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27,702 Projects, page 2 of 2,771

  • French National Research Agency (ANR)

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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-12-PDOC-0027
    Funder Contribution: 482,513 EUR
    Partners: Institut d'Electronique Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, Institut dElectronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie

    The past several decades have been marked by the exponential growth of computer-generated data and related information processing. Such growth continues now, e.g. with the deployment of gigabit internet and 4G wireless networks, and will likely be accelerated by emerging technologies such as robotics, biotechnology, and distributed sensor networks. Given the inevitable end of scaling of conventional semiconductor circuits and increasing energy-use awareness, alternative ways to allow for information processing in an energy efficient fashion must be developed: Nanotechnologies open the way to new computing paradigms and circuits that could replace the actual technology based on Von Neumann architecture and CMOS devices. The aim of this project is to develop hardware systems of memristive nanodevices for neuro-inspired computing. Different promising ideas have been proposed for alternative computing solutions based on bio-inspired computing paradigm, such as perceptron, associative memory or Bayesian inference. These propositions are particularly promising for classification, recognition or anticipation tasks, which are hardly implement in conventional computers. If theoretical works are already available for estimation of performances and functionalities demonstration, experimental realization of these computing systems represent a challenge with high impact potentiality. The recent proposition of memristance by D. Strukov based on RRAM technology offers a unique opportunity to bridge the gap between theory and experiment by providing simple two terminal nanodevices that could match the requirement in terms of memory density and parallel interconnect for such circuits. I propose in this project an approach based on the development in parallel of (i) a specific technology for neuro-inspired computing - more precisely, the successful technology will implement the synaptic operation by coupling analog memory (or multistate resistance) and plasticity properties (i.e. tuning of memory volatility) – and (ii) the realization of hybrid circuits for neuro-inspired function demonstration and evaluation. These hybrid circuits will be built with hardware integrated nanodevices and Integrated Circuit breadboarding. This approach is directly compatible with hybrid CMOS/nanodevices circuit development that is envisioned for such neuro-inspired systems. If successful, such approach would allow orders of magnitude energy savings in information processing and enable more functional electronics.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-16-CE01-0012
    Funder Contribution: 694,217 EUR
    Partners: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique / Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles UPR2301, Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Délégation Provence et Corse - Centre Européen de Recherche et d'Enseignement en Geoscience de l'Environnement, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - Biogéochimie des Ecosystèmes Forestiers, Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, UMR PVBMT

    "Land uses disrupt the natural functioning of soils, leading to degradation of soil resources. At the same time, forecasts estimate that agricultural production has to be increased by 1.85-fold to meet the food demand of 9 billion people by 2050. Agro-ecological practices thus have to fulfil two main objectives simultaneously—minimize soil degradation while improving ecosystem services. Agro-ecological strategies for restoring soil functioning mainly strive to enhance the soil organic matter pool by increasing organic matter input fluxes. We argue that future agro-ecological techniques should also be geared towards increasing the residence time of organic matter in soil. This would represent a win-win strategy since long-term C storage in soils is also an issue in terms of climate change. This has been highlighted recently by the French Minister of Agriculture when proclaiming the future launch of the ""4 per 1000"" project at COP21. A better understanding of the mechanisms that control organic matter stabilisation in soils is therefore needed. Mineral surfaces are suspected to play a major role in C storage in soils and the “nanoSoilC” project focuses specifically on the study of OM stabilization by organo-mineral interactions. We propose a conceptual breakthrough of organo-mineral interactions: our model no longer consider mineral surfaces as stable, but instead, subject to weathering. Weathering generates nanometric amorphous Al Si and Fe polymers with large specific surface areas and high reactivity towards organic compounds that they may stabilize on long-term timescales (Basile-Doelsch et al. 2015). The overall objective of the project is to explain the process of soil organic matter stabilization and destabilization by describing the mechanisms that control the organo-mineral interactions at the nano-scale. Organo-mineral complexes, considered at nanoscale, are called nCOMx. We focus on mechanisms of nCOMx formation (during phases of soil formation and steady-state), and on mechanisms of nCOMx destabilization (loss of soil OM during the transition from forest to cultivated soil). These different mechanisms are addressed by complementary approaches. The project is organized in five Work Packages. nCOMx formation is addressed by experimental laboratory approaches (WP1) and field experiments (WP4). nCOMx destabilization is addressed by both laboratory (WP1) and field experiments (WP3), but also by an innovative modelling approach (WP2). WP0 is dedicated to the coordination of the project between partners. The consortium brings together four partners (CEREGE, ECOSYS, BEF and Recyclage& Risques) representing 5 French institutes (CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Collège de France, INRA and CIRAD). The panel of scientists provides expertise in various disciplines. It aims to bring together the science of nanoparticles (and their characterization tools) with soil science. The overall budget requested to ANR is 690000 euros and includes training of post-doctoral fellows, PhD, and Master’s students. Outputs toward scientific communities and popularization of soil OM issues are also proposed. Beyond the basic knowledge on soil functioning, two main outputs of this project are expected: (1) providing a hierarchy of processes controlling the C residence time to improve our capacity to understand and model long-term ecosystem services provided by organic matter in soils; and (2) providing the basis for understanding agro-ecological practices with respect to C storage and proposing innovation items. The Soils-nCOMx research project will thus be an innovative input for restoring the OM pool in cultivated soils to address two major societal issues: food security and climate change mitigation."

