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  • 2021-2021
  • OA Publications Mandate: Yes
  • 2016

10
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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 694122
    Overall Budget: 2,461,090 EURFunder Contribution: 2,461,090 EUR

    Light fields technology holds great promises in computational imaging. Light fields cameras capture light rays as they interact with physical objects in the scene. The recorded flow of rays (the light field) yields a rich description of the scene enabling advanced image creation capabilities from a single capture. This technology is expected to bring disruptive changes in computational imaging. However, the trajectory to a deployment of light fields remains cumbersome. Bottlenecks need to be alleviated before being able to fully exploit its potential. Barriers that CLIM addresses are the huge amount of high-dimensional (4D/5D) data produced by light fields, limitations of capturing devices, editing and image creation capabilities from compressed light fields. These barriers cannot be overcome by a simple application of methods which have made the success of digital imaging in past decades. The 4D/5D sampling of the geometric distribution of light rays striking the camera sensors imply radical changes in the signal processing chain compared to traditional imaging systems. The ambition of CLIM is to lay new algorithmic foundations for the 4D/5D light fields processing chain, going from representation, compression to rendering. Data processing becomes tougher as dimensionality increases, which is the case of light fields compared to 2D images. This leads to the first challenge of CLIM that is the development of methods for low dimensional embedding and sparse representations of 4D/5D light fields. The second challenge is to develop a coding/decoding architecture for light fields which will exploit their geometrical models while preserving the structures that are critical for advanced image creation capabilities. CLIM targets ground-breaking solutions which should open new horizons for a number of consumer and professional markets (photography, augmented reality, light field microscopy, medical imaging, particle image velocimetry).

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 681630
    Overall Budget: 1,999,010 EURFunder Contribution: 1,999,010 EUR

    Homologous recombination plays a crucial role to repair DNA strand breaks that may occur spontaneously upon replication fork collapse, during the course of radio- or chemotherapy or in a programmed manner during meiosis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of re-combinational repair is thus very important not only from a basic research viewpoint, but it is also highly relevant for human health. Here, we will define the function of nucleases in homol-ogous recombination. First, we will study the initial steps in this pathway. We could show previously that the S. cerevisiae Sae2 protein promotes the endonuclease activity of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex near protein blocked DNA ends. This initiates nucleolytic resection of DNA breaks and activates homologous recombination. Our biochemical setup will be instrumental to define how is the activity of Sae2 regulated by phosphorylation on a mech-anistic level and how physiological protein blocks direct the Mre11 endonuclease. We will ex-tend the study to the human system, and attempt to apply the gained knowledge to improve the efficiency of genome editing by activating recombination in conjunction with the CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease system. Second, we will study how homologous recombination promotes gen-eration of genetic diversity during sexual reproduction. DNA strand breaks are introduced in-tentionally during the prophase of the first meiotic division. They are then processed by the recombination machinery into Holliday junction intermediates. These joint molecules are preferentially converted into crossovers in meiosis, resulting in exchange of genetic infor-mation between the maternal and paternal DNA molecules. This is dependent on the Mlh1-Mlh3 nuclease through a yet unknown mechanism. We will study how Mlh1-Mlh3 in complex with other proteins guarantee crossover outcome to promote diversity of the progeny.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 115881
    Overall Budget: 18,691,100 EURFunder Contribution: 8,130,000 EUR

