Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Hosting Data source
arrow_drop_down
is
arrow_drop_down
Aircraft Design and Sytems Group (AERO) @ Hamburg University of Applied Sciences - Prof. Dr. Scholz
19 Research products
Relevance
arrow_drop_down
unfold_lessCompact results

  • Publications

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Artur Bensel;

    Purpose of this project is a) the evaluation of the thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) of jet engines in cruise as a function of flight altitude, speed and thrust and b) the determination of the optimum cruise speed for maximum range of jet airplanes based on TSFC characteristics from a). Related to a) a literature review shows different models for the influence of altitude and speed on TSFC. A simple model describing the influence of thrust on TSFC seems not to exist in the literature. Here, openly available data was collected and evaluated. TSFC versus thrust is described by the so-called bucket curve with lowest TSFC at the bucket point at a certain thrust setting. A new simple equation was devised approximating the influence of thrust on TSFC. It was found that the influence of thrust as well as of altitude on TSFC is small and can be neglected in cruise conditions in many cases. However, TSFC is roughly a linear function of speed. This follows already from first principles. Related to b) it was found that the academically taught optimum flight speed (1.316 times minimum drag speed) for maximum range of jet airplanes is inaccurate, because the derivation is based on the unrealistic assumption of TSFC being constant with speed. Taking account of the influence of speed on TSFC and on drag, the optimum flight speed is only about 1.05 to 1.11 the minimum drag speed depending on aircraft weight. The amount of actual engine data was extremely limited in this project and the results will, therefore, only be as accurate as the input data. Results may only have a limited universal validity, because only four jet engine types were analyzed. One of the project's original value is the new simple polynomial function to estimate variations in TSFC from variations in thrust while maintaining constant speed and altitude.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Aircraft Design and ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    1
    citations1
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Felix Kranich; Niklas Brüge;