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-08-STRA-0014
    Partners: Institut National Recherche Agronomiques-Rennes, INSTITUT NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE AGRONOMIQUE - CENTRE DE RECHERCHE DE JOUY-EN-JOSAS, INSTITUT DE RECHERCHE POUR LE DEVELOPPEMENT - IRD, INSTITUT NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE AGRONOMIQUE - Centre de recherche PACA - Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, INSTITUT NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE AGRONOMIQUE CENTRE DE RECHERCHE DE DIJON, CENTRE TECHNIQUE INTERPROFESSIONNEL DES FRUITS ET LEGUMES

    Après le Grenelle de l'Environnement, la France a décidé de réduire de 50% l'utilisation de pesticides d'ici à 2018, sous réserve de mise au point de méthodes alternatives. Dans le cas de la production légumière, l'enjeu de ces mises au point est renforcé par le retrait de nombreuses matières actives, le faible intérêt de la recherche privée pour développer des solutions sur des surfaces cultivées offrant un trop faible marché et l'exigence pour les producteurs de légumes de commercialiser des produits sains pour répondre au Plan National Nutrition Santé recommandant une consommation journalière d'au moins cinq fruits et légumes. SYSBIOTEL mobilise des compétences en agronomie, pathologie végétale, nématologie, épidémiologie et écologie pour fournir un ensemble d'outils de gestion des bioagresseurs telluriques et de méthodes permettant de construire et tester des stratégies de protection intégrée des cultures légumières de plein champ ou sous abri froid. SYSBIOTEL fait appel (i) à des connaissances expertes issues d'innovation mises en œuvre par les producteurs eux-mêmes, (ii) à des activités de modélisation des épidémies pour identifier et organiser les attributs épidémiologiques génériques aux bioagresseurs telluriques, (iii) à des expérimentations permettant de paramétrer et tester ces modèles sur un ensemble de bioagresseurs (nématodes, champignons du sol) choisis pour offrir une gamme_x000D_ représentative d'attributs épidémiologiques ainsi qu'(iv) à des suivis et analyses en bassins de production pour la construction de systèmes de culture et pour mesurer les impacts écologiques de perturbations associées à la production et la protection de cultures légumières. SYSBIOTEL associe recherche (INRA, IRD, Université de Cambridge), et développement (CTIFL, Stations régionales comme le Sileban, APREL, ...) afin de favoriser les transferts vers les utilisateurs finaux et de bénéficier de toutes les expertises possibles d'innovation. SYSBIOTEL produira un ensemble de moyens de gestion des bioagresseurs faisant appel à des pratiques culturales, des ressources génétiques et biologiques, d'une part, des outils et méthodologies permettant de raisonner leur intégration au sein de systèmes de culture et d'évaluer leur impact quant à leur efficacité agronomique et à leur impact écologique au niveau des sols, d'autre part. Ces résultats seront discutés tout au long du déroulement de SYSBIOTEL entre les partenaires du projet au cours de réunion de bilans organisées tous les six mois, mais aussi via les activités de conception de systèmes de cultures prototypes et de co-construction avec des agriculteurs. SYSBIOTEL bénéficiera de, et contribuera à, la structuration à moyen-long terme de deux initiatives sur la production et la protection intégrées des cultures légumières de plein champ, l'une nationale (Groupement d'Intérêt Scientifique Production Intégrée des Cultures légumières –GIS PICLég™), l'autre européenne (Field Vegetables Case Study du Réseau d'Excellence Endure), dirigées au plan opérationnel par le porteur de SYSBIOTEL. _x000D_

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-09-JCJC-0056
    Partners: CNRS - DELEGATION REGIONALE PARIS MICHEL-ANGE

    The ASOURIX project is proposed by a 4 young researcher team from Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas (LPGP) and aims at developing laser produced coherent sources in the XUV domain with wavelengths between 10 to 20 nm. Those sources are soft x-ray lasers generated by the interaction of intense infrared lasers with solid targets and the high order harmonics generated in gas targets. They both constitute a very interesting alternative to synchrotron radiation thanks to their high brightness due to short pulse duration and great spatial and temporal coherence. The aim is to reach a high performance level for those sources, which will allow them to be used by external scientists coming from other fields of physics and biology and desiring reliable and easy-access source of irradiation and imagery. Up to now very preliminary and partial application results were obtained using those sources but due to lack of time, difficult access to large scale facilities and irregular collaboration with users they were more proof-of-principle demonstrations. They did not have real impact on the fields explored. We propose to take advantage of the 5 year old LASERIX facility of the Université Paris XI. It is based on high power infrared laser installation that can deliver up to 40 Joules in picosecond duration pulses at a repetition rate of 0,1 Hz. This radiation is then used to generate intense X ray lasers for applications requiring high energy or brightness in single shot experiments. In this project we want to use another infrared leak of the laser, which delivers pulses at higher repetition rate (10 Hz) and reduced energy (down to 2 Joule). Those beam characteristics allow, thanks to recent development made by the group, to produce high repetition rate soft x-ray sources with significant average power relevant for a large scale of applications. The ASOURIX project will thus develop two alternative beam lines at high repetition rate specifically dedicated to applications: the first one based on soft x-ray laser technology and the second one on high order harmonic generation. Having those two lines in parallel at the same wavelength but with different characteristics is really exciting: pulse duration is for example picosecond for the first line whereas it reaches the femtosecond even attosecond regime for the second one. The number of applications we want to develop is purposefully reduced to increase the level of performance and allow a regular and long-term collaboration with users teams. We want to collaborate with biologists team from LCAM (laboratoire des collisions atomiques et moléculaires) working on radiation induced single and double strand breaks of DNA using relatively low energy photons. The high level of DNA breaks induced recently by low energy photons is surprising if we compare it to the results of experiments using harder X rays. This means another process takes place that nobody can really explain for the time. We thus need a much larger set of experimental data to explore this new phenomenon. The biologists especially want to understand the role of integrated dose as compared to dose delivery: the question is if the same dose is more efficient if it is delivered in a shorter time. Those experiments will be carried out on our beam-lines using different pulse duration and wavelengths. Another important point is to understand the role of chemical catalysers of the irreversible destruction of DNA used for example in chemiotherapy and radiotherapy of cancer. A well known component is platinum but new efficient candidates seem to be metallic nanoparticles and their effect has to be tested. We will also collaborate with a research team from Laboratoire de Physique des Solides (LPS) on the production of the first non linear effects in this XUV wavelength range using soft x-ray lasers. This will only be obtained if the source has extreme brightness and is perfectly focussed to reach the very high intensity required for the observation of non linear effects. These experiments will allow a better understanding of the electronic structure of high technology materials such as high temperature supraconductors. Finally, we will develop pump-probe experiments such as time resolved interferometry at a picosecond and even femtosecond timescale and nanometer resolution connected to the short wavelength used. They will permit to characterize with unprecedented precision the evolution of dense plasmas or surfaces.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-20-CE05-0001
    Funder Contribution: 533,145 EUR
    Partners: Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide-CNRS DR18, Nanosciences et innovation pour les matériaux, la biomédecine et lénergie, Institut de Recerca en Energia de Catalunya / Nanoionics and Solid State Energy Conversion Devices group, Synchrotron Soleil, Nanosciences et innovation pour les matériaux, la biomédecine et l'énergie, Structures, propriétés et modélisation des solides

