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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Moody, Catherine J.; Mitchell, Derick; Kiser, Grace; Aarsland, Dag; +9 Authors

    Despite a wealth of activity across the globe in the area of longitudinal population cohorts, surprisingly little information is available on the natural biomedical history of a number of age-related neurodegenerative diseases (ND), and the scope for intervention studies based on these cohorts is only just beginning to be explored. The Joint Programming Initiative on Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND) recently developed a novel funding mechanism to rapidly mobilize scientists to address these issues from a broad, international community perspective. Ten expert Working Groups, bringing together a diverse range of community members and covering a wide ND landscape [Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, frontotemporal degeneration, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Lewy-body and vascular dementia] were formed to discuss and propose potential approaches to better exploiting and coordinating cohort studies. The purpose of this work is to highlight the novel funding process along with a broad overview of the guidelines and recommendations generated by the ten groups, which include investigations into multiple methodologies such as cognition/functional assessment, biomarkers and biobanking, imaging, health and social outcomes, and pre-symptomatic ND. All of these were published in reports that are now publicly available online.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurosc...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurosc...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bhagwat, Nikhil; Pipitone, Jon; Winterburn, Julie L.; Guo, Ting; +6 Authors

    Recent advances in multi-atlas based algorithms address many of the previous limitations in model-based and probabilistic segmentation methods. However, at the label fusion stage, a majority of algorithms focus primarily on optimizing weight-maps associated with the atlas library based on a theoretical objective function that approximates the segmentation error. In contrast, we propose a novel method—Autocorrecting Walks over Localized Markov Random Fields (AWoL-MRF)—that aims at mimicking the sequential process of manual segmentation, which is the gold-standard for virtually all the segmentation methods. AWoL-MRF begins with a set of candidate labels generated by a multi-atlas segmentation pipeline as an initial label distribution and refines low confidence regions based on a localized Markov random field (L-MRF) model using a novel sequential inference process (walks). We show that AWoL-MRF produces state-of-the-art results with superior accuracy and robustness with a small atlas library compared to existing methods. We validate the proposed approach by performing hippocampal segmentations on three independent datasets: (1) Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Database (ADNI); (2) First Episode Psychosis patient cohort; and (3) A cohort of preterm neonates scanned early in life and at term-equivalent age. We assess the improvement in the performance qualitatively as well as quantitatively by comparing AWoL-MRF with majority vote, STAPLE, and Joint Label Fusion methods. AWoL-MRF reaches a maximum accuracy of 0.881 (dataset 1), 0.897 (dataset 2), and 0.807 (dataset 3) based on Dice similarity coefficient metric, offering significant performance improvements with a smaller atlas library (< 10) over compared methods. We also evaluate the diagnostic utility of AWoL-MRF by analyzing the volume differences per disease category in the ADNI1: Complete Screening dataset. We have made the source code for AWoL-MRF public at: https://github.com/CobraLab/AWoL-MRF.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurosc...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurosc...arrow_drop_down
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      2016 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Brown, David D. R.; Pearson, Bret J.;

    Powerful genetic tools in classical laboratory models have been fundamental to our understanding of how stem cells give rise to complex neural tissues during embryonic development. In contrast, adult neurogenesis in our model systems, if present, is typically constrained to one or a few zones of the adult brain to produce a limited subset of neurons leading to the dogma that the brain is primarily fixed post-development. The freshwater planarian (flatworm) is an invertebrate model system that challenges this dogma. The planarian possesses a brain containing several thousand neurons with very high rates of cell turnover (homeostasis), which can also be fully regenerated de novo from injury in just 7 days. Both homeostasis and regeneration depend on the activity of a large population of adult stem cells, called neoblasts, throughout the planarian body. Thus, much effort has been put forth to understand how the flatworm can continually give rise to the diversity of cell types found in the adult brain. Here we focus on work using single-cell genomics and functional analyses to unravel the cellular hierarchies from stem cell to neuron. In addition, we will review what is known about how planarians utilize developmental signaling to maintain proper tissue patterning, homeostasis, and cell-type diversity in their brains. Together, planarians are a powerful emerging model system to study the dynamics of adult neurogenesis and regeneration.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurosc...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: French, Leon; Paus, Tomáš;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurosc...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Other ORP type . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Other ORP type . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jung, Joanna; Michalak, Marek; Agellon, Luis B.;

