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  • Publication . Bachelor thesis . 2018
    Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Koščak, Nandino;
    Publisher: N. Koščak
    Country: Slovenia

    S hitrim napredkom, prihodom novih tehnologij in širjenjem ponudb storitev v turizmu, hotelski objekti hitro postanejo zastareli. Za uspeh in sledenje konkurenci ter vzdrževanjem nivoja kakovosti ponudb, se zato slednji pogosto odločajo za rekonstrukcije, renovacije in estetske ažuracije. Hotelski kompleksi navadno obratujejo v točno določenih sezonskih obdobjih (poletje, zima, ...). Časovni okvir izvedbe projekta rekonstrukcije je zato navadno zelo omejen, rok končanja del pa strikten in ne dopušča odstopanj. V diplomski nalogi prikažemo postopek rušenja hotelskega objekta, ki ga analiziramo tako s časovnega kot tudi s stroškovnega vidika. Due to fast progress, implementation of new technologies and expansion of tourist services, it can be observed that the hotels become obsolete in relatively short time. In order ot maintain business performance and keep up with the competition, the hotel management frequently decides to undertake reconstruction or renovation works. Hotel facilities usually operate in pre-determined season periods (summer, winter, …), therefore the timeframe available for completing the reconstruction is extremely limited, with strict deadline and does not allow deviations from the plan. The thesis presents the process of multi storey hotel building demolition. Theoretical background, including relevant legislature, is first presented. The case study – demolition of hotel building - is described. The project is analyzed and optimized, and the results are presented from the viewpoint of costs and time of completion.

  • Publication . Bachelor thesis . 2014
    Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Čaušević, Lili;
    Publisher: L. Čaušević
    Country: Slovenia
  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Žagar, Tatjana;
    Publisher: T. Žagar
    Country: Slovenia
  • Publication . Bachelor thesis . 2020
    Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Klančar, Urška;
    Country: Slovenia

    Diplomsko delo se osredotoča na sodobne povedke o Drugih v Mariboru. Razdeljeno je na tri dele. V prvem delu so predstavljene povedke, s poudarkom na sodobnih povedkah – kaj so, kako se širijo in njihov pomen. V drugem delu je predstavljen in opredeljen koncept Drugosti ter tipične značilnosti Drugih v folklori. V tretjem delu pa so predstavljene povedke o Drugih, zbrane v Mariboru v času raziskovanja. Povedke so klasificirane po temah oziroma tipih, so interpretirane in postavljene v širši družbeni kontekst v Mariboru. Predstavljene so skupine, ki jih Mariborčani skozi pripovedovanja dojemajo kot Druge, ter lokacije, ki so preko povedk v Mariboru povezane z Drugostjo. Delo odgovarja na vprašanja, kot so: katere povedke o Drugih se v mestu širijo ter katere so njihove možne različice, na katere lokacije v mestu se nanašajo in zakaj. Delo govori o funkciji mariborskih povedk o Drugih in kakšen odnos do Drugih Mariborčani kažejo skozi pripovedovanje. Se skozi pripovedovanje in širjenje povedk sproščata tesnoba in strah meščanov ob stiku z Drugimi ali gre ob pripovedovanju zgolj za zabavo. The diploma thesis, divided into three parts, focuses on contemporary legends about Others in Maribor. The first part presents legends, with an emphasis on contemporary legends: what they are, how they spread and their meaning. The second part defines the concept of Otherness and typical characteristics of Others in folklore. The third part of the thesis presents legends about the Others, collected in Maribor during the research. Found legends are classified by topics or types, interpreted and placed in a broader social context in Maribor. The thesis presents groups that the people of Maribor perceive as Others through storytelling, and locations in the city associated with Otherness. The work answers questions such as: what legends about Others are spreading in the city and what are their possible versions and what attitude the people of Maribor show through the narration. It deals with the function of Maribor's legends about the Others. Do legends about Others in Maribor have a specific function, or are they told just for the sake of fun.

  • Publication . Bachelor thesis . 2019
    Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Frkal, Neja;
    Publisher: N. Frkal
    Country: Slovenia

    K skupnim poliaminom v organizmu prispeva de novo biosinteza, mikrobna fermentacija v prebavilih in poliamini, ki jih zaužijemo z vsakodnevno prehrano. Namen diplomskega dela je bil predstaviti biološke funkcije in metabolizem izbranih poliaminov, predstaviti vpliv zaužitih poliaminov na metabolizem in zdravje ter predstaviti dejavnike, ki vplivajo na vsebnost poliaminov v živilih. Ker so pozitivno nabite molekule, se povezujejo z nekaterimi negativno nabitimi makromolekulami, kot so nukleinske kisline, fosfolipidi in proteini, kar vodi v njihovo stabilizacijo. Imajo pomembno vlogo pri proliferaciji in ohranjanju optimalne funkcije celic. Z leti se njihova vsebnost v organizmu manjša, zato je potreben večji vnos poliaminov s prehrano. Živila se razlikujejo v vsebnosti skupnih in posameznih poliaminov. Največ putrescina in kadaverina najdemo v fermentiranih izdelkih, medtem ko so dobri viri spermina in spermidina predvsem meso, stročnice in nekateri mlečni izdelki. Nekatere zadnje raziskave so pokazale, da povečan prehranski vnos spermidina pozitivno vpliva na zdravje. Povezujejo ga z nižjim krvnim tlakom, izboljšanjem funkcij srca, daljšo življenjsko dobo in počasnejšo izgubo spomina pri starostnikih. Glavni razlog za ugoden vpliv na zdravje je njegov vpliv na avtofagijo, ki ima pomembno vlogo pri regeneraciji organizma. Poliamini so vpleteni tudi v različne bolezni, kot sta rak in Alzheimerjeva bolezen. De novo biosynthesis, microbial fermentation and dietary intake contribute to the polyamine body pool. The aim of this thesis was to present the biological functions and metabolism of certain polyamines. Additionally, various factors that influence the content in foods were presented. Due to their positive charge polyamines bind to negatively charged macromolecules, like nucleic acids, phospholipids and proteins, which leads to their stabilization. They have a significant role in cell proliferation and in maintaining optimal cell function. Endogenous biosynthesis is decreased in ageing and larger dietary intake is recommended. In foods, the content of polyamines varies within food types. Putrescine and cadaverine are the main polyamines in vegetables while the best sources of spermine and spermidine are meats, legumes and milk products. Recently it was shown that dietary intake of spermidine has a positive effect of health, resulting in lower blood pressure, improved heart function, prolonged lifespan and suppression of memory impairment. Positive effects are related to induction of autophagy, which has an important role in normal functioning of organism. Polyamines are also involved in different diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer’s disease.