    The stated goal of RHAPSODY is to define a molecular taxonomy of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) that will support patient segmentation, inform clinical trial design, and the establishment of regulatory paths for the adoption of novel strategies for diabetes prevention and treatment. To address these goals, RHAPSODY will bring together prominent European experts, including the leaders of the diabetes-relevant IMI1 projects to identify, validate and characterize causal biomarkers for T2D subtypes and progression. Our plans are built upon: (a) access to large European cohorts with comprehensive genetic analyses and rich longitudinal clinical and biochemical data and samples; (b) detailed multi-omic maps of key T2D-relevant tissues and organs; (c) large expertise in the development and use of novel genetic, epigenetic, biochemical and physiological experimental approaches; (d) the ability to combine existing and novel data sets through effective data federation and use of these datasets in systems biology approaches towards precision medicine; and (e) expertise in regulatory approval, health economics and patient engagement. These activities will lead to the discovery of novel biomarkers for improved T2D taxonomy, to support development of pharmaceutical activities, and for use in precision medicine to improve health in Europe and worldwide.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 677809
    Overall Budget: 1,500,000 EURFunder Contribution: 1,500,000 EUR

    Our tissues are constantly renewed by stem cells. Over time, stem cells accumulate cellular damage that will compromise renewal and results in aging. As stem cells can divide asymmetrically, segregation of harmful factors to the differentiating daughter cell could be one possible mechanism for slowing damage accumulation in the stem cell. However, current evidence for such mechanisms comes mainly from analogous findings in yeast, and studies have concentrated only on few types of cellular damage. I hypothesize that the chronological age of a subcellular component is a proxy for all the damage it has sustained. In order to secure regeneration, mammalian stem cells may therefore specifically sort old cellular material asymmetrically. To study this, I have developed a novel strategy and tools to address the age-selective segregation of any protein in stem cell division. Using this approach, I have already discovered that stem-like cells of the human mammary epithelium indeed apportion chronologically old mitochondria asymmetrically in cell division, and enrich old mitochondria to the differentiating daughter cell. We will investigate the mechanisms underlying this novel phenomenon, and its relevance for mammalian aging. We will first identify how old and young mitochondria differ, and how stem cells recognize them to facilitate the asymmetric segregation. Next, we will analyze the extent of asymmetric age-selective segregation by targeting several other subcellular compartments in a stem cell division. Finally, we will determine whether the discovered age-selective segregation is a general property of stem cell in vivo, and it's functional relevance for maintenance of stem cells and tissue regeneration. Our discoveries may open new possibilities to target aging associated functional decline by induction of asymmetric age-selective organelle segregation.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 692775
    Overall Budget: 2,497,980 EURFunder Contribution: 2,497,980 EUR

    The discovery of novel sustainable catalytic reactions is a major current goal. Based on recent discoveries in our group, we plan to develop unprecedented sustainable catalytic reactions with special emphasis on reactions catalyzed by complexes of earth-abundant metals. We have recently discovered an intriguing reaction, namely the oxidation of organic compounds using water, with no added oxidant, evolving H2. This simple, selective reaction, offers now a novel, conceptually new, environmentally benign approach in the field of oxidation of organic compounds, which we will explore. We recently discovered a new mode of activation of multiple bonds by metal-ligand cooperation, including activation of CO2 and nitrile triple bonds, in which reversible C-C bond formation with the ligand is involved. Based on that, activation of nitriles has resulted in unprecedented C-C bond formation involving addition of simple aliphatic nitriles to various α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. This mode of multiple bond activation may open a new approach to catalysis, “template catalysis”, which we plan to explore. In addition, the highly desirable, catalytic activation of the kinetically very stable, potent greenhouse gas N2O for the (so far elusive), efficient oxygen transfer to organic compounds, will be pursued. The use of CO2 in organic synthesis is an important timely topic. Based on its activation by metal ligand cooperation, new catalytic reactions of CO2 will be pursued, including unprecedented carbonylation of non-activated C-H bonds. Most reactions catalysed by metal complexes involve noble metals. Development of sustainable catalysis based on complexes of earth-abundant metals is of great interest. In all topics described above, catalysis by complexes of such metals will be emphasized. Moreover, based on recent results in our group, we plan to develop an unprecedented family of complexes of earth-abundant metals, and pursue novel sustainable catalysis, based on it.

