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908 Research products, page 1 of 91

  • 2012-2021
  • FR
  • English
  • Hyper Article en Ligne - Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société
  • COVID-19

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  • English
    Authors: 
    Caroline Diard; Virginie Hachard; Dimitri Laroutis;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Le 17 mars 2020, la totalite de la population francaise se retrouve confinee afin de faire face a l’epidemie de Covid-19. Dans le cadre de plans de continuite, les entreprises organisent une forme de teletravail contraint, a temps plein pour les collaborateurs eligibles. Cette situation inedite est une forme de teletravail peu structuree qui questionne l’influence des outils, pratiques et processus d’information mis en place par les services RH sur l’evolution de la relation manageriale des teletravailleurs en periode de confinement. La partie empirique repose sur une etude quantitative realisee pendant le confinement entre le 15 avril et le 11 mai 2020 aupres de 169 repondants. Les resultats revelent qu’un manque d’outils, de pratiques et de processus d’information pourrait modifier durablement la relation manageriale. Le deploiement plus generalise d’une information adaptee par les services RH contribuerait a developper la confiance des collaborateurs et la perception positive du teletravail et de la relation manageriale. L’information devrait etre egalement ciblee en fonction du degre de maturite du salarie face au teletravail.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Megan Arnot; Eva Brandl; O L K Campbell; Yuan Chen; Juan Du; Mark Dyble; Emily H Emmott; Erhao Ge; Luke D W Kretschmer; Ruth Mace; +5 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has brought science into the public eye and to the attention of governments more than ever before. Much of this attention is on work in epidemiology, virology and public health, with most behavioural advice in public health focusing squarely on ‘proximate’ determinants of behaviour. While epidemiological models are powerful tools to predict the spread of disease when human behaviour is stable, most do not incorporate behavioural change. The evolutionary basis of our preferences and the cultural evolutionary dynamics of our beliefs drive behavioural change, so understanding these evolutionary processes can help inform individual and government decision-making in the face of a pandemic. Lay summary: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought behavioural sciences into the public eye: Without vaccinations, stopping the spread of the virus must rely on behaviour change by limiting contact between people. On the face of it, “stop seeing people” sounds simple. In practice, this is hard. Here we outline how an evolutionary perspective on behaviour change can provide additional insights. Evolutionary theory postulates that our psychology and behaviour did not evolve to maximize our health or that of others. Instead, individuals are expected to act to maximise their inclusive fitness (i.e, spreading our genes) – which can lead to a conflict between behaviours that are in the best interests for the individual, and behaviours that stop the spread of the virus. By examining the ultimate explanations of behaviour related to pandemic-management (such as behavioural compliance and social distancing), we conclude that “good of the group” arguments and “one size fits all” policies are unlikely to encourage behaviour change over the long-term. Sustained behaviour change to keep pandemics at bay is much more likely to emerge from environmental change, so governments and policy makers may need to facilitate significant social change – such as improving life experiences for disadvantaged groups.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hugo Bottemanne; Clément Gouraud; Jean-Sébastien Hulot; Anne Blanchard; Brigitte Ranque; Khadija Lahlou-Laforêt; Frédéric Limosin; Sven Günther; Sven Günther; David Lebeaux; +2 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Background: Persistent physical symptoms are common after a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) episode, but their pathophysiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between anxiety and depression at 1-month after acute infection and the presence of fatigue, dyspnea, and pain complaints at 3-month follow-up.Methods: We conducted a prospective study in patients previously hospitalized for COVID-19 followed up for 3 months. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD-S) was administered by physicians at 1-month follow-up, and the presence of fatigue, dyspnea, and pain complaints was assessed at both 1 month and 3 months. Multivariable logistic regressions explored the association between anxiety and depression subscores and the persistence of each of the physical symptom at 3 months.Results: A total of 84 patients were included in this study (Median age: 60 years, interquartile range: 50.5–67.5 years, 23 women). We did not find any significant interaction between anxiety and the presence of fatigue, dyspnea, or pain complaints at 1 month in predicting the persistence of these symptoms at 3 months (all p ≥ 0.36). In contrast, depression significantly interacted with the presence of pain at 1 month in predicting the persistence of pain at 3 months (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.02–2.51, p = 0.039), with a similar trend for dyspnea (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 0.99–2.28, p = 0.052).Discussion and Conclusion: Contrary to anxiety, depression after an acute COVID-19 episode may be associated with and increased risk of some persistent physical symptoms, including pain and dyspnea.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Clémentine Fourrier; Benoît Sagot;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the workshop will not take place. However, the proceedings are published online.; International audience; Cognate prediction and proto-form reconstruction are key tasks in computational historical linguistics that rely on the study of sound change regularity. Solving these tasks appears to be very similar to machine translation, though methods from that field have barely been applied to historical linguistics. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate the learnability of sound correspondences between a proto-language and daughter languages for two machine-translation-inspired models, one statistical, the other neural. We first carry out our experiments on plausible artificial languages, without noise, in order to study the role of each parameter on the algorithms respective performance under almost perfect conditions. We then study real languages, namely Latin, Italian and Spanish, to see if those performances generalise well. We show that both model types manage to learn sound changes despite data scarcity, although the best performing model type depends on several parameters such as the size of the training data, the ambiguity, and the prediction direction.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Birte Wassenberg;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    This paper retraces the author’s personal experience of the COVID-19 lockdown from March to July 2020 at the Franco-German border from a threefold perspective: that of a cross-border worker living in Kehl, Germany, and working in Strasbourg, France; that of a Franco-German citizen with a family and children of both French and German nationality; and that of a researcher specialized in border studies. The paper deals with national re-bordering policies and their direct personal and psychological consequences for borderlanders, and also questions whether such measures are adequate to contain the pandemic, especially in a context of European Union integration which is based on the principle of a “Europe without borders”.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Bateman, Ian; Dannenberg, Astrid; Elliott, Robert; Finus, Michael; Koundouri, Phoebe; Millock, Katrin; Munro, Alistair; Robinson, Elizabeth; Rondeau, Daniel; Schumacher, Ingmar; +2 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The Coronavirus pandemic is imposing tremendous health impacts around the world. At the time of writing (20th July 2020) there have been nearly 15 million cases worldwide and well over half a million deaths from the Covid-19 disease caused by the virus. The fact that this statement needs to be effectively date-stamped reflects the rapid development of this pernicious virus. While several vaccines are under rapid development, so far it is unclear if any will be truly effective given the ability of the virus to mutate; already the vast majority of Covid-19 cases are caused by a virus which is no longer identical to that which appeared in Wuhan in late 2019.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Giuliano Bobba; Nicolas Hubé;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Italy, France, France
    Project: EC | DEMOS (822590)