    Neurodegenerative diseases often have multifactorial causes and are progressive diseases. Some are inherited while others are acquired, and both vary greatly in onset and severity. Impaired endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis, involving Ca2+ signaling, protein synthesis, processing, trafficking, and degradation, is now recognized as a key risk factor in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Lipidostasis involves lipid synthesis, quality control, membrane assembly as well as sequestration of excess lipids or degradation of damaged lipids. Proteostasis and lipidostasis are maintained by interconnected pathways within the cellular reticular network, which includes the ER and Ca2+ signaling. Importantly, lipidostasis is important in the maintenance of membranes and luminal environment that enable optimal protein processing. Accumulating evidence suggest that the loss of coordinate regulation of proteostasis and lipidostasis has a direct and negative impact on the health of the nervous system.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurosc...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: Klinghammer, Mathias; Blohm, Gunnar; Fiehler, Katja;

    Previous research has shown that egocentric and allocentric information is used for coding target locations for memory-guided reaching movements. Especially, task-relevance determines the use of objects as allocentric cues. Here, we investigated the influence of scene configuration and object reliability as a function of task-relevance on allocentric coding for memory-guided reaching. For that purpose, we presented participants images of a naturalistic breakfast scene with five objects on a table and six objects in the background. Six of these objects served as potential reach-targets (= task-relevant objects). Participants explored the scene and after a short delay, a test scene appeared with one of the task-relevant objects missing, indicating the location of the reach target. After the test scene vanished, participants performed a memory-guided reaching movement toward the target location. Besides removing one object from the test scene, we also shifted the remaining task-relevant and/or task-irrelevant objects left- or rightwards either coherently in the same direction or incoherently in opposite directions. By varying object coherence, we manipulated the reliability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant objects in the scene. In order to examine the influence of scene configuration (distributed vs. grouped arrangement of task-relevant objects) on allocentric coding, we compared the present data with our previously published data set (Klinghammer et al., 2015). We found that reaching errors systematically deviated in the direction of object shifts, but only when the objects were task-relevant and their reliability was high. However, this effect was substantially reduced when task-relevant objects were distributed across the scene leading to a larger target-cue distance compared to a grouped configuration. No deviations of reach endpoints were observed in conditions with shifts of only task-irrelevant objects or with low object reliability irrespective of task-relevancy. Moreover, when solely task-relevant objects were shifted incoherently, the variability of reaching endpoints increased compared to coherent shifts of task-relevant objects. Our results suggest that the use of allocentric information for coding targets for memory-guided reaching depends on the scene configuration, in particular the average distance of the reach target to task-relevant objects, and the reliability of task-relevant allocentric information.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Encke, Jörg; Dietz, Mathias;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurosc...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Hidalgo-Lopez, Esmeralda; Pletzer, Belinda;

    Estradiol and progesterone levels vary along the menstrual cycle and have multiple neuroactive effects, including on the dopaminergic system. Dopamine relates to executive functions in an “inverted U-shaped” manner and its levels are increased by estradiol. Accordingly, dopamine dependent changes in executive functions along the menstrual cycle have been previously studied in the pre-ovulatory phase, when estradiol levels peak. Specifically it has been demonstrated that working memory is enhanced during the pre-ovulatory phase in women with low dopamine baseline levels, but impaired in women with high dopamine baseline levels. However, the role of progesterone, which peaks in the luteal cycle phase, has not been taken into account previously. Therefore, the main goals of the present study were to extend these findings (i) to the luteal cycle phase and (ii) to other executive functions. Furthermore, the usefulness of the eye blink rate (EBR) as an indicator of dopamine baseline levels in menstrual cycle research was explored. 36 naturally cycling women were tested during three cycle phases (menses–low sex hormones; pre-ovulatory–high estradiol; luteal–high progesterone and estradiol). During each session, women performed a verbal N-back task, as measure of working memory, and a single trial version of the Stroop task, as measure of response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Hormone levels were assessed from saliva samples and spontaneous eye blink rate was recorded during menses. In the N-back task, women were faster during the luteal phase the higher their progesterone levels, irrespective of their dopamine baseline levels. In the Stroop task, we found a dopamine-cycle interaction, which was also driven by the luteal phase and progesterone levels. For women with higher EBR performance decreased during the luteal phase, whereas for women with lower EBR performance improved during the luteal phase. These findings suggest an important role of progesterone in modulating dopamine-cycle interactions. Additionally, we identified the eye blink rate as a non-invasive indicator of baseline dopamine function in menstrual cycle research.