    Diese Projektarbeit versucht zu erklären, warum Flugzeuge mit drei oder vier Triebwerken kaum noch verkauft werden. Dabei wird insbesondere der Vermutung nachgegangen, dass Flugzeuge mit einer größeren Anzahl an Triebwerken höhere Wartungskosten haben könnten. Zur Beantwortung der Frage werden sechs verschiedene Methoden zur Berechnung von Betriebskosten (Direct Operating Costs, DOC) von Passagierflugzeugen herangezogen, die u.a. auch die Kosten der Triebwerkswartung abschätzen. Vier dieser DOC-Methoden sind von Organisationen: Air Transport Association of America (ATA 1967), Deutsche Lufthansa (DLH 1982), Association of European Airlines (AEA 1989), Airbus Industrie (AI 1989). Zwei DOC-Methoden wurden an Universitäten entwickelt und sind von Jenkinson bzw. von Thorbeck (TU Berlin, TUB). Weiterhin werden grundsätzliche flugmechanische Überlegungen angestellt und die Literatur durchgesehen, die aber nur wenige Hinweise zur Beantwortung der Fragestellung enthält. Die Gleichungen zur Berechnung der Triebwerkswartungskosten aller sechs Methoden werden dargelegt und erklärt. Die Methoden unterscheiden sich stark in ihrer Komplexität. Da die Methoden sich auf unterschiedliche Jahre beziehen werden die Kosten mit einem Inflationsfaktor auf das Jahr 2017 umgerechnet und somit vergleichbar gemacht. Zum Vergleich werden weiterhin die Gleichungen zur Berechnung der Wartungskosten der Flugzeugzelle angegeben. Zur Berechnung der Triebwerkswartungskosten wurden vier in der Größe vergleichbare Mittelstreckenflugzeuge ausgewählt: B737-800, A318 (zwei Triebwerke), Jak-42 (drei Triebwerke), BAE 146-300 (vier Triebwerke). Weiterhin wurden vier in der Größe vergleichbare Langstreckenflugzeug ausgewählt: A330-300 (zwei Triebwerke), MD11-ER, TriStar (drei Triebwerke), A340-300 (vier Triebwerke). Zum Vergleich eignen sich besonders der A330 und der A340 da die Technik, das Alter und die Abmaße sehr eng bei einander liegen. Im Ergebnis wurde festgestellt, dass sich die Aufteilung der Wartungskosten zwischen Zelle und Triebwerken uneinheitlich zeigt. Die AI-Methode ergibt im Vergleich viel zu hohe Triebwerkskosten. Der Grund dafür ist die direkte Multiplikation von Schub mit den Lohnkosten. Die AI-Methode muss daher bei der Endanalyse unberücksichtigt bleiben. Bei den Mittelstreckenflugzeugen lieferten die Methoden nach AEA, DLH und TUB ähnliche Ergebnisse. Bei den Langstreckenflugzeugen lieferten die AEA-Methode, DLH-Methode und die Methode nach Jenkison ähnliche Ergebnisse. Empfohlen werden kann damit eine Berechnung mit der AEA-Methode, die auch öffentlich ist. Für einen Endvergleich wurden für die Mittel- bzw. Langstrecke zu jeder Triebwerksanzahl nur jeweils ein Flugzeug einbezogen. Mit dieser bereinigten Auswahl bei Flugzeugen und Methoden ergab sich für die Mittelstrecke eine leichte Abnahme der Triebwerkswartungskosten mit der Triebwerksanzahl von nur 6,1 US$ pro Flugstunde pro Triebwerk (Zunahme von -6,1 US$/FH/Triebwerk). Für die Langstrecke ergab sich eine leichte Zunahme der Triebwerkswartungskosten mit der Triebwerksanzahl von nur 32,5 US$ pro Flugstunde pro Triebwerk. Damit konnte die eingangs genannte Vermutung über eine Zunahme der Triebwerkswartungskosten mit der Anzahl der Triebwerke nur zum Teil bestätigt werden. Die Analyse zeigte, dass die Triebwerkswartungskosten von vielen Parametern abhängen, die Triebwerksanzahl ist nur ein Parameter von vielen. Selbst ähnliche Flugzeuge liefern bei gleicher Triebwerkszahl daher Triebwerkswartungskosten, die sich stark unterscheiden und die Abhängigkeit von der Triebwerkszahl wenig sichtbar werden lassen. Es werden Vorschläge gemacht, welche anderen methodischen Ansätze hier Abhilfe schaffen könnten.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Aircraft Design and ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    0
    citations0
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Brecht Caers;

    Purpose – Find optimal flight and design parameters for three objectives: minimum fuel consumption, Direct Operating Costs (DOC), and environmental impact of a passenger jet aircraft. --- Approach – Combining multiple models (this includes aerodynamics, specific fuel consumption, DOC, and equivalent CO2 mass) into one generic model. In this combined model, each objective's importance is determined by a weighting factor. Additionally, the possibility of further optimizing this model by altering an aircraft's wing loading is analyzed. --- Findings – When optimizing for a compromise between economic and ecologic benefits, the general outcome is a reduction in cruise altitude and an unaltered cruise Mach number compared to common practice. Decreasing cruise speed would benefit the environmental impact but has a negative effect on seat-mile cost. An increase in wing loading could further optimize the general outcome. Albeit at the cost of a greater required landing distance, therefore limiting the operational opportunities of this aircraft. --- Research limitations – Most models use estimating equations based on first principles and statistical data. --- Practical implications – The optimal cruise altitude and speed for a specific objective can be approximated for any passenger jet aircraft. --- Social implications – By using a simple approach, the discussion of optimizing aircraft opens up to a level where everyone can participate. --- Value – To find a general answer on how to optimize aviation, operational and design-wise, by using a simple approach.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Aircraft Design and ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    0
    citations0
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marcus Burzlaff;

    In order to uncover the best kept secret in today’s commercial aviation, this project deals with the calculation of fuel consumption of aircraft. With only the reference of the aircraft manufacturer’s information, given within the airport planning documents, a method is established that allows computing values for the fuel consumption of every aircraft in question. The aircraft's fuel consumption per passenger and 100 flown kilometers decreases rapidly with range, until a near constant level is reached around the aircraft’s average range. At longer range, where payload reduction becomes necessary, fuel consumption increases significantly. Numerical results are visualized, explained, and discussed. With regard to today’s increasing number of long-haul flights, the results are investigated in terms of efficiency and viability. The environmental impact of burning fuel is not considered in this report. The presented method allows calculating aircraft type specific fuel consumption based on publicly available information. In this way, the fuel consumption of every aircraft can be investigated and can be discussed openly.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Institutionelles Rep...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    3
    citations3
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Philip Desenfans;