  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Vidmar, Anamarija;
    Country: Slovenia

    Uvod: bolečina v križu (BK) je resen svetoven zdravstveni problem. Po ocenah naj bi kar 60–80 % odraslih oseb enkrat v življenju doživelo izkušnjo z BK, 10–20 % od njih ima napredovanje v kronično bolečino, kar se obravnava kot obdobje, daljše od 3 mesecev, prognoza pa je neugodna in povezana z visokimi stroški zdravljenja ter nezmožnostjo za delo. Nespecifična BK je definirana kot bolečina, lokalizirana od spodnjega rebrnega loka zadaj do zadnjičnih gub, v kombinaciji z bolečino v nogi ali brez nje, brez specifične patologije, kot je tumor, zlomi ali vnetja v področju hrbtenice. Povečano tveganje za razvoj BK naj bi predstavljali: fizična dela z dvigovanjem, vlečenjem in potiskanjem bremen nad 11 kg, dela v stoječem položaju, nezadovoljstvo z delom, manjša mišična moč pa tudi debelost in kajenje. Terapija BK je v 95 % konservativna, uporabljajo pa se fizikalno-rehabilitacijske metode. Nova alternativna oblika zdravljenja BK so tudi elastični lepilni trakovi (KT). Oblikovani so bili kot dodatek k zdravljenju, ker zagotavljajo podporo in stabilnost mišicam ter sklepom, brez omejevanja telesnih obsegov gibljivosti. Aplikacija KT izboljša mišične funkcije, pospeši cirkulacije (krvnega obtoka in limfnega obtoka), zmanjšanje bolečine, povzroči segmentalen učinek in daje oporo sklepom. Namen: predstaviti smo želeli učinek aplikacije KT s tenzijo ali brez nje na bolečino pri kronični nespecifični BK. Metode dela: s podatkovnimi bazami preko oddaljenega dostopa smo pridobili 6 ustreznih raziskav. Raziskave so bile objavljene med letoma 2012 in 2018 ter so vključevale poskuse glede aplikacije KT s tenzijo in brez nje. Rezultati: glavni rezultati kažejo, da odstotek tenzije ne vpliva na zmanjšanje kronične nespecifične BK. Posamezne raziskave so navedle izboljšanja, vendar so tako minimalna, da v večini primerov niso klinično pomembna. Tudi glede ostalih meritev gibljivosti in nezmožnosti niso navedli pomembnih razlik med aplikacijama ter izboljšanjem stanja. Razprava in sklep: KT se lahko uporabljajo kot dodatek k zdravljenju in pri zmanjšanju bolečine ter v kombinaciji z ostalimi fizioterapevtskimi postopki. So varni, preprosti za nameščanje in poceni. Introduction: Lower back pain (LBP) is a serious worldwide health problem. It is estimated that up to 60-80% of grown-ups has experienced LBP in their lifetime, of which in 10-20% of cases, it has progressed to chronic pain, when it lasts for longer than three months. The prognosis is unwell and connected with high medical treatment expenses and inability to work. Unspecific LBP is defined as a localised pain from lower rib arch to buttock wrinkles in a combination with or without leg pain, without specific pathology as tumors, breaks or inflamations in the spinal area. Physical works including lifting, dragging or pushing loads higher than 11 kilograms, working in a standing position, work insatisfaction, smaller muscle strength, overweightness and smoking all contribute to higher risks of LBP development. LBP therapy is 95% conservative, physically-rehabilitational methods are also used. A new alternative is treatment with elastic adhesive tapes. Those were designed as treatment supplements, as they provide support and stability to muscles and joints without limiting their movability. Elastic adhesive tape applications improve muscle functions, increase blood and limpf circulation, reduce pain, support joints and have a segmental effect. Purpose: We wanted to introduce the effect of elastic adhesive tape applications with or without tension to chronical unspecified lower back pain. Methods: With remote access data bases, we obtained 6 researches. Those were published from 2012 to 2018 and included experiments with elastic adhesive tape applications with or without tension. Results: Majority of the results show, that tension precentage does not have an influence on reducing pain in case of chronin unspecified lower back pain. Indicidual researches show improvements, but those are minimal to the extent that they have no clinical significance. Even in other measurements, as movement and inability, no significant connections were found in elastic adhesive tape application. Discussion and conclusion: Elastic adhesive tapes can be used as a supplement to treatment and pain reduction to other phisiotherapeutic procedures. They are safe, easy to apply and cheap.