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    downloaddownloads86
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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 694807
    Overall Budget: 2,498,750 EURFunder Contribution: 2,498,750 EUR

    Techniques for separating fluid mixtures are important in many industries like the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. The most relevant of these separation techniques, like distillation and absorption, are based on mass transfer over fluid interfaces. Results from molecular thermodynamics, which have recently become available, show that for many industrially important mixtures a strong enrichment of components occurs at the fluid interface. There is a striking congruence between shortcomings of the present design methods for fluid separations and the occurrence of that enrichment. It is the central hypothesis of the present research that the enrichment leads to a mass transfer resistance of the fluid interface which has to be accounted for in fluid separation process design. The fact that it is presently neglected causes unnecessary empiricism and inconsistencies in the design. ENRICO will advance the knowledge on the enrichment of components at fluid interfaces using a novel combination of two independent theoretical methods, namely molecular simulations with force fields on one side and density gradient theory coupled with equations of state on the other. This will enable reliable predictions of the occurrence of the enrichment and its magnitude. These results will be combined with the theory of irreversible thermodynamics to establish for the first time a model for the mass transfer resistance of the interface due to the enrichment. On that basis, a new approach for designing fluid separation processes will be developed in ENRICO, which will lead to more efficient and robust designs. The theoretical results will be validated by experiments from laboratory to pilot plant scale, and the benefits of the new approach will be demonstrated. ENRICO will thus establish a link between molecular physics and engineering practice. The results from ENRICO will have a major impact on chemical engineering world-wide and change the way fluid separation processes are designed.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 723770
    Overall Budget: 15,270,000 EURFunder Contribution: 5,039,100 EUR

    Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology to medicine and healthcare. The field takes advantage of the physical, chemical and biological properties of materials at the nanometer scale to be used for a better understanding of the biological mechanisms of diseases at the molecular level, leading to new targets for earlier and more precise diagnostics and therapeutics. Nanomedicine, rated among the six most promising Key Enabling Technologies, is one of the most important emerging areas of health research expected to contribute to one of the strategic challenges that Europe has to face in the future: Provide effective and affordable health care and assure the wellbeing of an increasingly aged population. EuroNanoMed III (ENM III) builds on the foundations of ENM I & II, which launched 7 successful joint calls for proposals since 2009, funded 51 transnational research projects involving 269 partners from 25 countries/regions, and allocated € 45,5 million to research projects from ENM funding agencies. ENM III consortium, reinforced with 12 new partners from Europe, Canada and Taiwan, is committed to fostering the competiveness of European nanomedicine actors taking into account recent changes in the landscape and new stakeholders and challenges, as identified in the SRIA in nanomedicine. The first joint call for proposals will be co-funded by ENM III partners and the EC. After the co-funded call, three additional joint transnational calls will be organized and strategic activities will be accomplished in collaboration with key initiatives in the field. ENM III actions focus on translatability of project results to clinical and industry needs.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 694888
    Overall Budget: 2,212,050 EURFunder Contribution: 2,212,050 EUR

    The aim of this project is to develop the next generation of compressive and computational sensing and processing techniques. The ability to identify and exploit good signal representations is pivotal in many signal and data processing tasks. During the last decade sparse representations have provided stunning performance gains for applications such as: imaging coding, computer vision, super-resolution microscopy and most recently in MRI, achieving many-fold acceleration through compressed sensing (CS). However in most real world sensing it is generally not possible to fully adopt the random sampling strategies advocated by CS. Systems are often nonlinear, measurements have limited dynamic range, noise is rarely Gaussian and reconstruction is not always the final goal. Furthermore, iterative reconstruction techniques are often not adopted in commercial imaging systems as they typically incur at least an order of magnitude more computation than traditional techniques. Thus there is a real need for a new framework for generalized computationally accelerated sensing and processing techniques. The research proposed here will build on the PIs recent work in this area and will develop and analyse a much richer class of hierarchical low dimensional signal models, accommodating everything from physical laws to data-driven models such as deep neural networks. It will provide quantitative guidance for system design and address sensing tasks beyond reconstruction including detection, classification and statistical estimation. It will also exploit low dimensional structure to reduce computational cost as well as estimation accuracy, challenging the notion that exploiting prior information must come at a computational cost. This research will result in a new generation of data-driven, physics-aware and task-orientated sensing systems in application domains such as advanced radar, CT and MR imaging and emerging sensing modalities such as multispectral time-of-flight cameras.