    Purpose - The paper presents a theoretical framework that describes the aerodynamics of a falling maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) seed. --- Methodology - A semi-empirical method is developed that provides a ratio stating how much longer a seed falls in air compared to freefall. The generated lift is calculated by evaluating the integral of two-dimensional airfoil elements using a preliminary falling speed. This allows for the calculation of the definitive falling speed using Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT); hereafter, the fall duration in air and in freefall are obtained. Furthermore, the input-variables of the calculation of lift are transformed to require only the length and width of the maple seed. Lastly, the method is applied to two calculation examples as a means of validation. --- Findings - The two example calculations gave percentual errors of 5.5% and 3.7% for the falling speed when compared to measured values. The averaged result is that a maple seed falls 9.9 times longer in air when released from 20 m; however, this result is highly dependent on geo-metrical parameters which can be accounted for using the constructed method. --- Research limitations - Firstly, the coefficient of lift is unknown for the shape of a maple seed. Secondly, the approximated transient state is yet to be verified by measurement. --- Originality / Value - The added value of this report lies in the reduction of simplifications compared to BEMT approaches. In this way a large amount of accuracy is achieved due to the inclusion of many geometrical parameters, even though simplicity is maintained. This has been accomplished through constructing a simple three-step method that is fundamental and essen-tially non-iterative.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Institutionelles Rep...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    0
    citations0
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Institutionelles Rep...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jan Lehnert;

    Diese Projektarbeit beschäftigt sich mit dem Thema der Berechnung des Betriebsleermassenanteils im Flugzeugentwurf. Bekannte Berechnungsverfahren nach Torenbeek, Raymer, Marckwardt und Loftin werden auf Qualität und Aktualität untersucht und miteinander verglichen. Im Vordergrund steht dabei die Frage, ob eine genauere Methode zur Ermittlung des Betriebsleermassenanteils auf Basis neuer Statistiken gefunden werden kann. Neben der Entwicklung einer neuen Berechnungsmethode wird außerdem auf die Verwendung der Singulärwertzerlegung im Flugzeugbau verwiesen und deren Vor- und Nachteile bezüglich der Handhabung und Genauigkeit erläutert. Diese Ausarbeitung stützt sich auf eine aktuelle Zusammenstellung von Flugzeugparametern verschiedenster Passagiermaschinen, deren Anteil sich auf 65 % der gesamten fliegenden Weltflotte im Jahr 2016 beläuft. Die oben genannten Autoren liefern Gleichungen zur Abschätzung des Verhältnisses aus Betriebsleermasse zum maximalen Abfluggewicht. Diese Gleichungen haben bezogen auf die zugrunde liegenden Statistiken eine Abweichung von bis zu 10 %. Dies ist auf die Schlichtheit der Methoden zurückzuführen, da die Anzahl der verwendeten Parameter eingeschränkt ist. Es wurde im Rahmen dieses Projektes eine analytische Gleichung zur Abschätzung des Betriebsleermassenanteils ermittelt, die die folgenden Entwurfsparameter mit einbezieht: Schub-Gewichtsverhältnis, Flächenbelastung, Design-Reichweite, Nutzlast und Anzahl der Triebwerke. Im direkten Vergleich mit der Gleichung nach Loftin, verringert sich der relative Fehler der Abschätzung um 43 %. Erreicht wurde dies durch die Einbeziehung weiterer Entwurfsparameter und deren optimaler rechnerischer Verknüpfung. Dabei wurden nur die Flugzeugparameter mit einbezogen, die zum einen bereits in der Dimensionierungsphase der Entwicklung bekannt sind, und zum anderen einen kausalen Zusammenhang zum Betriebsleermassenanteil darstellen. Die neue Methode überragt die Genauigkeit der klassischen Berechnungsverfahren und reduziert dadurch bereits im frühen Entwurfsstadium die Gefahr einer fehlerhaften Massenabschätzung. Im weiteren Verlauf des Projekts wird die Nutzung und der Anwendungsbereich der Singulärwertzerlegung (engl. Singular Value Decomposition, SVD) im Flugzeugbau betrachtet. Die Singulärwertzerlegung ist ein mathematisches Verfahren das dazu verwendet wird, mit wenigen bekannten Eingangsparametern auf alle Parameter eines Modells zu schließen. Dadurch ist es möglich eine schnelle Abschätzung eines komplexen Designs zu erstellen, auf der Basis von einer begrenzten Auswahl von bekannten Eingangsgrößen. Es hat sich herausgestellt, dass der relative Fehler des Betriebsleermassenanteils unter Verwendung der SVD auf dem gleichen Niveau der bisher bekannten Berechnungsverfahren liegt und somit keinen Vorteil in Bezug auf die Genauigkeit des Ergebnisses mit sich bringt.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Institutionelles Rep...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    0
    citations0
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Institutionelles Rep...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kinga Budziak;