    Solid Oxide Fuel/Electrolysis Cells are electrochemical devices based on ceramics which operate at high temperature, typically 600-800 °C. This high temperature is needed to ensure fast diffusion and reaction rates i.e. to allow for high power efficiency. Unfortunately, coupled with extreme operating conditions, high working temperatures lead to fast degradation. Materials discovery efforts have thus targeted new electrolyte and electrode materials with improved ionic and/or electronic conductivity and electrochemical activity, able to operate at a lower temperature. Other strategies concerned the development of new types of solid oxide cells, based on new charge carriers. Among these, Proton Conducting Cells, which can operate at a temperature below 600°C, are particularly promising. With typical performances of 0.3 W/cm2 at 600 °C in 2013, they can now reach 1.3 W/cm2 at 600 °C as reported in 2018. This is an increase of more than 300% in five years, which represents a significant acceleration. To achieve such a performance, materials have been designed with complex compositions having typically 4-5 different cations, whose relative ratios were determined empirically. Still, the exploration of new or optimized compositions remains limited by the highly time-consuming tasks to fully characterize such materials. Thus, in the highly competitive international context of cells development and fabrication, new approaches allowing a fast screening of many compositions might constitute an efficient strategy to fasten the development of high-performing cells. The objective of AutoMat-ProCells project is precisely to combine advanced research tools for screening efficiently the intrinsic properties of oxide materials for proton-conducting oxide cells. It is based on a high-throughput experimental approach. More concretely, our project couples the development of combinatorial deposition for the preparation of materials library bu pulse laser deposition, their exhaustive structural/chemical characterization in a highly efficient way including synchrotron-based techniques, and the measurement of electrolyte/electrode properties through electrical, isotope exchange and nuclear probe measurements. From this, we will obtain unique information on structure, stability, hydration, conductivity, electrochemical activity, the kinetics of ionic species transfer and diffusion, this for an extensive range of compositions. Through AutoMat-ProCells, we will also pave the path toward a renewed strategy for a very efficient exploration of materials for SOCs. From AUTOMAT-PROCELLS, we expect the following results: - a validation of the High-Throughput approach for the study and discovery of materials for PCFCs/PCECs, including the characterization of hydration and transport properties, stability and structural-chemical features, - the production of exhaustive information (hundreds of different compositions tested) on important phase diagrams for proton-conducting solid oxide cells : BaZr0.8Y/Yb0.2O3-d- BaCe0.8Y/Yb0.2O3-d- BaSn0.8Y/Yb0.2O3-d ; LSM-LSC-LSF, or doped BaCo0.4Fe0.4Zr0.2FeO3-d, - the identification of original compositions with optimized exchange, transport and electrochemical properties for proton-conducting solid oxide cells, - the creation of technical advances in the field of High-throughput Experiments for materials discovery like (i) the design and fabrication of a furnace for large samples particularly adapted to the characterization of materials library (ii) the development of a low-cost route for combinatorial deposition of oxide materials (see below) (iii) the adaptation of SIMS for the characterization of combinatorial films. - to help for the emergence of a dynamic in the French materials science community (starting from the application on fuel cells) toward the use of automated and parallelized approaches in research.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-21-CE30-0053
    Funder Contribution: 598,134 EUR
    Partners: Tomsk State Research University / Laboratory of Molecular Quantum Mechanics and Radiative Processes (QUAMER), Groupe de Spectrométrie Moléculaire et Atmosphérique, Institut Physique de Rennes, Institute of Atmoaspheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences / Departement of Spectroscopy, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux

    The TEMMEX PRCI proposes a coherent and balanced network of three French and two Russian laboratories with internationally recognized expertise in complimentary domains of molecular spectroscopy. It aims at in depth investigations of the electronic structures, radiative properties and high-resolution spectral signatures of small hydrocarbons (HC) and their radicals, which is one of the most important molecular family {CnHm} for atmospheric and astrophysics, environmental science and technology. Spectral analyses represent excellent non-invasive tools for remote sensing and efficient control of gaseous media in various environments. However, the most of reliable high-resolution spectral data have been collected for stable semi-rigid species at stationary conditions. The TEMMEX project focuses on the understanding of HC spectral properties in extreme dynamical and temperature conditions, involving implementation and interpretation of new experiments beyond standard local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). This includes free-radicals which possess complex open shell electronic structures and non-rigid species allowing for large amplitude nuclear motion that represents a challenge for accurate theoretical spectra predictions. This brings us to the target the HC family up to eight atoms: {CH2, C2H, CH3, C2H2, CH4, C2H4, C3H4, C2H6}. To be reliable, theory will be experimentally validated for various cases of electronic structures, nuclear configurations, rovibrational motions and symmetries. Advanced experimental methods will be implemented to produce high-resolution absorption spectra from the far-infrared up to the visible. A wide range of temperatures will be explored from 100 to 296 K under LTE conditions in static gas cells, and from 10 to 2000 K under low and high velocity conditions for which the internal degrees of freedom are decoupled. A large panel of experiments including Fourier transform spectroscopy, ultra-sensitivity Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy, Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy, or Cavity Enhanced Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy will provide spectroscopic information in a wide range of temperature conditions (e.g. 100 K at LTE; down to 10 K in jet; up to vibrational temperatures of several thousand kelvins in non LTE plasma) for validating theoretical line lists calculated by TEMMEX theoreticians. Drastic reduction of the spectral congestion at low temperature will be valuable to identify band origins, while hypersonic shock wave compression experiments will give key insights on highly excited quantum states. Particular care will be taken to provide line intensity information as radiative Einstein coefficients, which are largely lacking in the literature for the considered species though they are crucial for many applications.. Free radicals will be formed at high vibrational temperature and low rotational temperature by radiofrequency plasma discharge in a supersonic jet expansion and probed with a new frequency comb spectrometer coupled to an optical cavity for a fast spectra recording on a large spectral range. The interpretation of spectral signatures will be carried out via first principle ab initio and variational methods. New line lists produced by theoretical methods and validated via analyses of experiments will be applied for assigning hydrocarbon traces in the atmospheres of Titan and outer planets. The TEMMEX consortium will allow tackling the very demanding above challenges in the best conditions. In particular, the past collaboration between two of the French partners (GSMA and LIPhy) and IAO-Tomsk in the frame of the Laboratoire International Associé SAMIA (2014-2018) has illustrated the synergy of the involved teams and insures a fluent communication. The involvement of the IPR-Rennes and TSU-Tomsk with unique experimental and theoretical expertise opens new horizons addressing new aspects in molecular spectroscopy in particular the spectroscopy of gases far from LTE.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-22-EXES-0002
    Partners: Université de Lorraine - Ensaia
  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-21-HDF1-0005
    Funder Contribution: 152,545 EUR
    Partners: CENTRE DE RECHERCHE INTERDISCIPLINAIRE EN SCIENCES DE LA SOCIÉTÉ, ISEN Yncréa Ouest, TERRITOIRES, VILLES, ENVIRONNEMENT ET SOCIETE, Lieux, Identités, eSpaces et Activités, Aménagement des Usages des Ressources et des Espaces marins et littoraux