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  • Funder: WT Project Code: 200183
    Funder Contribution: 3,631,280 GBP

    Action potential propagation velocity provided a useful system for categorising peripheral nerves for 75 years. Now, genetic definition of sensory neuron subsets is providing a more precise functional distinction; individual sensory neurons and their target dorsal horn neurons can be activated, silenced or killed genetically and defined in terms of their transcriptomes, and linked to behavioural changes. In addition, physiological stimuli can be used to drive activity dependent reporters allowing further definition of neuronal subtypes. In this proposal, we show how the exploitation of these methods will inform our knowledge of peripheral pain pathways, the key element in almost all chronic pain syndromes, and identify cell types and molecular targets that are critical for distinct types of pain sensation. Our work will encompass human and primate genetics and should provide clinically significant information. Pain is a poorly treated problem for 1 in 5 of the population. New drugs are needed but many pain killing drug trials have failed, although the drugs work in rodents. We have learned a lot about pain from genetic studies that show some nerves in the skin and viscera are only involved in pain pathways. However, we do not know the relationship between human nerves and mouse nerves that are studied in the laboratory. In the proposed work we will characterise in detail the properties of individual nerve cells in macaques to see how they differ. We are unable to do this in humans, because we need fresh nerves for the analysis. However, we can search for more human heritable pain genes from people who suffer ongoing pain as these may be useful drug targets. We plan to analyse the nerve types involved in different types of pain in mice and catalogue the genes linked to specific pain conditions in animal models. By artificially stimulating or silencing sets of nerves in living mice we can find out more about the physiological processes that lead to pain, and find new ways to treat it.

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    downloaddownloads33
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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 714620
    Overall Budget: 1,500,000 EURFunder Contribution: 1,500,000 EUR

    Nature is a rich source of biologically active molecules, among which the largest and most diverse group of natural products are terpenes. Essential drugs like the cancer medication taxol/paclitaxel or the malaria drug artemisinin belong to the terpene family. They are efficiently formed in nature through a so-called tail-to-head terpene cyclization. Chemists are not able to mimic this process with man-made catalysts. This proposal aims at closing this significant research gap by utilizing supramolecular chemistry. Learning how to design such complex catalysts will not only enable us to mimic natural enzymes, but to enter uncharted territory of terpene chemistry. The main objective is the development of selective catalysts for terpene cyclizations. This certainly poses the greatest challenge within this proposal. Therefore, two independent work packages were devised to tackle this challenge. A novel class of self-assembled catalysts will be developed which are able to control the conformation of the substrate, thereby allowing for selectivity in the cyclization process. The active site of these catalysts can be modified to selectively produce the desired terpene product. Additionally, dynamic covalent chemistry will be employed to construct covalent catalyst structures. As the second objective, this proposal aims to greatly expand the natural variety of terpenes by utilizing unnatural terpene cyclization precursors. Utilizing the catalysts developed from objective 1, unprecedented artemisinin drug derivatives, which are not accessible via other routes, will be synthesized. This project will provide catalysts which are able to predictably constrain the conformation of the substrate. Such control is not possible with state-of-the-art catalyst systems. Therefore, I anticipate that this project will open up new horizons in the fields of catalysis and organic synthesis.

    more_vert
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1,659 Projects
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 694122
    Overall Budget: 2,461,090 EURFunder Contribution: 2,461,090 EUR