  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Gržinič, Martin;
    Publisher: M. Gržinič
    Country: Slovenia
  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Petelin, Urška;
    Publisher: U. Petelin
    Country: Slovenia
  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Novak Mlakar, Dominika;
    Country: Slovenia

    Uvod. Namen dela je bil ovrednotiti rezultate drugega organizacijskega kroga slovenskega državnega presejalnega programa za raka debelega črevesa in danke z oceno vpliva dejavnikov na rezultat presejalnega imunokemičnega testa na prikrito krvavitev v blatu in analizo intervalnih rakov. Opazovanci in metode. V analizo je bila vključena populacija prebivalcev Slovenije v starosti od 50 do 69 let, ki je bila vabljena v presejanje od aprila 2011 do decembra 2012. V analizo vplivov na rezultat presejalnega testa na prikrito krvavitev v blatu in posledično na najdbe pri kolonoskopiji so bile vključene značilnosti opazovancev in vzorcev blata. Spol, starost opazovancev, leta šolanja, lokacijo in stadij raka ter histološko vrsto sem primerjala med osebami z intervalnim rakom, osebami z rakom, odkritim v presejanju, in neodzivniki z rakom. Za izračun občutljivosti presejalnega testa sem uporabila metodo sorazmerne incidenčne stopnje. Rezultati. Pozitiven izid presejalnega testa na prikrito krvavitev v blatu je bil pogostejši pri moških, pri starejših od 54 let, pri osebah, ki so se šolale manj kot 10 let, so bile presejane prvič in so bivale v vzhodnem delu Slovenije. Starost vzorcev blata in temperatura zunanjega zraka do 25 °C nista vplivala na izid presejalnega testa. Pri temperaturi zunanjega zraka nad 25 °C je bil nižji delež pozitivnih rezultatov presejalnega testa. Med 502.488 povabljenimi v presejanje je bilo odkritih 493 rakov po pozitivnem izidu presejalnega testa, 79 intervalnih rakov po negativnem presejalnem testu in 395 rakov med neodzivniki. Delež intervalnih rakov med raki, odkritimi v presejalnem programu, je bil 13,8 %. Pri vseh treh skupinah opazovanih oseb je bil rak pogosteje odkrit pri moških in pri osebah, starejših od 54 let. Med intervalnimi raki je bilo več odkritih rakov v desnem delu črevesa in v stadiju IV glede na rake, odkrite v presejanju. V presejanju je bilo več rakov v stadiju I in v levem delu črevesa. V primerjavi z raki, odkritimi med neodzivniki, je bilo intervalnih rakov in rakov, odkritih v presejanju, več med osebami, ki so se šolale 10 let ali več. Raki, odkriti med neodzivniki, so bili pogostejši med osebami z nižjo izobrazbo in odkriti v stadiju IV. Med skupinami oseb z rakom so bile razlike v histološki vrsti odkritega raka. Občutljivost presejalnega testa na prikrito krvavitev v blatu je bila 88,45 %. Zaključki. Na izid presejalnega imunokemičnega testa na prikrito krvavitev v blatu v Sloveniji vplivajo podobni dejavniki kot v primerljivih tujih presejalnih programih. Poleg višje starosti in moškega spola na pogostejši pozitiven rezultat testa vpliva tudi nižja izobrazba, bivanje v vzhodnem delu Slovenije in če je oseba presejana prvič. Temperatura zunanjega zraka nad 25 °C znižuje delež pozitivnih rezultatov presejalnega testa. V nižjem stadiju odkriti raki v presejanju dokazujejo pomen organiziranega presejanja. Intervalni raki po negativnem presejalnem testu se v slovenskem presejalnem programu pojavljajo v pričakovanih deležih, ugotovljenih v podobnih programih v tujini. S kompletom dveh testerjev je dosežena občutljivost testa, ki je med višjimi izračunanimi v primerljivih programih. Background. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the results of the second organizational round of the Slovenian national colorectal cancer screening programme, to assess the effects on the faecal immunochemical occult blood test results and the interval cancer analysis. Patients and methods. The analysis included the population of Slovenian residents between 50 to 69 years of age, who were invited for screening between April 2011 and December 2012. The characteristics of the observed population and of stool samples were included in the analysis in order to analyse the effect on the screening test results and consequently the colonoscopy findings. Gender, age, years of schooling, the cancer site and cancer stage and the histological type were compared among interval cancers, screening cancers and cancers among non-responders. The proportional incidence method was used to calculate the screening test sensitivity. Results. Higher shares of positive outcome of the faecal immunochemical occult blood test were more frequently shown among the observed males, aged over 54 years, with less than 10 years of schooling, participating for the first time in the screening programme and residing in the eastern part of Slovenia. The age of stool samples and ambient air temperature up to 25 °C were not significant for the outcome of the screening test. However, the ambient air temperature above 25 °C had the effect of lowering the proportion of positive results of the screening test. Amongst 502,488 people invited for screening, there were 493 cancers detected after the positive screening test, 79 interval cancers after the negative screening test and 395 cancers in non-responders. The proportion of interval cancers equalled 13.8%. Among all three observed cancer groups, cancers were more frequent in men and in persons aged 54+ years. Interval cancers were more frequent in the right hemicolon and in stage IV when compared to screen detected cancers. Screen detected cancers were more frequent in stage I and in the left hemicolon. Interval and screen detected cancers were more frequently detected in persons with 10 or more years of schooling when compared to cancers detected among non-responders. Cancers detected in non-responders were more frequent among people with lower education and in stage IV. There were differences between cancers detected groups according to the histological type of cancers diagnosed. Test sensitivity of the faecal immunochemical test was 88.45 %. Conclusions. The outcomes of faecal immunochemical occult blood tests in Slovenian colorectal cancer screening are influenced by similar factors as in comparable foreign screening programmes. Besides higher age and male gender more positive results of the test were seen in persons with lower education, residing in the east of Slovenia, first screening episode. Ambient air temperature above 25 °C lowers the proportion of positive screening test results. More screen detected cancers in lower cancer stages prove the importance of organized cancer screening. Interval cancers after the negative faecal immunochemical occult blood test in Slovenian screening programme are detected in the expected proportions as in similar programmes. Test sensitivity is among the highest when compared to similar programmes and is accomplished by using two stool samples test kit.