    "Tourism is one of the most impacted sectors from the Covid-19 pandemic. The extent of the impact is expected to be particularly severe for tourist destinations where the virus is actively circulating and tourism plays an important role in the economy. With a rich endowment of tourism potential, the Hauts-de-France (HdF) was part of the French regions classified as Covid-19 ""red zone"" the day after deconfinement (May 11th). The research project THREpiCo addresses the issue of the consequences of this pandemic on both tourism demand and supply. In terms of tourism demand, the project aims at understanding individuals’ perceptions of the region with regard to the Covid-19 epidemic risk and analysing the role of their perceptions in their visit behaviour and revisit intentions. Particular attention will be paid to the individuals’ trust in regional policy-makers and confidence in Covid-19 risk mitigation measures. The changes in demand for trips and individual welfare due to the pandemic will also be explored. In terms of tourism supply, a number of Covid-19 health and safety protocols, combined with related communication strategies, have been implemented, particularly in the commercial accommodation sector, in an effort to restore visitors’ confidence and stimulate demand. Another objective of this project is to investigate the attractiveness of these tools among visitors by estimating the extra amount of money that they would be willing to pay for one night in a hotel establishment. Finally, additional changes are expected to be made in the regional tourism industry in the medium term to strengthen the resilience of the sector. With this in mind, qualitative survey interviews of tourism stakeholders will be carried out with the objective of co-constructing a restructuring plan for the tourism supply organised into different actions (or scenarios). An ex-ante economic valuation of these scenarios will be conducted to support the decision-making process. This research project will be led by a multidisciplinary research team, whose expertise covers all aspects related to the impact analysis of a pandemic on tourism. The team will rely on close collaboration with the diverse tourism-based organisations within the HdF and the original combination of several non-market economic valuation methods, quantitative and qualitative surveys, coupled with the use of secondary data about tourist trips during the last ten years, to provide a broad picture of the consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic on tourism activity in the HdF. The expected results are empirical, methodological and operational."

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-19-MRS3-0015
    Funder Contribution: 29,999.2 EUR
    Partners: Institut des sciences sociales du politique, Goethe Universität Frankfurt/M, UH, Università di Torino, Central European University of Budapest, Laboratoire détudes sur le genre et la sexualité, University of Barcelona, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Laboratoire d'études sur le genre et la sexualité, Danish Institute for International Studies

    "The WE-GEMINA project is twofold and to be developed at different scales: a macro-transnational scale and a micro-local scale. The first part of the project is focused on the transnational narratives circulating on the social networks. Crossing sexism and xenophobia, they increase the gender inequalities and the discrimination based on real or supposed ethnic origin. A second and complementary component intends to identify, through a multi-situated approach, counter-narratives which could contribute to renewing the debate on gender in migration. In the global context of the rise of populism, and especially since 2011 and the wave of migration related to the Syrian civil war, the most extreme and anti-migrant discourses put pressure on all European debates on migration. Stated by politicians, circulating on social networks or available on websites or blogs, populist narratives on gender and migration activate distressing representations as well as biased perceptions of reality, which threaten the cohesion of societies, diminish their resilience and increase risks of violence against migrant women. In globalized populist rhetoric, xenophobic and sexist narratives are intertwined, so that offensives against migrant women seem specific: according to national contexts, they are suspected of taking undue advantage of social protection systems through their multiple pregnancies, of threatening secularism, challenging a family model based on a supposed gender equality, of transgressing gender norms, fueling prostitution and clandestine labor, or - in the most conspiratorial theses- to be the matrix of a ""great replacement"". However, the unequal gender, class and race relationships largely invisibilize the structural violence and multiple discrimination faced by migrant women. In fact, the diffusion of such distorted representations increases their physical, sexual, social or professional vulnerability. In order to counter the influence of the xenophobic and sexist discourses against migrant women, the proposal aims firstly to deconstruct, based on different national contexts, the rhetorical and technological forces of their effectiveness, secondly to identify alternative narratives that are likely to inflect them. It will not focus exclusively on female migrants outside the European Union, but on all women perceived as foreign and mobile people: European Roma women, Muslim or perceived Muslim migrants, racist sub-Saharan migrants, LBTQIA + migrants. Based on two major social networks providing narratives, Facebook and Twitter, and mobilizing specific software, the analysis of sexist and xenophobic narratives focus on their substance, but also on the tools and strategies of their dissemination. The question of the ""past"" will be investigated by the uses of a supposed past in populist narratives. Against the narratives grounded in an ethnocultural conception of the political community and seeking to create collective fear, the counter-narratives value the concrete experience of migration carried by mixed migrant and non-migrant communities. The identification of such counter-narratives should provide guidelines to enlighten different actors, including the press, associations and politicians, in resisting xenophobic themes and populist strategies. The project involves a consortium of research teams, complementary to each other and strongly sensitized to issues of gender and discrimination, from seven countries differently exposed to populist rhetoric."