    Light fields technology holds great promises in computational imaging. Light fields cameras capture light rays as they interact with physical objects in the scene. The recorded flow of rays (the light field) yields a rich description of the scene enabling advanced image creation capabilities from a single capture. This technology is expected to bring disruptive changes in computational imaging. However, the trajectory to a deployment of light fields remains cumbersome. Bottlenecks need to be alleviated before being able to fully exploit its potential. Barriers that CLIM addresses are the huge amount of high-dimensional (4D/5D) data produced by light fields, limitations of capturing devices, editing and image creation capabilities from compressed light fields. These barriers cannot be overcome by a simple application of methods which have made the success of digital imaging in past decades. The 4D/5D sampling of the geometric distribution of light rays striking the camera sensors imply radical changes in the signal processing chain compared to traditional imaging systems. The ambition of CLIM is to lay new algorithmic foundations for the 4D/5D light fields processing chain, going from representation, compression to rendering. Data processing becomes tougher as dimensionality increases, which is the case of light fields compared to 2D images. This leads to the first challenge of CLIM that is the development of methods for low dimensional embedding and sparse representations of 4D/5D light fields. The second challenge is to develop a coding/decoding architecture for light fields which will exploit their geometrical models while preserving the structures that are critical for advanced image creation capabilities. CLIM targets ground-breaking solutions which should open new horizons for a number of consumer and professional markets (photography, augmented reality, light field microscopy, medical imaging, particle image velocimetry).

    more_vert
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 681630
    Overall Budget: 1,999,010 EURFunder Contribution: 1,999,010 EUR

    Homologous recombination plays a crucial role to repair DNA strand breaks that may occur spontaneously upon replication fork collapse, during the course of radio- or chemotherapy or in a programmed manner during meiosis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of re-combinational repair is thus very important not only from a basic research viewpoint, but it is also highly relevant for human health. Here, we will define the function of nucleases in homol-ogous recombination. First, we will study the initial steps in this pathway. We could show previously that the S. cerevisiae Sae2 protein promotes the endonuclease activity of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex near protein blocked DNA ends. This initiates nucleolytic resection of DNA breaks and activates homologous recombination. Our biochemical setup will be instrumental to define how is the activity of Sae2 regulated by phosphorylation on a mech-anistic level and how physiological protein blocks direct the Mre11 endonuclease. We will ex-tend the study to the human system, and attempt to apply the gained knowledge to improve the efficiency of genome editing by activating recombination in conjunction with the CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease system. Second, we will study how homologous recombination promotes gen-eration of genetic diversity during sexual reproduction. DNA strand breaks are introduced in-tentionally during the prophase of the first meiotic division. They are then processed by the recombination machinery into Holliday junction intermediates. These joint molecules are preferentially converted into crossovers in meiosis, resulting in exchange of genetic infor-mation between the maternal and paternal DNA molecules. This is dependent on the Mlh1-Mlh3 nuclease through a yet unknown mechanism. We will study how Mlh1-Mlh3 in complex with other proteins guarantee crossover outcome to promote diversity of the progeny.

    visibility83
    visibilityviews83
    downloaddownloads31
    Powered by Usage counts
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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 115881
    Overall Budget: 18,691,100 EURFunder Contribution: 8,130,000 EUR

    The stated goal of RHAPSODY is to define a molecular taxonomy of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) that will support patient segmentation, inform clinical trial design, and the establishment of regulatory paths for the adoption of novel strategies for diabetes prevention and treatment. To address these goals, RHAPSODY will bring together prominent European experts, including the leaders of the diabetes-relevant IMI1 projects to identify, validate and characterize causal biomarkers for T2D subtypes and progression. Our plans are built upon: (a) access to large European cohorts with comprehensive genetic analyses and rich longitudinal clinical and biochemical data and samples; (b) detailed multi-omic maps of key T2D-relevant tissues and organs; (c) large expertise in the development and use of novel genetic, epigenetic, biochemical and physiological experimental approaches; (d) the ability to combine existing and novel data sets through effective data federation and use of these datasets in systems biology approaches towards precision medicine; and (e) expertise in regulatory approval, health economics and patient engagement. These activities will lead to the discovery of novel biomarkers for improved T2D taxonomy, to support development of pharmaceutical activities, and for use in precision medicine to improve health in Europe and worldwide.