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    DOAJ-Articles
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Krigolson, Olave E.; Williams, Chad C.; Norton, Angela; Hassall, Cameron D.; +1 Authors

    In recent years there has been an increase in the number of portable low-cost electroencephalographic (EEG) systems available to researchers. However, to date the validation of the use of low-cost EEG systems has focused on continuous recording of EEG data and/or the replication of large system EEG setups reliant on event-markers to afford examination of event-related brain potentials (ERP). Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to conduct ERP research without being reliant on event markers using a portable MUSE EEG system and a single computer. Specifically, we report the results of two experiments using data collected with the MUSE EEG system—one using the well-known visual oddball paradigm and the other using a standard reward-learning task. Our results demonstrate that we could observe and quantify the N200 and P300 ERP components in the visual oddball task and the reward positivity (the mirror opposite component to the feedback-related negativity) in the reward-learning task. Specifically, single sample t-tests of component existence (all p's < 0.05), computation of Bayesian credible intervals, and 95% confidence intervals all statistically verified the existence of the N200, P300, and reward positivity in all analyses. We provide with this research paper an open source website with all the instructions, methods, and software to replicate our findings and to provide researchers with an easy way to use the MUSE EEG system for ERP research. Importantly, our work highlights that with a single computer and a portable EEG system such as the MUSE one can conduct ERP research with ease thus greatly extending the possible use of the ERP methodology to a variety of novel contexts.

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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Faykoo-Martinez, Mariela; Toor, Ilapreet; Holmes, Melissa M.;

    The vast majority of what is considered fact about adult neurogenesis comes from research on laboratory mice and rats: where it happens, how it works, what it does. However, this relative exclusive focus on two rodent species has resulted in a bias on how we think about adult neurogenesis. While it might not prevent us from making conclusions about the evolutionary significance of the process or even prevent us from generalizing to diverse mammals, it certainly does not help us achieve these outcomes. Here, we argue that there is every reason to expect striking species differences in adult neurogenesis: where it happens, how it works, what it does. Species-specific adaptations in brain and behavior are paramount to survival and reproduction in diverse ecological niches and it is naive to think adult neurogenesis escaped these evolutionary pressures. A neuroethological approach to the study of adult neurogenesis is essential for a comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon. Furthermore, most of us are guilty of making strong assertions about our data in order to have impact yet this ultimately creates bias in how work is performed, interpreted, and applied. By taking a step back and actually placing our results in a much larger, non-biomedical context, we can help to reduce dogmatic thinking and create a framework for discovery.

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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Moody, Catherine J.; Mitchell, Derick; Kiser, Grace; Aarsland, Dag; +9 Authors

    Despite a wealth of activity across the globe in the area of longitudinal population cohorts, surprisingly little information is available on the natural biomedical history of a number of age-related neurodegenerative diseases (ND), and the scope for intervention studies based on these cohorts is only just beginning to be explored. The Joint Programming Initiative on Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND) recently developed a novel funding mechanism to rapidly mobilize scientists to address these issues from a broad, international community perspective. Ten expert Working Groups, bringing together a diverse range of community members and covering a wide ND landscape [Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, frontotemporal degeneration, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Lewy-body and vascular dementia] were formed to discuss and propose potential approaches to better exploiting and coordinating cohort studies. The purpose of this work is to highlight the novel funding process along with a broad overview of the guidelines and recommendations generated by the ten groups, which include investigations into multiple methodologies such as cognition/functional assessment, biomarkers and biobanking, imaging, health and social outcomes, and pre-symptomatic ND. All of these were published in reports that are now publicly available online.