    This project evaluates the sutability and practicality of the program Athena Vortex Lattice (AVL) by Mark Drela. A short user guide was written to make it easier (especially for stu-dents) to get started with the program AVL. AVL was applied to calculate the induced drag and the Oswald factor. In a first task, AVL was used to calculate simple wings of different aspect ratio A and taper ratio lambda. The Oswald factor was calculated as a function f(lambda) in the same way as shown by HOERNER. Compared to HOERNER's function, the error never exceed 7.5%. Surprisingly, the function f(lambda) was not independent of aspect ratio, as could be assumed from HOERNER. Variations of f(lambda) with aspect ratio were studied and general results found. In a second task, the box wing was investigated. Box wings of different h/b ratio: 0.31, 0.62 and 0.93 were calculated in AVL. The induced drag and Oswald factor in all these cases was calculated. An equation, generally used in the literature, describes the box wing's Oswald factor with parameters k1, k2, k3 and k4. These parameters were found from results obtained with AVL by means of the Excel Solver. In this way the curve k = f(h/b) was ploted. The curve was compared with curves with various theories and experiments conducted prior by other students. The curve built based on AVL fits very well with the curve from HOERNER, PRANDTL and a second experiment made in the wind tunnel at HAW Hamburg.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Institutionelles Rep...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    4
    citations4
    popularityAverage
    influenceTop 10%
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Institutionelles Rep...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dennis Lucht;

    Zweck - Von Piloten werden u.a. die sogenannten "Manual Flying Skills" gefordert. Dabei muss der Pilot in der Lage sein (ohne Autopiloten) nach grundlegenden Instrumenten zu fliegen. Dafür sind neben Geschick auch Faustformeln erforderlich. Die Faustformeln müssen dafür verlässlich sein. Der Inhalt dieser Arbeit beschäftigt sich exemplarisch mit einer Faustformel zur Umrechnung der kalibrierten Fluggeschwindigkeit (Calibrated Airspeed, CAS) in die wahre Fluggeschwindigkeit (True Airspeed, TAS). --- Methodik - In Excel und Matlab werden die Ergebnisse aus den Berechnungen der Faustformel mit dem Ergebnis einer exakten Berechnungsweise anhand flugmechanischer Formeln verglichen. Dabei wird die Flughöhe und Fluggeschwindigkeit variiert. Es werden die Abweichungen ermittelt und in Diagrammen zwei- und dreidimensional visualisiert. --- Ergebnisse - Die zu prüfende Faustformel liefert in dem für Sie vorgesehen Anwendungsbereich hinreichend genaue Ergebnisse mit Abweichungen unter 5 %. Dabei nehmen die Abweichung zu, umso weiter die Parameter (Höhe und Geschwindigkeit) von typischen Reiseflugbedingungen entfernt sind. --- Bedeutung in der Praxis - Piloten können bedenkenlos auf die in dieser Arbeit geprüfte Faustformel zurückgreifen und kommen so mit überschaubarem Kopfrechenaufwand auf relativ genaue Ergebnisse. --- Wert - Diese Arbeit zeigt, wie mit mäßigem Zeitaufwand in Excel eine Faustformel über einen gesamten Bereich geprüft werden kann. Das Vorgehen kann auf weitere Faustformeln übertragen werden, sodass sich ein Pilot sein "Kniebrett" mit verifizierten Faustformeln füllen kann.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Institutionelles Rep...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    0
    citations0
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Emiel De Grave;