    This chapter addresses the general research questions of the book, namely the possibility that populists in Europe can profit from a peculiar crisis such as COVID-19, and it wonders whether populists reacted in a similar way across countries or whether the institutional role they play at the national level has affected their reactions. Findings show that while populists have tried to take advantage of the crisis situation, the impossibility of taking ownership of the COVID-19 issue has made the crisis hard to be exploited. In particular, populists in power have tried to depoliticize the pandemic, whereas radical right-populists in opposition tried to politicize the crisis without gaining relevant public support though.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gordon Pennycook; Jonathon McPhetres; Bence Bago; David G. Rand;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, United Kingdom
    Project: SSHRC , CIHR

    What are the psychological consequences of the increasingly politicized nature of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States relative to similar Western countries? In a two-wave study completed early (March) and later (December) in the pandemic, we found that polarization was greater in the United States ( N = 1,339) than in Canada ( N = 644) and the United Kingdom. ( N = 1,283). Political conservatism in the United States was strongly associated with engaging in weaker mitigation behaviors, lower COVID-19 risk perceptions, greater misperceptions, and stronger vaccination hesitancy. Although there was some evidence that cognitive sophistication was associated with increased polarization in the United States in December (but not March), cognitive sophistication was nonetheless consistently negatively correlated with misperceptions and vaccination hesitancy across time, countries, and party lines. Furthermore, COVID-19 skepticism in the United States was strongly correlated with distrust in liberal-leaning mainstream news outlets and trust in conservative-leaning news outlets, suggesting that polarization may be driven by differences in information environments.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Arrondel, Luc; Bonnet, Carole; Gannon, Frédéric; Le Garrec, Gilles; LEGROS, Florence; Touze, Vincent;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The organization of France’s pension schemes could be significantly transformed starting in 2022 with the gradual introduction of a system of universal pension points, without altering the current pay-as-you-go financing. This systemic reform, which was initially approved by the National Assembly on 5 March 2020 after the government invoked Article 49.3 [which strengthens the government’s power to compel adoption of legislation], was subsequently suspended by President Macron on 16 March 2020 due to the Covid-19 crisis. As a result, the future of this key reform of Macron’s five-year mandate is uncertain. The issue of pensions has nevertheless been placed at the heart of the country’s public debate.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christelle Baunez; Mickael Degoulet; Stéphane Luchini; Patrick A. Pintus; Miriam Teschl;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | AMSE (EUR) (ANR-17-EURE-0020)

    Even though much has been learned about the new pathogen SARS-CoV-2 since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, a lot of uncertainty remains. In this paper we argue that what is important to know under uncertainty is whether harm accelerates and whether health policies achieve deceleration of harm. For this, we need to see cases in relation to diagnostic effort and not to look at indicators based on cases only, such as a number of widely used epidemiological indicators, including the reproduction number, do. To do so overlooks a crucial dimension, namely the fact that the best we can know about cases will depend on some welldefined strategy of diagnostic effort, such as testing in the case of COVID-19. We will present a newly developed indicator to observe harm, the acceleration index, which is essentially an elasticity of cases in relation to tests. We will discuss what efficiency of testing means and propose that the corresponding health policy goal should be to find ever fewer cases with an ever-greater diagnostic effort. Easy and low-threshold testing will also be a means to give back people’s sovereignty to lead their life in an “open” as opposed to “locked-down” society.

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