  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Linec, Živa;
    Publisher: Ž. Linec
    Country: Slovenia

    Imunoproteasom je podvrsta multikatalitičnega encima proteasoma, ki deluje preko ubikvitinskega proteaznega sistema. Zagotavlja homeostazo celice z razgradnjo neustreznih in zastarelih proteinov, zaviranje tega encima pa lahko privede celo do celične smrti. Dokazali so, da se povečane količine imunoproteasoma pojavljajo pri nekaterih patoloških stanjih, kot so na primer avtoimunska in rakava obolenja. Zaradi tega je njegovo zaviranje med najzanimivejšimi sodobnimi pristopi za razvoj novih selektivnih učinkovin, ki bi lahko pripomogle k zdravljenju različnih bolezni. V okviru diplomske naloge smo uspešno sintetizirali šest novih potencialnih zaviralcev kimotripsinske podenote imunoproteasoma. Vse te nove spojine imajo v svoji strukturi psoralenski skelet, na katerega sta na mestih 4 in 8 vezani metilni skupini. Sinteza spojin je potekala v več stopnjah. Najprej smo tvorili osnovno strukturo z reakcijo med 2-metilresorcinolom in dietil 2-acetoglutaratom, nato pa smo nanje pripenjali različne derivate 2-bromoacetofenona, ki so imeli na mestu 3 oz. 4 aromatskega obroča vezane različne funkcionalne skupine. Nekatere od uporabljenih derivatov smo pripravili tudi sami. V naslednji stopnji smo izvedli kondenzacijo, med katero je prišlo do tvorbe psoralenskega obroča. Na eno izmed tako sintetiziranih spojin smo nato vezali še N-hidroksisukcinimid, z namenom, da bi dosegli močnejše interakcije z aktivnim mestom imunoproteasoma. Na koncu so na Katedri za klinično biokemijo FFA sintetizirane spojine še biokemijsko ovrednotili in sicer z določitvijo rezidualnih aktivnosti kimotripsinske podenote imunoproteasoma po njihovem dodatku. Izmed vseh pripravljenih spojin je tista z oznako 18 najbolj zavirala tarčo. Glede na pridobljene rezultate lahko sklepamo, da je za doseganje boljšega zaviralnega delovanja potrebna tvorba aktiviranega estra, ki omogoča tvorbo kovalentnih vezi z aminokislinskimi preostanki imunoproteasoma. Uvedba dodatne metilne skupine na mesto 8 psoralenskega obroča ter različno substituiranih fenilnih fragmentov na furanski del psoralena pa ne pripomoreta k izboljšanju afinitete za vezavo na imunoproteasom. Immunoproteasome is a special form of proteasome, which is a multicatalytic enzyme that acts via the ubiquitin protease system. The enzyme ensures homeostasis of cells by proteolysing of incorrectly formed and senescent proteins. The inhibition of this enzyme may lead to cell death. It has been demonstrated that increased quantities of immunoproteasome occur in certain pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases and cancer. For this reason, the inhibition of immunoproteasome activity has become an interesting modern approach to development of new selective agents aimed for the treatment of various diseases.We have successfully synthesized six new potential inhibitors of the chymotrypsin-like subunit of immunoproteasome. All new compounds contain psoralene moiety as a polycyclic system to which methyl groups are bound at the positions 4 and 8. The synthesis of compounds was carried out in several stages. Firstly, we formed the basic sceleton for all molecules by reacting 2-methylresorcinol and diethyl 2-acetoglutarate. Properly substituted 2-bromoacetophenone, with diverse functional groups at the positions 3 or 4 in the aromatic ring were used for preparation of corresponding ethers. Some of the reagents used were prepared in situ. In the next stage, we performed condensation, which resulted in the formation of a psoralene ring. One of the synthesized compounds was activated in the form of N-hydroxysuccinimide ester in order to achieve a stronger interaction with amino acid residues in the active site of immunoproteasome. Finally a biochemical evaluation of synthesized compounds was carried out at the Department of Clinical Biochemistry, in which the residual activity of chymotrypsin-like immunoproteasome subunit was determined following the addition of selected compounds. The compound 18 showed the most pronounced inhibitory activity. In order to achieve a better inhibitory activity, the formation of activated esters is required to enable the formation of covalent bonds with amino acid residues present in the active site of immunoproteasome. The addition of an additional methyl group at the position 8 of the psoralene ring and different by substituted phenyl fragments on the furan part of the psoralene molecule however do not improve the affinity of new compounds for their binding to immunoproteasome.