    This thesis explains how the classified design parameters of existing passenger jets can be determined. The classified design parameters are; the maximum lift coefficient for landing and take-off, the maximum aerodynamic efficiency and the specific fuel consumption. The entire concept is based on the preliminary sizing of jet powered civil aeroplanes. This preliminary sizing is explained in detail because it is the foundation of the final result. The preliminary sizing is combined using reverse engineering which is not a strict method. Therefore, only the basics are explained. By applying reverse engineering on the preliminary sizing and aiming for the classified design parameters as output, formulas are derived to calculate the maximum lift coefficients, the maximum aerodynamic efficiency and the specific fuel consumption. The goal is to calculate these parameters, using only aircraft specifications that are made public by the manufacturer. The calculations are complex with mutual relations, iterative processes and optimizations. Therefore, it is interesting to integrate everything in a tool. The tool is built in Microsoft Excel and explained in detail adding operating instructions. The program is executed for miscellaneous aeroplanes, supported with the necessary comments. Investigated aeroplanes are: Caravelle 10B (Sud-Aviation), Boeing 707-320C, BAe 146-200 (British Aerospance), A320-200 (Airbus), "The Rebel" (based on A320), Boeing SUGAR High, Boeing 747-400, Blended Wing Body VELA 2 (VELA) and Dassault Falcon 8X.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Institutionelles Rep...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    0
    citations0
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Institutionelles Rep...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Arlind Pape;

    In dieser Projektarbeit geht es um die Abschätzung von Massen der Hauptbaugruppen großer ziviler Verkehrsflugzeuge (MTOM > 40 t), sowie um die Abschätzung der Betriebsleermasse. Die Projektarbeit analysiert die 2013 im Luftfahrttechnischen Handbuch (LTH) erschienene Massenschätzmethode MA 401 12-01 B von F. Dorbarth und vergleicht diese Methode mit anderen früher veröffentlichten Methoden, die von Fernandes da Moura bereits 2001 analysiert wurden. Für die Analyse werden ausgewählte Flugzeugmuster (A320-200, A330-200, A340-300 und B737-200) und deren tatsächliche Massen der Hauptbaugruppen sowie Betriebsleermassen genutzt. Die Abweichungen zwischen den berechneten und den tatsächlichen Massen werden für jede Methode in Diagrammen veranschaulicht. Es zeigt sich dabei, dass die Massenschätzmethode aus dem Luftfahrttechnischen Handbuch nur geringe Abweichungen im Vergleich zu den tatsächlichen Massen aufweist. Damit werden die eigenen Angaben zur Genauigkeit der LTH-Methode bestätigt. Die Abweichungen sind geringer als bei älteren und generelleren Methoden wie sie von Fernandes da Moura untersucht wurden. Dies entspricht der Erwartung, dass eine neuere Methode, die auf Flugzeuge einer bestimmten Art beschränkt ist, auch genauere Ergebnisse liefert. Insgesamt hat sich die LTH-Methode als übersichtliche und hinreichend genaue Methode zur Massenabschätzung im frühen Flugzeugentwurf erwiesen. Die Abweichungen lagen in der Regel unter 5 % und nur in Ausnahmefällen wurde eine Abweichung von 10 % überschritten.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Aircraft Design and ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    0
    citations0
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Aircraft Design and ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Hosting Data source
arrow_drop_down
is
arrow_drop_down
Aircraft Design and Sytems Group (AERO) @ Hamburg University of Applied Sciences - Prof. Dr. Scholz
19 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Artur Bensel;