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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Bhagwat, Nikhil; Pipitone, Jon; Winterburn, Julie L.; Guo, Ting; +6 Authors

    Recent advances in multi-atlas based algorithms address many of the previous limitations in model-based and probabilistic segmentation methods. However, at the label fusion stage, a majority of algorithms focus primarily on optimizing weight-maps associated with the atlas library based on a theoretical objective function that approximates the segmentation error. In contrast, we propose a novel method—Autocorrecting Walks over Localized Markov Random Fields (AWoL-MRF)—that aims at mimicking the sequential process of manual segmentation, which is the gold-standard for virtually all the segmentation methods. AWoL-MRF begins with a set of candidate labels generated by a multi-atlas segmentation pipeline as an initial label distribution and refines low confidence regions based on a localized Markov random field (L-MRF) model using a novel sequential inference process (walks). We show that AWoL-MRF produces state-of-the-art results with superior accuracy and robustness with a small atlas library compared to existing methods. We validate the proposed approach by performing hippocampal segmentations on three independent datasets: (1) Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Database (ADNI); (2) First Episode Psychosis patient cohort; and (3) A cohort of preterm neonates scanned early in life and at term-equivalent age. We assess the improvement in the performance qualitatively as well as quantitatively by comparing AWoL-MRF with majority vote, STAPLE, and Joint Label Fusion methods. AWoL-MRF reaches a maximum accuracy of 0.881 (dataset 1), 0.897 (dataset 2), and 0.807 (dataset 3) based on Dice similarity coefficient metric, offering significant performance improvements with a smaller atlas library (< 10) over compared methods. We also evaluate the diagnostic utility of AWoL-MRF by analyzing the volume differences per disease category in the ADNI1: Complete Screening dataset. We have made the source code for AWoL-MRF public at: https://github.com/CobraLab/AWoL-MRF.

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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Brown, David D. R.; Pearson, Bret J.;

    Powerful genetic tools in classical laboratory models have been fundamental to our understanding of how stem cells give rise to complex neural tissues during embryonic development. In contrast, adult neurogenesis in our model systems, if present, is typically constrained to one or a few zones of the adult brain to produce a limited subset of neurons leading to the dogma that the brain is primarily fixed post-development. The freshwater planarian (flatworm) is an invertebrate model system that challenges this dogma. The planarian possesses a brain containing several thousand neurons with very high rates of cell turnover (homeostasis), which can also be fully regenerated de novo from injury in just 7 days. Both homeostasis and regeneration depend on the activity of a large population of adult stem cells, called neoblasts, throughout the planarian body. Thus, much effort has been put forth to understand how the flatworm can continually give rise to the diversity of cell types found in the adult brain. Here we focus on work using single-cell genomics and functional analyses to unravel the cellular hierarchies from stem cell to neuron. In addition, we will review what is known about how planarians utilize developmental signaling to maintain proper tissue patterning, homeostasis, and cell-type diversity in their brains. Together, planarians are a powerful emerging model system to study the dynamics of adult neurogenesis and regeneration.

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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: French, Leon; Paus, Tomáš;
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Other ORP type . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Other ORP type . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Jung, Joanna; Michalak, Marek; Agellon, Luis B.;

    Neurodegenerative diseases often have multifactorial causes and are progressive diseases. Some are inherited while others are acquired, and both vary greatly in onset and severity. Impaired endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis, involving Ca2+ signaling, protein synthesis, processing, trafficking, and degradation, is now recognized as a key risk factor in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Lipidostasis involves lipid synthesis, quality control, membrane assembly as well as sequestration of excess lipids or degradation of damaged lipids. Proteostasis and lipidostasis are maintained by interconnected pathways within the cellular reticular network, which includes the ER and Ca2+ signaling. Importantly, lipidostasis is important in the maintenance of membranes and luminal environment that enable optimal protein processing. Accumulating evidence suggest that the loss of coordinate regulation of proteostasis and lipidostasis has a direct and negative impact on the health of the nervous system.