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  • Publication . Bachelor thesis . 2018
    Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Koščak, Nandino;
    Publisher: N. Koščak
    Country: Slovenia

    S hitrim napredkom, prihodom novih tehnologij in širjenjem ponudb storitev v turizmu, hotelski objekti hitro postanejo zastareli. Za uspeh in sledenje konkurenci ter vzdrževanjem nivoja kakovosti ponudb, se zato slednji pogosto odločajo za rekonstrukcije, renovacije in estetske ažuracije. Hotelski kompleksi navadno obratujejo v točno določenih sezonskih obdobjih (poletje, zima, ...). Časovni okvir izvedbe projekta rekonstrukcije je zato navadno zelo omejen, rok končanja del pa strikten in ne dopušča odstopanj. V diplomski nalogi prikažemo postopek rušenja hotelskega objekta, ki ga analiziramo tako s časovnega kot tudi s stroškovnega vidika. Due to fast progress, implementation of new technologies and expansion of tourist services, it can be observed that the hotels become obsolete in relatively short time. In order ot maintain business performance and keep up with the competition, the hotel management frequently decides to undertake reconstruction or renovation works. Hotel facilities usually operate in pre-determined season periods (summer, winter, …), therefore the timeframe available for completing the reconstruction is extremely limited, with strict deadline and does not allow deviations from the plan. The thesis presents the process of multi storey hotel building demolition. Theoretical background, including relevant legislature, is first presented. The case study – demolition of hotel building - is described. The project is analyzed and optimized, and the results are presented from the viewpoint of costs and time of completion.

  • Publication . Bachelor thesis . 2014
    Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Čaušević, Lili;
    Publisher: L. Čaušević
    Country: Slovenia
  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Žagar, Tatjana;
    Publisher: T. Žagar
    Country: Slovenia
  • Publication . Bachelor thesis . 2020
    Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Klančar, Urška;
    Country: Slovenia

    Diplomsko delo se osredotoča na sodobne povedke o Drugih v Mariboru. Razdeljeno je na tri dele. V prvem delu so predstavljene povedke, s poudarkom na sodobnih povedkah – kaj so, kako se širijo in njihov pomen. V drugem delu je predstavljen in opredeljen koncept Drugosti ter tipične značilnosti Drugih v folklori. V tretjem delu pa so predstavljene povedke o Drugih, zbrane v Mariboru v času raziskovanja. Povedke so klasificirane po temah oziroma tipih, so interpretirane in postavljene v širši družbeni kontekst v Mariboru. Predstavljene so skupine, ki jih Mariborčani skozi pripovedovanja dojemajo kot Druge, ter lokacije, ki so preko povedk v Mariboru povezane z Drugostjo. Delo odgovarja na vprašanja, kot so: katere povedke o Drugih se v mestu širijo ter katere so njihove možne različice, na katere lokacije v mestu se nanašajo in zakaj. Delo govori o funkciji mariborskih povedk o Drugih in kakšen odnos do Drugih Mariborčani kažejo skozi pripovedovanje. Se skozi pripovedovanje in širjenje povedk sproščata tesnoba in strah meščanov ob stiku z Drugimi ali gre ob pripovedovanju zgolj za zabavo. The diploma thesis, divided into three parts, focuses on contemporary legends about Others in Maribor. The first part presents legends, with an emphasis on contemporary legends: what they are, how they spread and their meaning. The second part defines the concept of Otherness and typical characteristics of Others in folklore. The third part of the thesis presents legends about the Others, collected in Maribor during the research. Found legends are classified by topics or types, interpreted and placed in a broader social context in Maribor. The thesis presents groups that the people of Maribor perceive as Others through storytelling, and locations in the city associated with Otherness. The work answers questions such as: what legends about Others are spreading in the city and what are their possible versions and what attitude the people of Maribor show through the narration. It deals with the function of Maribor's legends about the Others. Do legends about Others in Maribor have a specific function, or are they told just for the sake of fun.

  • Publication . Bachelor thesis . 2019
    Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Frkal, Neja;
    Publisher: N. Frkal
    Country: Slovenia

    K skupnim poliaminom v organizmu prispeva de novo biosinteza, mikrobna fermentacija v prebavilih in poliamini, ki jih zaužijemo z vsakodnevno prehrano. Namen diplomskega dela je bil predstaviti biološke funkcije in metabolizem izbranih poliaminov, predstaviti vpliv zaužitih poliaminov na metabolizem in zdravje ter predstaviti dejavnike, ki vplivajo na vsebnost poliaminov v živilih. Ker so pozitivno nabite molekule, se povezujejo z nekaterimi negativno nabitimi makromolekulami, kot so nukleinske kisline, fosfolipidi in proteini, kar vodi v njihovo stabilizacijo. Imajo pomembno vlogo pri proliferaciji in ohranjanju optimalne funkcije celic. Z leti se njihova vsebnost v organizmu manjša, zato je potreben večji vnos poliaminov s prehrano. Živila se razlikujejo v vsebnosti skupnih in posameznih poliaminov. Največ putrescina in kadaverina najdemo v fermentiranih izdelkih, medtem ko so dobri viri spermina in spermidina predvsem meso, stročnice in nekateri mlečni izdelki. Nekatere zadnje raziskave so pokazale, da povečan prehranski vnos spermidina pozitivno vpliva na zdravje. Povezujejo ga z nižjim krvnim tlakom, izboljšanjem funkcij srca, daljšo življenjsko dobo in počasnejšo izgubo spomina pri starostnikih. Glavni razlog za ugoden vpliv na zdravje je njegov vpliv na avtofagijo, ki ima pomembno vlogo pri regeneraciji organizma. Poliamini so vpleteni tudi v različne bolezni, kot sta rak in Alzheimerjeva bolezen. De novo biosynthesis, microbial fermentation and dietary intake contribute to the polyamine body pool. The aim of this thesis was to present the biological functions and metabolism of certain polyamines. Additionally, various factors that influence the content in foods were presented. Due to their positive charge polyamines bind to negatively charged macromolecules, like nucleic acids, phospholipids and proteins, which leads to their stabilization. They have a significant role in cell proliferation and in maintaining optimal cell function. Endogenous biosynthesis is decreased in ageing and larger dietary intake is recommended. In foods, the content of polyamines varies within food types. Putrescine and cadaverine are the main polyamines in vegetables while the best sources of spermine and spermidine are meats, legumes and milk products. Recently it was shown that dietary intake of spermidine has a positive effect of health, resulting in lower blood pressure, improved heart function, prolonged lifespan and suppression of memory impairment. Positive effects are related to induction of autophagy, which has an important role in normal functioning of organism. Polyamines are also involved in different diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer’s disease.

  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Vidmar, Anamarija;
    Country: Slovenia

    Uvod: bolečina v križu (BK) je resen svetoven zdravstveni problem. Po ocenah naj bi kar 60–80 % odraslih oseb enkrat v življenju doživelo izkušnjo z BK, 10–20 % od njih ima napredovanje v kronično bolečino, kar se obravnava kot obdobje, daljše od 3 mesecev, prognoza pa je neugodna in povezana z visokimi stroški zdravljenja ter nezmožnostjo za delo. Nespecifična BK je definirana kot bolečina, lokalizirana od spodnjega rebrnega loka zadaj do zadnjičnih gub, v kombinaciji z bolečino v nogi ali brez nje, brez specifične patologije, kot je tumor, zlomi ali vnetja v področju hrbtenice. Povečano tveganje za razvoj BK naj bi predstavljali: fizična dela z dvigovanjem, vlečenjem in potiskanjem bremen nad 11 kg, dela v stoječem položaju, nezadovoljstvo z delom, manjša mišična moč pa tudi debelost in kajenje. Terapija BK je v 95 % konservativna, uporabljajo pa se fizikalno-rehabilitacijske metode. Nova alternativna oblika zdravljenja BK so tudi elastični lepilni trakovi (KT). Oblikovani so bili kot dodatek k zdravljenju, ker zagotavljajo podporo in stabilnost mišicam ter sklepom, brez omejevanja telesnih obsegov gibljivosti. Aplikacija KT izboljša mišične funkcije, pospeši cirkulacije (krvnega obtoka in limfnega obtoka), zmanjšanje bolečine, povzroči segmentalen učinek in daje oporo sklepom. Namen: predstaviti smo želeli učinek aplikacije KT s tenzijo ali brez nje na bolečino pri kronični nespecifični BK. Metode dela: s podatkovnimi bazami preko oddaljenega dostopa smo pridobili 6 ustreznih raziskav. Raziskave so bile objavljene med letoma 2012 in 2018 ter so vključevale poskuse glede aplikacije KT s tenzijo in brez nje. Rezultati: glavni rezultati kažejo, da odstotek tenzije ne vpliva na zmanjšanje kronične nespecifične BK. Posamezne raziskave so navedle izboljšanja, vendar so tako minimalna, da v večini primerov niso klinično pomembna. Tudi glede ostalih meritev gibljivosti in nezmožnosti niso navedli pomembnih razlik med aplikacijama ter izboljšanjem stanja. Razprava in sklep: KT se lahko uporabljajo kot dodatek k zdravljenju in pri zmanjšanju bolečine ter v kombinaciji z ostalimi fizioterapevtskimi postopki. So varni, preprosti za nameščanje in poceni. Introduction: Lower back pain (LBP) is a serious worldwide health problem. It is estimated that up to 60-80% of grown-ups has experienced LBP in their lifetime, of which in 10-20% of cases, it has progressed to chronic pain, when it lasts for longer than three months. The prognosis is unwell and connected with high medical treatment expenses and inability to work. Unspecific LBP is defined as a localised pain from lower rib arch to buttock wrinkles in a combination with or without leg pain, without specific pathology as tumors, breaks or inflamations in the spinal area. Physical works including lifting, dragging or pushing loads higher than 11 kilograms, working in a standing position, work insatisfaction, smaller muscle strength, overweightness and smoking all contribute to higher risks of LBP development. LBP therapy is 95% conservative, physically-rehabilitational methods are also used. A new alternative is treatment with elastic adhesive tapes. Those were designed as treatment supplements, as they provide support and stability to muscles and joints without limiting their movability. Elastic adhesive tape applications improve muscle functions, increase blood and limpf circulation, reduce pain, support joints and have a segmental effect. Purpose: We wanted to introduce the effect of elastic adhesive tape applications with or without tension to chronical unspecified lower back pain. Methods: With remote access data bases, we obtained 6 researches. Those were published from 2012 to 2018 and included experiments with elastic adhesive tape applications with or without tension. Results: Majority of the results show, that tension precentage does not have an influence on reducing pain in case of chronin unspecified lower back pain. Indicidual researches show improvements, but those are minimal to the extent that they have no clinical significance. Even in other measurements, as movement and inability, no significant connections were found in elastic adhesive tape application. Discussion and conclusion: Elastic adhesive tapes can be used as a supplement to treatment and pain reduction to other phisiotherapeutic procedures. They are safe, easy to apply and cheap.