    Purpose of this project is a) the evaluation of the thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) of jet engines in cruise as a function of flight altitude, speed and thrust and b) the determination of the optimum cruise speed for maximum range of jet airplanes based on TSFC characteristics from a). Related to a) a literature review shows different models for the influence of altitude and speed on TSFC. A simple model describing the influence of thrust on TSFC seems not to exist in the literature. Here, openly available data was collected and evaluated. TSFC versus thrust is described by the so-called bucket curve with lowest TSFC at the bucket point at a certain thrust setting. A new simple equation was devised approximating the influence of thrust on TSFC. It was found that the influence of thrust as well as of altitude on TSFC is small and can be neglected in cruise conditions in many cases. However, TSFC is roughly a linear function of speed. This follows already from first principles. Related to b) it was found that the academically taught optimum flight speed (1.316 times minimum drag speed) for maximum range of jet airplanes is inaccurate, because the derivation is based on the unrealistic assumption of TSFC being constant with speed. Taking account of the influence of speed on TSFC and on drag, the optimum flight speed is only about 1.05 to 1.11 the minimum drag speed depending on aircraft weight. The amount of actual engine data was extremely limited in this project and the results will, therefore, only be as accurate as the input data. Results may only have a limited universal validity, because only four jet engine types were analyzed. One of the project's original value is the new simple polynomial function to estimate variations in TSFC from variations in thrust while maintaining constant speed and altitude.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Aircraft Design and ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    1
    citations1
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Felix Kranich; Niklas Brüge;

    Diese Projektarbeit versucht zu erklären, warum Flugzeuge mit drei oder vier Triebwerken kaum noch verkauft werden. Dabei wird insbesondere der Vermutung nachgegangen, dass Flugzeuge mit einer größeren Anzahl an Triebwerken höhere Wartungskosten haben könnten. Zur Beantwortung der Frage werden sechs verschiedene Methoden zur Berechnung von Betriebskosten (Direct Operating Costs, DOC) von Passagierflugzeugen herangezogen, die u.a. auch die Kosten der Triebwerkswartung abschätzen. Vier dieser DOC-Methoden sind von Organisationen: Air Transport Association of America (ATA 1967), Deutsche Lufthansa (DLH 1982), Association of European Airlines (AEA 1989), Airbus Industrie (AI 1989). Zwei DOC-Methoden wurden an Universitäten entwickelt und sind von Jenkinson bzw. von Thorbeck (TU Berlin, TUB). Weiterhin werden grundsätzliche flugmechanische Überlegungen angestellt und die Literatur durchgesehen, die aber nur wenige Hinweise zur Beantwortung der Fragestellung enthält. Die Gleichungen zur Berechnung der Triebwerkswartungskosten aller sechs Methoden werden dargelegt und erklärt. Die Methoden unterscheiden sich stark in ihrer Komplexität. Da die Methoden sich auf unterschiedliche Jahre beziehen werden die Kosten mit einem Inflationsfaktor auf das Jahr 2017 umgerechnet und somit vergleichbar gemacht. Zum Vergleich werden weiterhin die Gleichungen zur Berechnung der Wartungskosten der Flugzeugzelle angegeben. Zur Berechnung der Triebwerkswartungskosten wurden vier in der Größe vergleichbare Mittelstreckenflugzeuge ausgewählt: B737-800, A318 (zwei Triebwerke), Jak-42 (drei Triebwerke), BAE 146-300 (vier Triebwerke). Weiterhin wurden vier in der Größe vergleichbare Langstreckenflugzeug ausgewählt: A330-300 (zwei Triebwerke), MD11-ER, TriStar (drei Triebwerke), A340-300 (vier Triebwerke). Zum Vergleich eignen sich besonders der A330 und der A340 da die Technik, das Alter und die Abmaße sehr eng bei einander liegen. Im Ergebnis wurde festgestellt, dass sich die Aufteilung der Wartungskosten zwischen Zelle und Triebwerken uneinheitlich zeigt. Die AI-Methode ergibt im Vergleich viel zu hohe Triebwerkskosten. Der Grund dafür ist die direkte Multiplikation von Schub mit den Lohnkosten. Die AI-Methode muss daher bei der Endanalyse unberücksichtigt bleiben. Bei den Mittelstreckenflugzeugen lieferten die Methoden nach AEA, DLH und TUB ähnliche Ergebnisse. Bei den Langstreckenflugzeugen lieferten die AEA-Methode, DLH-Methode und die Methode nach Jenkison ähnliche Ergebnisse. Empfohlen werden kann damit eine Berechnung mit der AEA-Methode, die auch öffentlich ist. Für einen Endvergleich wurden für die Mittel- bzw. Langstrecke zu jeder Triebwerksanzahl nur jeweils ein Flugzeug einbezogen. Mit dieser bereinigten Auswahl bei Flugzeugen und Methoden ergab sich für die Mittelstrecke eine leichte Abnahme der Triebwerkswartungskosten mit der Triebwerksanzahl von nur 6,1 US$ pro Flugstunde pro Triebwerk (Zunahme von -6,1 US$/FH/Triebwerk). Für die Langstrecke ergab sich eine leichte Zunahme der Triebwerkswartungskosten mit der Triebwerksanzahl von nur 32,5 US$ pro Flugstunde pro Triebwerk. Damit konnte die eingangs genannte Vermutung über eine Zunahme der Triebwerkswartungskosten mit der Anzahl der Triebwerke nur zum Teil bestätigt werden. Die Analyse zeigte, dass die Triebwerkswartungskosten von vielen Parametern abhängen, die Triebwerksanzahl ist nur ein Parameter von vielen. Selbst ähnliche Flugzeuge liefern bei gleicher Triebwerkszahl daher Triebwerkswartungskosten, die sich stark unterscheiden und die Abhängigkeit von der Triebwerkszahl wenig sichtbar werden lassen. Es werden Vorschläge gemacht, welche anderen methodischen Ansätze hier Abhilfe schaffen könnten.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Aircraft Design and ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    0
    citations0
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Brecht Caers;