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-22-CE14-0008
    Funder Contribution: 310,185 EUR
    Partners: INSTITUT NATIONAL DE LA SANTE ET DE LA RECHERCHE MEDICALE - DELEGATION REGIONALE GRAND OUEST

    Cardiovascular diseases and myocardial infarction in particular are the leading cause of premature mortality worldwide. While inflammation is an essential aspect of cardiac repair, it can precipitate heart failure when excessive in intensity or duration. Cardiac resident macrophages (CRM) play an instrumental role in the organization of cardiac tissue repair through their unique ability to modulate inflammation. This immunomodulatory capability of CRM is associated with their prominent aptitude to clear dead cells from the myocardium through efferocytosis, and to secrete immunomodulatory cytokines. However, the molecular mechanisms conferring CRM the required temporal accuracy to adjust their phenotype and cytokine secretion in order to finely control inflammation resolution and coordinate tissue repair remain unknown. We hypothesize that efferocytosis activates regulated cytokine secretion pathways that allow CRM to immediately adjust their phenotype and cytokine secretion to promote inflammation resolution and initiate reparative processes. In this proposal, we will define the role of efferocytosis in the regulated cytokine secretion, characterize intracellular signaling and secretion pathways triggered by efferocytosis and evaluate the role of efferocytosis-triggered cytokine secretion in the repair of the infarcted myocardium.

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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-12-PDOC-0027
    Funder Contribution: 482,513 EUR
    Partners: Institut d'Electronique Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, Institut dElectronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie

    The past several decades have been marked by the exponential growth of computer-generated data and related information processing. Such growth continues now, e.g. with the deployment of gigabit internet and 4G wireless networks, and will likely be accelerated by emerging technologies such as robotics, biotechnology, and distributed sensor networks. Given the inevitable end of scaling of conventional semiconductor circuits and increasing energy-use awareness, alternative ways to allow for information processing in an energy efficient fashion must be developed: Nanotechnologies open the way to new computing paradigms and circuits that could replace the actual technology based on Von Neumann architecture and CMOS devices. The aim of this project is to develop hardware systems of memristive nanodevices for neuro-inspired computing. Different promising ideas have been proposed for alternative computing solutions based on bio-inspired computing paradigm, such as perceptron, associative memory or Bayesian inference. These propositions are particularly promising for classification, recognition or anticipation tasks, which are hardly implement in conventional computers. If theoretical works are already available for estimation of performances and functionalities demonstration, experimental realization of these computing systems represent a challenge with high impact potentiality. The recent proposition of memristance by D. Strukov based on RRAM technology offers a unique opportunity to bridge the gap between theory and experiment by providing simple two terminal nanodevices that could match the requirement in terms of memory density and parallel interconnect for such circuits. I propose in this project an approach based on the development in parallel of (i) a specific technology for neuro-inspired computing - more precisely, the successful technology will implement the synaptic operation by coupling analog memory (or multistate resistance) and plasticity properties (i.e. tuning of memory volatility) – and (ii) the realization of hybrid circuits for neuro-inspired function demonstration and evaluation. These hybrid circuits will be built with hardware integrated nanodevices and Integrated Circuit breadboarding. This approach is directly compatible with hybrid CMOS/nanodevices circuit development that is envisioned for such neuro-inspired systems. If successful, such approach would allow orders of magnitude energy savings in information processing and enable more functional electronics.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-16-CE01-0012
    Funder Contribution: 694,217 EUR
    Partners: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique / Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles UPR2301, Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Délégation Provence et Corse - Centre Européen de Recherche et d'Enseignement en Geoscience de l'Environnement, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - Biogéochimie des Ecosystèmes Forestiers, Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, UMR PVBMT

    "Land uses disrupt the natural functioning of soils, leading to degradation of soil resources. At the same time, forecasts estimate that agricultural production has to be increased by 1.85-fold to meet the food demand of 9 billion people by 2050. Agro-ecological practices thus have to fulfil two main objectives simultaneously—minimize soil degradation while improving ecosystem services. Agro-ecological strategies for restoring soil functioning mainly strive to enhance the soil organic matter pool by increasing organic matter input fluxes. We argue that future agro-ecological techniques should also be geared towards increasing the residence time of organic matter in soil. This would represent a win-win strategy since long-term C storage in soils is also an issue in terms of climate change. This has been highlighted recently by the French Minister of Agriculture when proclaiming the future launch of the ""4 per 1000"" project at COP21. A better understanding of the mechanisms that control organic matter stabilisation in soils is therefore needed. Mineral surfaces are suspected to play a major role in C storage in soils and the “nanoSoilC” project focuses specifically on the study of OM stabilization by organo-mineral interactions. We propose a conceptual breakthrough of organo-mineral interactions: our model no longer consider mineral surfaces as stable, but instead, subject to weathering. Weathering generates nanometric amorphous Al Si and Fe polymers with large specific surface areas and high reactivity towards organic compounds that they may stabilize on long-term timescales (Basile-Doelsch et al. 2015). The overall objective of the project is to explain the process of soil organic matter stabilization and destabilization by describing the mechanisms that control the organo-mineral interactions at the nano-scale. Organo-mineral complexes, considered at nanoscale, are called nCOMx. We focus on mechanisms of nCOMx formation (during phases of soil formation and steady-state), and on mechanisms of nCOMx destabilization (loss of soil OM during the transition from forest to cultivated soil). These different mechanisms are addressed by complementary approaches. The project is organized in five Work Packages. nCOMx formation is addressed by experimental laboratory approaches (WP1) and field experiments (WP4). nCOMx destabilization is addressed by both laboratory (WP1) and field experiments (WP3), but also by an innovative modelling approach (WP2). WP0 is dedicated to the coordination of the project between partners. The consortium brings together four partners (CEREGE, ECOSYS, BEF and Recyclage& Risques) representing 5 French institutes (CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Collège de France, INRA and CIRAD). The panel of scientists provides expertise in various disciplines. It aims to bring together the science of nanoparticles (and their characterization tools) with soil science. The overall budget requested to ANR is 690000 euros and includes training of post-doctoral fellows, PhD, and Master’s students. Outputs toward scientific communities and popularization of soil OM issues are also proposed. Beyond the basic knowledge on soil functioning, two main outputs of this project are expected: (1) providing a hierarchy of processes controlling the C residence time to improve our capacity to understand and model long-term ecosystem services provided by organic matter in soils; and (2) providing the basis for understanding agro-ecological practices with respect to C storage and proposing innovation items. The Soils-nCOMx research project will thus be an innovative input for restoring the OM pool in cultivated soils to address two major societal issues: food security and climate change mitigation."