  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Gržinič, Martin;
    Publisher: M. Gržinič
    Country: Slovenia
  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Petelin, Urška;
    Publisher: U. Petelin
    Country: Slovenia
  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Novak Mlakar, Dominika;
    Country: Slovenia

    Uvod. Namen dela je bil ovrednotiti rezultate drugega organizacijskega kroga slovenskega državnega presejalnega programa za raka debelega črevesa in danke z oceno vpliva dejavnikov na rezultat presejalnega imunokemičnega testa na prikrito krvavitev v blatu in analizo intervalnih rakov. Opazovanci in metode. V analizo je bila vključena populacija prebivalcev Slovenije v starosti od 50 do 69 let, ki je bila vabljena v presejanje od aprila 2011 do decembra 2012. V analizo vplivov na rezultat presejalnega testa na prikrito krvavitev v blatu in posledično na najdbe pri kolonoskopiji so bile vključene značilnosti opazovancev in vzorcev blata. Spol, starost opazovancev, leta šolanja, lokacijo in stadij raka ter histološko vrsto sem primerjala med osebami z intervalnim rakom, osebami z rakom, odkritim v presejanju, in neodzivniki z rakom. Za izračun občutljivosti presejalnega testa sem uporabila metodo sorazmerne incidenčne stopnje. Rezultati. Pozitiven izid presejalnega testa na prikrito krvavitev v blatu je bil pogostejši pri moških, pri starejših od 54 let, pri osebah, ki so se šolale manj kot 10 let, so bile presejane prvič in so bivale v vzhodnem delu Slovenije. Starost vzorcev blata in temperatura zunanjega zraka do 25 °C nista vplivala na izid presejalnega testa. Pri temperaturi zunanjega zraka nad 25 °C je bil nižji delež pozitivnih rezultatov presejalnega testa. Med 502.488 povabljenimi v presejanje je bilo odkritih 493 rakov po pozitivnem izidu presejalnega testa, 79 intervalnih rakov po negativnem presejalnem testu in 395 rakov med neodzivniki. Delež intervalnih rakov med raki, odkritimi v presejalnem programu, je bil 13,8 %. Pri vseh treh skupinah opazovanih oseb je bil rak pogosteje odkrit pri moških in pri osebah, starejših od 54 let. Med intervalnimi raki je bilo več odkritih rakov v desnem delu črevesa in v stadiju IV glede na rake, odkrite v presejanju. V presejanju je bilo več rakov v stadiju I in v levem delu črevesa. V primerjavi z raki, odkritimi med neodzivniki, je bilo intervalnih rakov in rakov, odkritih v presejanju, več med osebami, ki so se šolale 10 let ali več. Raki, odkriti med neodzivniki, so bili pogostejši med osebami z nižjo izobrazbo in odkriti v stadiju IV. Med skupinami oseb z rakom so bile razlike v histološki vrsti odkritega raka. Občutljivost presejalnega testa na prikrito krvavitev v blatu je bila 88,45 %. Zaključki. Na izid presejalnega imunokemičnega testa na prikrito krvavitev v blatu v Sloveniji vplivajo podobni dejavniki kot v primerljivih tujih presejalnih programih. Poleg višje starosti in moškega spola na pogostejši pozitiven rezultat testa vpliva tudi nižja izobrazba, bivanje v vzhodnem delu Slovenije in če je oseba presejana prvič. Temperatura zunanjega zraka nad 25 °C znižuje delež pozitivnih rezultatov presejalnega testa. V nižjem stadiju odkriti raki v presejanju dokazujejo pomen organiziranega presejanja. Intervalni raki po negativnem presejalnem testu se v slovenskem presejalnem programu pojavljajo v pričakovanih deležih, ugotovljenih v podobnih programih v tujini. S kompletom dveh testerjev je dosežena občutljivost testa, ki je med višjimi izračunanimi v primerljivih programih. Background. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the results of the second organizational round of the Slovenian national colorectal cancer screening programme, to assess the effects on the faecal immunochemical occult blood test results and the interval cancer analysis. Patients and methods. The analysis included the population of Slovenian residents between 50 to 69 years of age, who were invited for screening between April 2011 and December 2012. The characteristics of the observed population and of stool samples were included in the analysis in order to analyse the effect on the screening test results and consequently the colonoscopy findings. Gender, age, years of schooling, the cancer site and cancer stage and the histological type were compared among interval cancers, screening cancers and cancers among non-responders. The proportional incidence method was used to calculate the screening test sensitivity. Results. Higher shares of positive outcome of the faecal immunochemical occult blood test were more frequently shown among the observed males, aged over 54 years, with less than 10 years of schooling, participating for the first time in the screening programme and residing in the eastern part of Slovenia. The age of stool samples and ambient air temperature up to 25 °C were not significant for the outcome of the screening test. However, the ambient air temperature above 25 °C had the effect of lowering the proportion of positive results of the screening test. Amongst 502,488 people invited for screening, there were 493 cancers detected after the positive screening test, 79 interval cancers after the negative screening test and 395 cancers in non-responders. The proportion of interval cancers equalled 13.8%. Among all three observed cancer groups, cancers were more frequent in men and in persons aged 54+ years. Interval cancers were more frequent in the right hemicolon and in stage IV when compared to screen detected cancers. Screen detected cancers were more frequent in stage I and in the left hemicolon. Interval and screen detected cancers were more frequently detected in persons with 10 or more years of schooling when compared to cancers detected among non-responders. Cancers detected in non-responders were more frequent among people with lower education and in stage IV. There were differences between cancers detected groups according to the histological type of cancers diagnosed. Test sensitivity of the faecal immunochemical test was 88.45 %. Conclusions. The outcomes of faecal immunochemical occult blood tests in Slovenian colorectal cancer screening are influenced by similar factors as in comparable foreign screening programmes. Besides higher age and male gender more positive results of the test were seen in persons with lower education, residing in the east of Slovenia, first screening episode. Ambient air temperature above 25 °C lowers the proportion of positive screening test results. More screen detected cancers in lower cancer stages prove the importance of organized cancer screening. Interval cancers after the negative faecal immunochemical occult blood test in Slovenian screening programme are detected in the expected proportions as in similar programmes. Test sensitivity is among the highest when compared to similar programmes and is accomplished by using two stool samples test kit.

  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Linec, Živa;
    Publisher: Ž. Linec
    Country: Slovenia

    Imunoproteasom je podvrsta multikatalitičnega encima proteasoma, ki deluje preko ubikvitinskega proteaznega sistema. Zagotavlja homeostazo celice z razgradnjo neustreznih in zastarelih proteinov, zaviranje tega encima pa lahko privede celo do celične smrti. Dokazali so, da se povečane količine imunoproteasoma pojavljajo pri nekaterih patoloških stanjih, kot so na primer avtoimunska in rakava obolenja. Zaradi tega je njegovo zaviranje med najzanimivejšimi sodobnimi pristopi za razvoj novih selektivnih učinkovin, ki bi lahko pripomogle k zdravljenju različnih bolezni. V okviru diplomske naloge smo uspešno sintetizirali šest novih potencialnih zaviralcev kimotripsinske podenote imunoproteasoma. Vse te nove spojine imajo v svoji strukturi psoralenski skelet, na katerega sta na mestih 4 in 8 vezani metilni skupini. Sinteza spojin je potekala v več stopnjah. Najprej smo tvorili osnovno strukturo z reakcijo med 2-metilresorcinolom in dietil 2-acetoglutaratom, nato pa smo nanje pripenjali različne derivate 2-bromoacetofenona, ki so imeli na mestu 3 oz. 4 aromatskega obroča vezane različne funkcionalne skupine. Nekatere od uporabljenih derivatov smo pripravili tudi sami. V naslednji stopnji smo izvedli kondenzacijo, med katero je prišlo do tvorbe psoralenskega obroča. Na eno izmed tako sintetiziranih spojin smo nato vezali še N-hidroksisukcinimid, z namenom, da bi dosegli močnejše interakcije z aktivnim mestom imunoproteasoma. Na koncu so na Katedri za klinično biokemijo FFA sintetizirane spojine še biokemijsko ovrednotili in sicer z določitvijo rezidualnih aktivnosti kimotripsinske podenote imunoproteasoma po njihovem dodatku. Izmed vseh pripravljenih spojin je tista z oznako 18 najbolj zavirala tarčo. Glede na pridobljene rezultate lahko sklepamo, da je za doseganje boljšega zaviralnega delovanja potrebna tvorba aktiviranega estra, ki omogoča tvorbo kovalentnih vezi z aminokislinskimi preostanki imunoproteasoma. Uvedba dodatne metilne skupine na mesto 8 psoralenskega obroča ter različno substituiranih fenilnih fragmentov na furanski del psoralena pa ne pripomoreta k izboljšanju afinitete za vezavo na imunoproteasom. Immunoproteasome is a special form of proteasome, which is a multicatalytic enzyme that acts via the ubiquitin protease system. The enzyme ensures homeostasis of cells by proteolysing of incorrectly formed and senescent proteins. The inhibition of this enzyme may lead to cell death. It has been demonstrated that increased quantities of immunoproteasome occur in certain pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases and cancer. For this reason, the inhibition of immunoproteasome activity has become an interesting modern approach to development of new selective agents aimed for the treatment of various diseases.We have successfully synthesized six new potential inhibitors of the chymotrypsin-like subunit of immunoproteasome. All new compounds contain psoralene moiety as a polycyclic system to which methyl groups are bound at the positions 4 and 8. The synthesis of compounds was carried out in several stages. Firstly, we formed the basic sceleton for all molecules by reacting 2-methylresorcinol and diethyl 2-acetoglutarate. Properly substituted 2-bromoacetophenone, with diverse functional groups at the positions 3 or 4 in the aromatic ring were used for preparation of corresponding ethers. Some of the reagents used were prepared in situ. In the next stage, we performed condensation, which resulted in the formation of a psoralene ring. One of the synthesized compounds was activated in the form of N-hydroxysuccinimide ester in order to achieve a stronger interaction with amino acid residues in the active site of immunoproteasome. Finally a biochemical evaluation of synthesized compounds was carried out at the Department of Clinical Biochemistry, in which the residual activity of chymotrypsin-like immunoproteasome subunit was determined following the addition of selected compounds. The compound 18 showed the most pronounced inhibitory activity. In order to achieve a better inhibitory activity, the formation of activated esters is required to enable the formation of covalent bonds with amino acid residues present in the active site of immunoproteasome. The addition of an additional methyl group at the position 8 of the psoralene ring and different by substituted phenyl fragments on the furan part of the psoralene molecule however do not improve the affinity of new compounds for their binding to immunoproteasome.

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