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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Klinghammer, Mathias; Blohm, Gunnar; Fiehler, Katja;

    Previous research has shown that egocentric and allocentric information is used for coding target locations for memory-guided reaching movements. Especially, task-relevance determines the use of objects as allocentric cues. Here, we investigated the influence of scene configuration and object reliability as a function of task-relevance on allocentric coding for memory-guided reaching. For that purpose, we presented participants images of a naturalistic breakfast scene with five objects on a table and six objects in the background. Six of these objects served as potential reach-targets (= task-relevant objects). Participants explored the scene and after a short delay, a test scene appeared with one of the task-relevant objects missing, indicating the location of the reach target. After the test scene vanished, participants performed a memory-guided reaching movement toward the target location. Besides removing one object from the test scene, we also shifted the remaining task-relevant and/or task-irrelevant objects left- or rightwards either coherently in the same direction or incoherently in opposite directions. By varying object coherence, we manipulated the reliability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant objects in the scene. In order to examine the influence of scene configuration (distributed vs. grouped arrangement of task-relevant objects) on allocentric coding, we compared the present data with our previously published data set (Klinghammer et al., 2015). We found that reaching errors systematically deviated in the direction of object shifts, but only when the objects were task-relevant and their reliability was high. However, this effect was substantially reduced when task-relevant objects were distributed across the scene leading to a larger target-cue distance compared to a grouped configuration. No deviations of reach endpoints were observed in conditions with shifts of only task-irrelevant objects or with low object reliability irrespective of task-relevancy. Moreover, when solely task-relevant objects were shifted incoherently, the variability of reaching endpoints increased compared to coherent shifts of task-relevant objects. Our results suggest that the use of allocentric information for coding targets for memory-guided reaching depends on the scene configuration, in particular the average distance of the reach target to task-relevant objects, and the reliability of task-relevant allocentric information.

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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Encke, Jörg; Dietz, Mathias;
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    Authors: Hidalgo-Lopez, Esmeralda; Pletzer, Belinda;

    Estradiol and progesterone levels vary along the menstrual cycle and have multiple neuroactive effects, including on the dopaminergic system. Dopamine relates to executive functions in an “inverted U-shaped” manner and its levels are increased by estradiol. Accordingly, dopamine dependent changes in executive functions along the menstrual cycle have been previously studied in the pre-ovulatory phase, when estradiol levels peak. Specifically it has been demonstrated that working memory is enhanced during the pre-ovulatory phase in women with low dopamine baseline levels, but impaired in women with high dopamine baseline levels. However, the role of progesterone, which peaks in the luteal cycle phase, has not been taken into account previously. Therefore, the main goals of the present study were to extend these findings (i) to the luteal cycle phase and (ii) to other executive functions. Furthermore, the usefulness of the eye blink rate (EBR) as an indicator of dopamine baseline levels in menstrual cycle research was explored. 36 naturally cycling women were tested during three cycle phases (menses–low sex hormones; pre-ovulatory–high estradiol; luteal–high progesterone and estradiol). During each session, women performed a verbal N-back task, as measure of working memory, and a single trial version of the Stroop task, as measure of response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Hormone levels were assessed from saliva samples and spontaneous eye blink rate was recorded during menses. In the N-back task, women were faster during the luteal phase the higher their progesterone levels, irrespective of their dopamine baseline levels. In the Stroop task, we found a dopamine-cycle interaction, which was also driven by the luteal phase and progesterone levels. For women with higher EBR performance decreased during the luteal phase, whereas for women with lower EBR performance improved during the luteal phase. These findings suggest an important role of progesterone in modulating dopamine-cycle interactions. Additionally, we identified the eye blink rate as a non-invasive indicator of baseline dopamine function in menstrual cycle research.

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    DOAJ-Articles
    Article . 2017
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2017
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
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