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-08-STRA-0014
    Partners: Institut National Recherche Agronomiques-Rennes, INSTITUT NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE AGRONOMIQUE - CENTRE DE RECHERCHE DE JOUY-EN-JOSAS, INSTITUT DE RECHERCHE POUR LE DEVELOPPEMENT - IRD, INSTITUT NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE AGRONOMIQUE - Centre de recherche PACA - Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, INSTITUT NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE AGRONOMIQUE CENTRE DE RECHERCHE DE DIJON, CENTRE TECHNIQUE INTERPROFESSIONNEL DES FRUITS ET LEGUMES

    Après le Grenelle de l'Environnement, la France a décidé de réduire de 50% l'utilisation de pesticides d'ici à 2018, sous réserve de mise au point de méthodes alternatives. Dans le cas de la production légumière, l'enjeu de ces mises au point est renforcé par le retrait de nombreuses matières actives, le faible intérêt de la recherche privée pour développer des solutions sur des surfaces cultivées offrant un trop faible marché et l'exigence pour les producteurs de légumes de commercialiser des produits sains pour répondre au Plan National Nutrition Santé recommandant une consommation journalière d'au moins cinq fruits et légumes. SYSBIOTEL mobilise des compétences en agronomie, pathologie végétale, nématologie, épidémiologie et écologie pour fournir un ensemble d'outils de gestion des bioagresseurs telluriques et de méthodes permettant de construire et tester des stratégies de protection intégrée des cultures légumières de plein champ ou sous abri froid. SYSBIOTEL fait appel (i) à des connaissances expertes issues d'innovation mises en œuvre par les producteurs eux-mêmes, (ii) à des activités de modélisation des épidémies pour identifier et organiser les attributs épidémiologiques génériques aux bioagresseurs telluriques, (iii) à des expérimentations permettant de paramétrer et tester ces modèles sur un ensemble de bioagresseurs (nématodes, champignons du sol) choisis pour offrir une gamme_x000D_ représentative d'attributs épidémiologiques ainsi qu'(iv) à des suivis et analyses en bassins de production pour la construction de systèmes de culture et pour mesurer les impacts écologiques de perturbations associées à la production et la protection de cultures légumières. SYSBIOTEL associe recherche (INRA, IRD, Université de Cambridge), et développement (CTIFL, Stations régionales comme le Sileban, APREL, ...) afin de favoriser les transferts vers les utilisateurs finaux et de bénéficier de toutes les expertises possibles d'innovation. SYSBIOTEL produira un ensemble de moyens de gestion des bioagresseurs faisant appel à des pratiques culturales, des ressources génétiques et biologiques, d'une part, des outils et méthodologies permettant de raisonner leur intégration au sein de systèmes de culture et d'évaluer leur impact quant à leur efficacité agronomique et à leur impact écologique au niveau des sols, d'autre part. Ces résultats seront discutés tout au long du déroulement de SYSBIOTEL entre les partenaires du projet au cours de réunion de bilans organisées tous les six mois, mais aussi via les activités de conception de systèmes de cultures prototypes et de co-construction avec des agriculteurs. SYSBIOTEL bénéficiera de, et contribuera à, la structuration à moyen-long terme de deux initiatives sur la production et la protection intégrées des cultures légumières de plein champ, l'une nationale (Groupement d'Intérêt Scientifique Production Intégrée des Cultures légumières –GIS PICLég™), l'autre européenne (Field Vegetables Case Study du Réseau d'Excellence Endure), dirigées au plan opérationnel par le porteur de SYSBIOTEL. _x000D_

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-09-JCJC-0056
    Partners: CNRS - DELEGATION REGIONALE PARIS MICHEL-ANGE