    visibility454
    visibilityviews454
    downloaddownloads890
    Powered by Usage counts
    more_vert
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 677809
    Overall Budget: 1,500,000 EURFunder Contribution: 1,500,000 EUR

    Our tissues are constantly renewed by stem cells. Over time, stem cells accumulate cellular damage that will compromise renewal and results in aging. As stem cells can divide asymmetrically, segregation of harmful factors to the differentiating daughter cell could be one possible mechanism for slowing damage accumulation in the stem cell. However, current evidence for such mechanisms comes mainly from analogous findings in yeast, and studies have concentrated only on few types of cellular damage. I hypothesize that the chronological age of a subcellular component is a proxy for all the damage it has sustained. In order to secure regeneration, mammalian stem cells may therefore specifically sort old cellular material asymmetrically. To study this, I have developed a novel strategy and tools to address the age-selective segregation of any protein in stem cell division. Using this approach, I have already discovered that stem-like cells of the human mammary epithelium indeed apportion chronologically old mitochondria asymmetrically in cell division, and enrich old mitochondria to the differentiating daughter cell. We will investigate the mechanisms underlying this novel phenomenon, and its relevance for mammalian aging. We will first identify how old and young mitochondria differ, and how stem cells recognize them to facilitate the asymmetric segregation. Next, we will analyze the extent of asymmetric age-selective segregation by targeting several other subcellular compartments in a stem cell division. Finally, we will determine whether the discovered age-selective segregation is a general property of stem cell in vivo, and it's functional relevance for maintenance of stem cells and tissue regeneration. Our discoveries may open new possibilities to target aging associated functional decline by induction of asymmetric age-selective organelle segregation.

    more_vert
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 692775
    Overall Budget: 2,497,980 EURFunder Contribution: 2,497,980 EUR

    The discovery of novel sustainable catalytic reactions is a major current goal. Based on recent discoveries in our group, we plan to develop unprecedented sustainable catalytic reactions with special emphasis on reactions catalyzed by complexes of earth-abundant metals. We have recently discovered an intriguing reaction, namely the oxidation of organic compounds using water, with no added oxidant, evolving H2. This simple, selective reaction, offers now a novel, conceptually new, environmentally benign approach in the field of oxidation of organic compounds, which we will explore. We recently discovered a new mode of activation of multiple bonds by metal-ligand cooperation, including activation of CO2 and nitrile triple bonds, in which reversible C-C bond formation with the ligand is involved. Based on that, activation of nitriles has resulted in unprecedented C-C bond formation involving addition of simple aliphatic nitriles to various α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. This mode of multiple bond activation may open a new approach to catalysis, “template catalysis”, which we plan to explore. In addition, the highly desirable, catalytic activation of the kinetically very stable, potent greenhouse gas N2O for the (so far elusive), efficient oxygen transfer to organic compounds, will be pursued. The use of CO2 in organic synthesis is an important timely topic. Based on its activation by metal ligand cooperation, new catalytic reactions of CO2 will be pursued, including unprecedented carbonylation of non-activated C-H bonds. Most reactions catalysed by metal complexes involve noble metals. Development of sustainable catalysis based on complexes of earth-abundant metals is of great interest. In all topics described above, catalysis by complexes of such metals will be emphasized. Moreover, based on recent results in our group, we plan to develop an unprecedented family of complexes of earth-abundant metals, and pursue novel sustainable catalysis, based on it.

    visibility19
    visibilityviews19
    downloaddownloads86
    Powered by Usage counts
    more_vert
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 694807
    Overall Budget: 2,498,750 EURFunder Contribution: 2,498,750 EUR

    Techniques for separating fluid mixtures are important in many industries like the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. The most relevant of these separation techniques, like distillation and absorption, are based on mass transfer over fluid interfaces. Results from molecular thermodynamics, which have recently become available, show that for many industrially important mixtures a strong enrichment of components occurs at the fluid interface. There is a striking congruence between shortcomings of the present design methods for fluid separations and the occurrence of that enrichment. It is the central hypothesis of the present research that the enrichment leads to a mass transfer resistance of the fluid interface which has to be accounted for in fluid separation process design. The fact that it is presently neglected causes unnecessary empiricism and inconsistencies in the design. ENRICO will advance the knowledge on the enrichment of components at fluid interfaces using a novel combination of two independent theoretical methods, namely molecular simulations with force fields on one side and density gradient theory coupled with equations of state on the other. This will enable reliable predictions of the occurrence of the enrichment and its magnitude. These results will be combined with the theory of irreversible thermodynamics to establish for the first time a model for the mass transfer resistance of the interface due to the enrichment. On that basis, a new approach for designing fluid separation processes will be developed in ENRICO, which will lead to more efficient and robust designs. The theoretical results will be validated by experiments from laboratory to pilot plant scale, and the benefits of the new approach will be demonstrated. ENRICO will thus establish a link between molecular physics and engineering practice. The results from ENRICO will have a major impact on chemical engineering world-wide and change the way fluid separation processes are designed.

    visibility13
    visibilityviews13
    downloaddownloads4
    Powered by Usage counts
    more_vert
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 723770
    Overall Budget: 15,270,000 EURFunder Contribution: 5,039,100 EUR

    Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology to medicine and healthcare. The field takes advantage of the physical, chemical and biological properties of materials at the nanometer scale to be used for a better understanding of the biological mechanisms of diseases at the molecular level, leading to new targets for earlier and more precise diagnostics and therapeutics. Nanomedicine, rated among the six most promising Key Enabling Technologies, is one of the most important emerging areas of health research expected to contribute to one of the strategic challenges that Europe has to face in the future: Provide effective and affordable health care and assure the wellbeing of an increasingly aged population. EuroNanoMed III (ENM III) builds on the foundations of ENM I & II, which launched 7 successful joint calls for proposals since 2009, funded 51 transnational research projects involving 269 partners from 25 countries/regions, and allocated € 45,5 million to research projects from ENM funding agencies. ENM III consortium, reinforced with 12 new partners from Europe, Canada and Taiwan, is committed to fostering the competiveness of European nanomedicine actors taking into account recent changes in the landscape and new stakeholders and challenges, as identified in the SRIA in nanomedicine. The first joint call for proposals will be co-funded by ENM III partners and the EC. After the co-funded call, three additional joint transnational calls will be organized and strategic activities will be accomplished in collaboration with key initiatives in the field. ENM III actions focus on translatability of project results to clinical and industry needs.

    visibility182
    visibilityviews182
    downloaddownloads133
    Powered by Usage counts
    more_vert
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 694888
    Overall Budget: 2,212,050 EURFunder Contribution: 2,212,050 EUR

    The aim of this project is to develop the next generation of compressive and computational sensing and processing techniques. The ability to identify and exploit good signal representations is pivotal in many signal and data processing tasks. During the last decade sparse representations have provided stunning performance gains for applications such as: imaging coding, computer vision, super-resolution microscopy and most recently in MRI, achieving many-fold acceleration through compressed sensing (CS). However in most real world sensing it is generally not possible to fully adopt the random sampling strategies advocated by CS. Systems are often nonlinear, measurements have limited dynamic range, noise is rarely Gaussian and reconstruction is not always the final goal. Furthermore, iterative reconstruction techniques are often not adopted in commercial imaging systems as they typically incur at least an order of magnitude more computation than traditional techniques. Thus there is a real need for a new framework for generalized computationally accelerated sensing and processing techniques. The research proposed here will build on the PIs recent work in this area and will develop and analyse a much richer class of hierarchical low dimensional signal models, accommodating everything from physical laws to data-driven models such as deep neural networks. It will provide quantitative guidance for system design and address sensing tasks beyond reconstruction including detection, classification and statistical estimation. It will also exploit low dimensional structure to reduce computational cost as well as estimation accuracy, challenging the notion that exploiting prior information must come at a computational cost. This research will result in a new generation of data-driven, physics-aware and task-orientated sensing systems in application domains such as advanced radar, CT and MR imaging and emerging sensing modalities such as multispectral time-of-flight cameras.

    more_vert
  • Funder: WT Project Code: 200183
    Funder Contribution: 3,631,280 GBP

    Action potential propagation velocity provided a useful system for categorising peripheral nerves for 75 years. Now, genetic definition of sensory neuron subsets is providing a more precise functional distinction; individual sensory neurons and their target dorsal horn neurons can be activated, silenced or killed genetically and defined in terms of their transcriptomes, and linked to behavioural changes. In addition, physiological stimuli can be used to drive activity dependent reporters allowing further definition of neuronal subtypes. In this proposal, we show how the exploitation of these methods will inform our knowledge of peripheral pain pathways, the key element in almost all chronic pain syndromes, and identify cell types and molecular targets that are critical for distinct types of pain sensation. Our work will encompass human and primate genetics and should provide clinically significant information. Pain is a poorly treated problem for 1 in 5 of the population. New drugs are needed but many pain killing drug trials have failed, although the drugs work in rodents. We have learned a lot about pain from genetic studies that show some nerves in the skin and viscera are only involved in pain pathways. However, we do not know the relationship between human nerves and mouse nerves that are studied in the laboratory. In the proposed work we will characterise in detail the properties of individual nerve cells in macaques to see how they differ. We are unable to do this in humans, because we need fresh nerves for the analysis. However, we can search for more human heritable pain genes from people who suffer ongoing pain as these may be useful drug targets. We plan to analyse the nerve types involved in different types of pain in mice and catalogue the genes linked to specific pain conditions in animal models. By artificially stimulating or silencing sets of nerves in living mice we can find out more about the physiological processes that lead to pain, and find new ways to treat it.

    visibility36
    visibilityviews36
    downloaddownloads33
    Powered by Usage counts
    more_vert
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 714620
    Overall Budget: 1,500,000 EURFunder Contribution: 1,500,000 EUR

    Nature is a rich source of biologically active molecules, among which the largest and most diverse group of natural products are terpenes. Essential drugs like the cancer medication taxol/paclitaxel or the malaria drug artemisinin belong to the terpene family. They are efficiently formed in nature through a so-called tail-to-head terpene cyclization. Chemists are not able to mimic this process with man-made catalysts. This proposal aims at closing this significant research gap by utilizing supramolecular chemistry. Learning how to design such complex catalysts will not only enable us to mimic natural enzymes, but to enter uncharted territory of terpene chemistry. The main objective is the development of selective catalysts for terpene cyclizations. This certainly poses the greatest challenge within this proposal. Therefore, two independent work packages were devised to tackle this challenge. A novel class of self-assembled catalysts will be developed which are able to control the conformation of the substrate, thereby allowing for selectivity in the cyclization process. The active site of these catalysts can be modified to selectively produce the desired terpene product. Additionally, dynamic covalent chemistry will be employed to construct covalent catalyst structures. As the second objective, this proposal aims to greatly expand the natural variety of terpenes by utilizing unnatural terpene cyclization precursors. Utilizing the catalysts developed from objective 1, unprecedented artemisinin drug derivatives, which are not accessible via other routes, will be synthesized. This project will provide catalysts which are able to predictably constrain the conformation of the substrate. Such control is not possible with state-of-the-art catalyst systems. Therefore, I anticipate that this project will open up new horizons in the fields of catalysis and organic synthesis.

    more_vert