    Purpose – Find optimal flight and design parameters for three objectives: minimum fuel consumption, Direct Operating Costs (DOC), and environmental impact of a passenger jet aircraft. --- Approach – Combining multiple models (this includes aerodynamics, specific fuel consumption, DOC, and equivalent CO2 mass) into one generic model. In this combined model, each objective's importance is determined by a weighting factor. Additionally, the possibility of further optimizing this model by altering an aircraft's wing loading is analyzed. --- Findings – When optimizing for a compromise between economic and ecologic benefits, the general outcome is a reduction in cruise altitude and an unaltered cruise Mach number compared to common practice. Decreasing cruise speed would benefit the environmental impact but has a negative effect on seat-mile cost. An increase in wing loading could further optimize the general outcome. Albeit at the cost of a greater required landing distance, therefore limiting the operational opportunities of this aircraft. --- Research limitations – Most models use estimating equations based on first principles and statistical data. --- Practical implications – The optimal cruise altitude and speed for a specific objective can be approximated for any passenger jet aircraft. --- Social implications – By using a simple approach, the discussion of optimizing aircraft opens up to a level where everyone can participate. --- Value – To find a general answer on how to optimize aviation, operational and design-wise, by using a simple approach.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Aircraft Design and ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    0
    citations0
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marcus Burzlaff;

    In order to uncover the best kept secret in today’s commercial aviation, this project deals with the calculation of fuel consumption of aircraft. With only the reference of the aircraft manufacturer’s information, given within the airport planning documents, a method is established that allows computing values for the fuel consumption of every aircraft in question. The aircraft's fuel consumption per passenger and 100 flown kilometers decreases rapidly with range, until a near constant level is reached around the aircraft’s average range. At longer range, where payload reduction becomes necessary, fuel consumption increases significantly. Numerical results are visualized, explained, and discussed. With regard to today’s increasing number of long-haul flights, the results are investigated in terms of efficiency and viability. The environmental impact of burning fuel is not considered in this report. The presented method allows calculating aircraft type specific fuel consumption based on publicly available information. In this way, the fuel consumption of every aircraft can be investigated and can be discussed openly.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Institutionelles Rep...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    3
    citations3
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert