cambridge Core User Agreement
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2013
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    CNR ExploRA
    Article . 2013
    Data sources: CNR ExploRA
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Public Health Nutrit...arrow_drop_down
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      Public Health Nutrition
      Article . 2013
      License: Cambridge Core User Agreement
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2013
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      CNR ExploRA
      Article . 2013
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: F. Varadi; Bálint Érdi;

    The three-dimensional inverse problem is investigated. A quasi-linear system of partial differential equations is derived for the determination of the potential. The solution of this system is studied by a method of differential geometry. A necessary condition for the solution is derived and the determination of the potential is reduced to algebraic equations written in vectorial form. A few examples are also given.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Celestial Mechanicsarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Celestial Mechanics
    Article . 1983
    License: Springer TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Celestial Mechanicsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Celestial Mechanics
      Article . 1983
      License: Springer TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Reuben Veysey-Smith; Andrew R. Moore; Andrew R. Moore; Senthil V. Murugesan; +6 Authors

    BackgroundHypergastrinaemia occasionally indicates the presence of a gastrinoma. However it is much more commonly associated with various benign causes including proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use, Helicobacter pylori infection and/or atrophic gastritis. The extent to which these factors interact to influence fasting serum gastrin concentrations remains incompletely understood.Materials and MethodsFasting serum gastrin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in 1,400 patients attending for diagnostic oesophagogastro-duodenoscopy. After exclusions, 982 patients were divided into four groups and their results analysed. We compared gastrin concentrations in normal patients (no H. pylori infection, no PPI use and no histological evidence of gastric preneoplasia (n=233)), with those in patients who were taking regular PPIs (H. pylori negative with no gastric preneoplasia (n=301)), patients who had active H. pylori infection but no gastric preneoplasia (n=164) and patients with histologically confirmed gastric preneoplasia (n=284).ResultsMedian fasting gastrin concentration in the normal group was 20pM and was significantly increased in PPI users (46pM, p&lt;0.0001), patients with active H. pylori infection (27pM, p&lt;0.0001), and patients with antral (25pM, p&lt;0.01) or corpus (48pM, p&lt;0.0001) gastric preneoplasia. PPI use resulted in further significant increases in fasting serum gastrin concentrations in patients who were infected with H. pylori (50pM, n=56) or who had antral gastric preneoplasia (53pM, n=87), but did not significantly alter serum gastrin concentrations in patients with corpus preneoplasia (90pM, n=66).ConclusionsPPI use, H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis all caused significant elevations of median fasting gastrin concentrations. However, several patients who had potential risk factors for hypergastrinaemia still demonstrated fasting serum gastrin concentrations within the normal range.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Frontiers in Endocrinology
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    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Frontiers in Endocrinology
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Frontiers in Endocrinology
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      Frontiers in Endocrinology
      Article . 2021
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  • Authors: Jonathan A. Batten; Igor Loncarski; Peter G. Szilagyi;

    The Hill and Kamay insider trading conviction in Australia highlights many of the issues and problems involving the detection, prevention, and finally prosecution of insider trading. A broad consideration of the facts and progression of the pair’s conviction allows important insights into how ethics is handled within firms, and in particular banks, and how ethical behaviour is encouraged and applied at home, in school, and in society more in general. The paper highlights the critical need for sound ethical rules within firms and effective laws and regulations to deal with insider trading. Ideally, these rules need to be interdependent, inclusive and centred on a set of core values that allow individual and corporate expression, while also adhering to clear principles.

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    Authors: Adrienn Düh; Ágnes Till; Zsolt Bánfai; Márta Hegyi; +2 Authors

    Absztrakt: A szerzők egy negatív családi anamnézisű, súlyos, neonatalis kezdetű epilepsziás encephalopathiában szenvedő, jelenleg kétéves fiúgyermek esetét mutatják be. A terápiarezisztens epilepszia és az igen súlyos fejlődésbeli elmaradás etiológiáját kiterjedt klinikai vizsgálatokkal sem sikerült tisztázni. Genetikai okot feltételezve, külföldi genetikai laboratóriumban 128 gént tartalmazó újgenerációs szekvenálási (NGS-) panelvizsgálatot indikáltak epilepsziás encephalopathiát okozó betegségek irányában. A vizsgálat egy eddig ismeretlen hemizigóta misszensz mutációt igazolt a MECP2-génben. A szerzők az esetbemutatás kapcsán áttekintik a lányokban klasszikusan Rett-szindrómát okozó, a MECP2-gén mutációi által előidézett idegfejlődési rendellenességek spektrumát fiúkban. Más, X-hez kötött domináns öröklődésű betegségekhez hasonlóan sokáig úgy gondolták, hogy a MECP2-gén-mutációt hordozó fiúmagzatok életképtelenek, napjainkra azonban ez a nézet megváltozott. A szerzők úgy tudják, hogy betegük az első magyar fiúgyermek, akinél a MECP2-gén mutációja igazolódott. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(51): 2036–2039.

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  • Authors: Zita V. Farkas; Kornel Szekeres; Péter Korondi;

    We spend more than 80% of our lives indoors. Future indoor robot navigation is based on intelligent systems that provide accurate and smart information. In this paper we introduce a novel Aesthetic Marker decoding system, which finds and decodes machine readable visual markers inside buildings. Focused on seamless integration of visual code into our everyday human environment, our application has custom developed algorithms and functions that handle aesthetic marker data. As a result, image processing time was reduced and extracted information was maximized to calculate accurate robot position. A new Aesthetic Marker decoding method was created connecting the digital and physical world.

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    Authors: Krisztina Pelle; Maria Wittmann; Klára Lovrics; Zoltán Noszticzius; +2 Authors

    This paper is the first part of a study reinvestigating the mechanism of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction of oxalic acid, which is the simplest organic substrate for a BZ oscillator. New experiments are performed to find the oscillatory region in 1 M sulfuric acid at 20 °C. The removal rate of the end product bromine by an inert gas stream is a critical parameter here: oscillations can be observed only in a window of that parameter. The “rate constant” for the physical removal of bromine is measured as a function of the gas flow rate and reactor volume; furthermore, the rate constants of three component reactions important in this system are also determined. These are oxygen atom transfer reactions to the oxalic acid substrate from Br(I) (hypobromous acid), from Br(III) (bromous acid), and from Br(V) (acidic bromate) compounds. In these second-order reactions, the partial order of each oxybromine species is 1. The measured rate constants are kI ) 17 ( 2 M-1 s-1, kIII ) 4.2 ( 0.5 M-1 s-1, and kV ) (7.47 ( 0.1) 10-4 M-1 s-1. In the case of the HOBr-oxalic acid reaction, however, an additional parallel reaction route was found that has importance at higher HOBr concentrations. In the mechanism of that new route, the active species is Br2O, and the reaction order is not 1 but 2 with respect to HOBr. The rate constant of this parallel reaction is kI (2) ) (1.2 ( 0.2) 105 M-2 s-1. The k values measured here are compared with those reported earlier. A comparison of experimental results with computer simulations shows that free radicals play a negligible role or no role in the mechanism of the oxygen atom transfer reactions studied here.

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    Authors: Sergei Ivanovich Kalmykov;
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ambrus, István;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ELTE Digital Institu...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Albert-Lőrincz, Eniko; Paulik, Edit; Szabo, Bela; Foley, Kristie; +1 Authors

    ABSTRACT Objective To identify the effect of social capital on adolescent smoking. Method A stratified random sample of 1313 7th and 8th grade students from three counties in Transylvania, Romania, completed a self-administered questionnaire on smoking-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. The impact of social capital was measured (personal and community activities, school achievements and smoking-related knowledge). Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were used to measure the association between social participation and smoking. Results Experimenting with smoking was mostly related to knowledge about smoking, academic performance and second-hand tobacco smoke exposure at home. The strongest risk factor of adolescent smoking was the smoking behaviour of classmates: those who reported a significant proportion of smokers among their classmates were nine times more likely to smoke themselves than in other cases (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 9.05). Those who considered smoking to be harmless were 4 times more likely to be smokers than those who considered this behaviour to be dangerous (aOR: 4.28). Poor academic results increased adolescents’ smoking (aOR: 3.22 and 2.66). The odds were significantly higher for smoking, if they had an active social life (aOR: 2.54). Regular church attendance proved to be a protective factor (aOR: 0.45). Conclusions Several social capital factors can play a role in adolescent smoking. The organization and the development of community activities aimed at prevention must strengthen the factors related to the community's social capital to reduce the likelihood of teenage smoking. RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar el efecto del capital social sobre el consumo de tabaco en adolescentes. Método El estudio se realizó en un grupo aleatorizado y estratificado compuesto por 1313 estudiantes de séptimo y octavo grado de tres municipios en Transilvania (Rumanía). Los participantes contestaron un cuestionario autocumplimentado en relación con el consumo de tabaco y sobre actitudes y comportamientos respecto a este. El impacto del capital social, entendido como actividades personales y comunitarias, así como el desarrollo académico y la información sobre el consumo de tabaco, fueron algunas de las medidas. Resultados Experimentar con el hábito de fumar se relaciona principalmente con el conocimiento sobre dicha adicción, el rendimiento académico y la exposición al consumo de tabaco en el hogar. El mayor riesgo para el consumo se deriva de la interacción con compañeros de clase que incurren en el consumo de tabaco. En tal caso, la probabilidad de consumo aumenta nueve veces (odds ratio ajustada [ORa]: 9,05). Quienes consideraron que fumar es inofensivo tuvieron cuatro veces más probabilidades de ser fumadores que quienes consideraron este comportamiento como peligroso (ORa: 4,28). En cuanto a los/las estudiantes con bajo rendimiento académico se observa un mayor incremento del consumo (ORa: 3,22 y 2,66). Al mismo tiempo, dicho patrón también se observa entre aquellos/as con un entorno social activo (ORa: 2,54). La asistencia a la iglesia de manera regular es un factor protector (ORa: 0,45). Conclusiones Diferentes aspectos relacionados con el capital social se asocian al consumo de tabaco en adolescentes. La organización de actividades y el desarrollo comunitario deberán tener en cuenta estos aspectos para prevenir el consumo de tabaco. Hay que prestar especial atención a la clase social con el fin de reducir las probabilidades de consumo en adolescentes.

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    Authors: Formisano, Annarita; Hunsberger, Monica; Bammann, Karin; Vanaelst, Barbara; +7 Authors

    AbstractObjectiveTo analyse the association between family structure and adiposity in children.DesignCross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study cohort.SettingPrimary schools and kindergartens.SubjectsChildren (n12 350; aged 7·9 (sd1·8) years) for the cross-sectional analysis and children (n5236; at baseline: normal weight, aged 5·9 (sd1·8) years) for the longitudinal study underwent anthropometry. Family structure was analysed as (i) number and type of cohabiting adults and (ii) number of siblings.ResultsIn the cross-sectional analysis, after controlling for covariates, children living with grandparents had significantly higher BMIZ-score than those living with both parents (0·63; 95 % CI 0·33, 0·92v. 0·19; 95 % CI 0·17, 0·22;P< 0·01); in addition, the higher the number of siblings, the lower the BMIZ-score (only child = 0·31; 95 % CI 0·24, 0·38; 1 sibling = 0·19; 95 % CI 0·16, 0·23; 2 siblings = 0·15; 95 % CI 0·09, 0·20; >2 siblings = 0·07, 95 % CI 0·04, 0·19;P< 0·001). Over the 2-year follow-up, differences in weight gain were observed across family-structure categories. Further, the risk of incidence of overweight/obesity was significantly lower the higher the number of siblings living in the household (v. only child: 1 sibling = 0·74, 95 % CI 0·57, 0·96; 2 siblings = 0·63, 95 % CI 0·45, 0·88; >2 siblings = 0·40, 95 % CI 0·21, 0·77), independently of confounders.ConclusionsThe study suggests that an independent association between family structure and childhood obesity exists.

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    Public Health Nutrition
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    Authors: F. Varadi; Bálint Érdi;

    The three-dimensional inverse problem is investigated. A quasi-linear system of partial differential equations is derived for the determination of the potential. The solution of this system is studied by a method of differential geometry. A necessary condition for the solution is derived and the determination of the potential is reduced to algebraic equations written in vectorial form. A few examples are also given.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Celestial Mechanics
    Article . 1983
    License: Springer TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Celestial Mechanicsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Celestial Mechanics
      Article . 1983
      License: Springer TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Reuben Veysey-Smith; Andrew R. Moore; Andrew R. Moore; Senthil V. Murugesan; +6 Authors

    BackgroundHypergastrinaemia occasionally indicates the presence of a gastrinoma. However it is much more commonly associated with various benign causes including proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use, Helicobacter pylori infection and/or atrophic gastritis. The extent to which these factors interact to influence fasting serum gastrin concentrations remains incompletely understood.Materials and MethodsFasting serum gastrin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in 1,400 patients attending for diagnostic oesophagogastro-duodenoscopy. After exclusions, 982 patients were divided into four groups and their results analysed. We compared gastrin concentrations in normal patients (no H. pylori infection, no PPI use and no histological evidence of gastric preneoplasia (n=233)), with those in patients who were taking regular PPIs (H. pylori negative with no gastric preneoplasia (n=301)), patients who had active H. pylori infection but no gastric preneoplasia (n=164) and patients with histologically confirmed gastric preneoplasia (n=284).ResultsMedian fasting gastrin concentration in the normal group was 20pM and was significantly increased in PPI users (46pM, p&lt;0.0001), patients with active H. pylori infection (27pM, p&lt;0.0001), and patients with antral (25pM, p&lt;0.01) or corpus (48pM, p&lt;0.0001) gastric preneoplasia. PPI use resulted in further significant increases in fasting serum gastrin concentrations in patients who were infected with H. pylori (50pM, n=56) or who had antral gastric preneoplasia (53pM, n=87), but did not significantly alter serum gastrin concentrations in patients with corpus preneoplasia (90pM, n=66).ConclusionsPPI use, H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis all caused significant elevations of median fasting gastrin concentrations. However, several patients who had potential risk factors for hypergastrinaemia still demonstrated fasting serum gastrin concentrations within the normal range.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Frontiers in Endocrinology
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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