    The ASOURIX project is proposed by a 4 young researcher team from Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas (LPGP) and aims at developing laser produced coherent sources in the XUV domain with wavelengths between 10 to 20 nm. Those sources are soft x-ray lasers generated by the interaction of intense infrared lasers with solid targets and the high order harmonics generated in gas targets. They both constitute a very interesting alternative to synchrotron radiation thanks to their high brightness due to short pulse duration and great spatial and temporal coherence. The aim is to reach a high performance level for those sources, which will allow them to be used by external scientists coming from other fields of physics and biology and desiring reliable and easy-access source of irradiation and imagery. Up to now very preliminary and partial application results were obtained using those sources but due to lack of time, difficult access to large scale facilities and irregular collaboration with users they were more proof-of-principle demonstrations. They did not have real impact on the fields explored. We propose to take advantage of the 5 year old LASERIX facility of the Université Paris XI. It is based on high power infrared laser installation that can deliver up to 40 Joules in picosecond duration pulses at a repetition rate of 0,1 Hz. This radiation is then used to generate intense X ray lasers for applications requiring high energy or brightness in single shot experiments. In this project we want to use another infrared leak of the laser, which delivers pulses at higher repetition rate (10 Hz) and reduced energy (down to 2 Joule). Those beam characteristics allow, thanks to recent development made by the group, to produce high repetition rate soft x-ray sources with significant average power relevant for a large scale of applications. The ASOURIX project will thus develop two alternative beam lines at high repetition rate specifically dedicated to applications: the first one based on soft x-ray laser technology and the second one on high order harmonic generation. Having those two lines in parallel at the same wavelength but with different characteristics is really exciting: pulse duration is for example picosecond for the first line whereas it reaches the femtosecond even attosecond regime for the second one. The number of applications we want to develop is purposefully reduced to increase the level of performance and allow a regular and long-term collaboration with users teams. We want to collaborate with biologists team from LCAM (laboratoire des collisions atomiques et moléculaires) working on radiation induced single and double strand breaks of DNA using relatively low energy photons. The high level of DNA breaks induced recently by low energy photons is surprising if we compare it to the results of experiments using harder X rays. This means another process takes place that nobody can really explain for the time. We thus need a much larger set of experimental data to explore this new phenomenon. The biologists especially want to understand the role of integrated dose as compared to dose delivery: the question is if the same dose is more efficient if it is delivered in a shorter time. Those experiments will be carried out on our beam-lines using different pulse duration and wavelengths. Another important point is to understand the role of chemical catalysers of the irreversible destruction of DNA used for example in chemiotherapy and radiotherapy of cancer. A well known component is platinum but new efficient candidates seem to be metallic nanoparticles and their effect has to be tested. We will also collaborate with a research team from Laboratoire de Physique des Solides (LPS) on the production of the first non linear effects in this XUV wavelength range using soft x-ray lasers. This will only be obtained if the source has extreme brightness and is perfectly focussed to reach the very high intensity required for the observation of non linear effects. These experiments will allow a better understanding of the electronic structure of high technology materials such as high temperature supraconductors. Finally, we will develop pump-probe experiments such as time resolved interferometry at a picosecond and even femtosecond timescale and nanometer resolution connected to the short wavelength used. They will permit to characterize with unprecedented precision the evolution of dense plasmas or surfaces.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-20-CE05-0001
    Funder Contribution: 533,145 EUR
    Partners: Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide-CNRS DR18, Nanosciences et innovation pour les matériaux, la biomédecine et lénergie, Institut de Recerca en Energia de Catalunya / Nanoionics and Solid State Energy Conversion Devices group, Synchrotron Soleil, Nanosciences et innovation pour les matériaux, la biomédecine et l'énergie, Structures, propriétés et modélisation des solides

    Solid Oxide Fuel/Electrolysis Cells are electrochemical devices based on ceramics which operate at high temperature, typically 600-800 °C. This high temperature is needed to ensure fast diffusion and reaction rates i.e. to allow for high power efficiency. Unfortunately, coupled with extreme operating conditions, high working temperatures lead to fast degradation. Materials discovery efforts have thus targeted new electrolyte and electrode materials with improved ionic and/or electronic conductivity and electrochemical activity, able to operate at a lower temperature. Other strategies concerned the development of new types of solid oxide cells, based on new charge carriers. Among these, Proton Conducting Cells, which can operate at a temperature below 600°C, are particularly promising. With typical performances of 0.3 W/cm2 at 600 °C in 2013, they can now reach 1.3 W/cm2 at 600 °C as reported in 2018. This is an increase of more than 300% in five years, which represents a significant acceleration. To achieve such a performance, materials have been designed with complex compositions having typically 4-5 different cations, whose relative ratios were determined empirically. Still, the exploration of new or optimized compositions remains limited by the highly time-consuming tasks to fully characterize such materials. Thus, in the highly competitive international context of cells development and fabrication, new approaches allowing a fast screening of many compositions might constitute an efficient strategy to fasten the development of high-performing cells. The objective of AutoMat-ProCells project is precisely to combine advanced research tools for screening efficiently the intrinsic properties of oxide materials for proton-conducting oxide cells. It is based on a high-throughput experimental approach. More concretely, our project couples the development of combinatorial deposition for the preparation of materials library bu pulse laser deposition, their exhaustive structural/chemical characterization in a highly efficient way including synchrotron-based techniques, and the measurement of electrolyte/electrode properties through electrical, isotope exchange and nuclear probe measurements. From this, we will obtain unique information on structure, stability, hydration, conductivity, electrochemical activity, the kinetics of ionic species transfer and diffusion, this for an extensive range of compositions. Through AutoMat-ProCells, we will also pave the path toward a renewed strategy for a very efficient exploration of materials for SOCs. From AUTOMAT-PROCELLS, we expect the following results: - a validation of the High-Throughput approach for the study and discovery of materials for PCFCs/PCECs, including the characterization of hydration and transport properties, stability and structural-chemical features, - the production of exhaustive information (hundreds of different compositions tested) on important phase diagrams for proton-conducting solid oxide cells : BaZr0.8Y/Yb0.2O3-d- BaCe0.8Y/Yb0.2O3-d- BaSn0.8Y/Yb0.2O3-d ; LSM-LSC-LSF, or doped BaCo0.4Fe0.4Zr0.2FeO3-d, - the identification of original compositions with optimized exchange, transport and electrochemical properties for proton-conducting solid oxide cells, - the creation of technical advances in the field of High-throughput Experiments for materials discovery like (i) the design and fabrication of a furnace for large samples particularly adapted to the characterization of materials library (ii) the development of a low-cost route for combinatorial deposition of oxide materials (see below) (iii) the adaptation of SIMS for the characterization of combinatorial films. - to help for the emergence of a dynamic in the French materials science community (starting from the application on fuel cells) toward the use of automated and parallelized approaches in research.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-21-CE30-0053
    Funder Contribution: 598,134 EUR
    Partners: Tomsk State Research University / Laboratory of Molecular Quantum Mechanics and Radiative Processes (QUAMER), Groupe de Spectrométrie Moléculaire et Atmosphérique, Institut Physique de Rennes, Institute of Atmoaspheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences / Departement of Spectroscopy, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux

    The TEMMEX PRCI proposes a coherent and balanced network of three French and two Russian laboratories with internationally recognized expertise in complimentary domains of molecular spectroscopy. It aims at in depth investigations of the electronic structures, radiative properties and high-resolution spectral signatures of small hydrocarbons (HC) and their radicals, which is one of the most important molecular family {CnHm} for atmospheric and astrophysics, environmental science and technology. Spectral analyses represent excellent non-invasive tools for remote sensing and efficient control of gaseous media in various environments. However, the most of reliable high-resolution spectral data have been collected for stable semi-rigid species at stationary conditions. The TEMMEX project focuses on the understanding of HC spectral properties in extreme dynamical and temperature conditions, involving implementation and interpretation of new experiments beyond standard local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). This includes free-radicals which possess complex open shell electronic structures and non-rigid species allowing for large amplitude nuclear motion that represents a challenge for accurate theoretical spectra predictions. This brings us to the target the HC family up to eight atoms: {CH2, C2H, CH3, C2H2, CH4, C2H4, C3H4, C2H6}. To be reliable, theory will be experimentally validated for various cases of electronic structures, nuclear configurations, rovibrational motions and symmetries. Advanced experimental methods will be implemented to produce high-resolution absorption spectra from the far-infrared up to the visible. A wide range of temperatures will be explored from 100 to 296 K under LTE conditions in static gas cells, and from 10 to 2000 K under low and high velocity conditions for which the internal degrees of freedom are decoupled. A large panel of experiments including Fourier transform spectroscopy, ultra-sensitivity Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy, Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy, or Cavity Enhanced Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy will provide spectroscopic information in a wide range of temperature conditions (e.g. 100 K at LTE; down to 10 K in jet; up to vibrational temperatures of several thousand kelvins in non LTE plasma) for validating theoretical line lists calculated by TEMMEX theoreticians. Drastic reduction of the spectral congestion at low temperature will be valuable to identify band origins, while hypersonic shock wave compression experiments will give key insights on highly excited quantum states. Particular care will be taken to provide line intensity information as radiative Einstein coefficients, which are largely lacking in the literature for the considered species though they are crucial for many applications.. Free radicals will be formed at high vibrational temperature and low rotational temperature by radiofrequency plasma discharge in a supersonic jet expansion and probed with a new frequency comb spectrometer coupled to an optical cavity for a fast spectra recording on a large spectral range. The interpretation of spectral signatures will be carried out via first principle ab initio and variational methods. New line lists produced by theoretical methods and validated via analyses of experiments will be applied for assigning hydrocarbon traces in the atmospheres of Titan and outer planets. The TEMMEX consortium will allow tackling the very demanding above challenges in the best conditions. In particular, the past collaboration between two of the French partners (GSMA and LIPhy) and IAO-Tomsk in the frame of the Laboratoire International Associé SAMIA (2014-2018) has illustrated the synergy of the involved teams and insures a fluent communication. The involvement of the IPR-Rennes and TSU-Tomsk with unique experimental and theoretical expertise opens new horizons addressing new aspects in molecular spectroscopy in particular the spectroscopy of gases far from LTE.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-22-EXES-0002
    Partners: Université de Lorraine - Ensaia
  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-21-HDF1-0005
    Funder Contribution: 152,545 EUR
    Partners: CENTRE DE RECHERCHE INTERDISCIPLINAIRE EN SCIENCES DE LA SOCIÉTÉ, ISEN Yncréa Ouest, TERRITOIRES, VILLES, ENVIRONNEMENT ET SOCIETE, Lieux, Identités, eSpaces et Activités, Aménagement des Usages des Ressources et des Espaces marins et littoraux

    "Tourism is one of the most impacted sectors from the Covid-19 pandemic. The extent of the impact is expected to be particularly severe for tourist destinations where the virus is actively circulating and tourism plays an important role in the economy. With a rich endowment of tourism potential, the Hauts-de-France (HdF) was part of the French regions classified as Covid-19 ""red zone"" the day after deconfinement (May 11th). The research project THREpiCo addresses the issue of the consequences of this pandemic on both tourism demand and supply. In terms of tourism demand, the project aims at understanding individuals’ perceptions of the region with regard to the Covid-19 epidemic risk and analysing the role of their perceptions in their visit behaviour and revisit intentions. Particular attention will be paid to the individuals’ trust in regional policy-makers and confidence in Covid-19 risk mitigation measures. The changes in demand for trips and individual welfare due to the pandemic will also be explored. In terms of tourism supply, a number of Covid-19 health and safety protocols, combined with related communication strategies, have been implemented, particularly in the commercial accommodation sector, in an effort to restore visitors’ confidence and stimulate demand. Another objective of this project is to investigate the attractiveness of these tools among visitors by estimating the extra amount of money that they would be willing to pay for one night in a hotel establishment. Finally, additional changes are expected to be made in the regional tourism industry in the medium term to strengthen the resilience of the sector. With this in mind, qualitative survey interviews of tourism stakeholders will be carried out with the objective of co-constructing a restructuring plan for the tourism supply organised into different actions (or scenarios). An ex-ante economic valuation of these scenarios will be conducted to support the decision-making process. This research project will be led by a multidisciplinary research team, whose expertise covers all aspects related to the impact analysis of a pandemic on tourism. The team will rely on close collaboration with the diverse tourism-based organisations within the HdF and the original combination of several non-market economic valuation methods, quantitative and qualitative surveys, coupled with the use of secondary data about tourist trips during the last ten years, to provide a broad picture of the consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic on tourism activity in the HdF. The expected results are empirical, methodological and operational."

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-19-MRS3-0015
    Funder Contribution: 29,999.2 EUR
    Partners: Institut des sciences sociales du politique, Goethe Universität Frankfurt/M, UH, Università di Torino, Central European University of Budapest, Laboratoire détudes sur le genre et la sexualité, University of Barcelona, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Laboratoire d'études sur le genre et la sexualité, Danish Institute for International Studies

    "The WE-GEMINA project is twofold and to be developed at different scales: a macro-transnational scale and a micro-local scale. The first part of the project is focused on the transnational narratives circulating on the social networks. Crossing sexism and xenophobia, they increase the gender inequalities and the discrimination based on real or supposed ethnic origin. A second and complementary component intends to identify, through a multi-situated approach, counter-narratives which could contribute to renewing the debate on gender in migration. In the global context of the rise of populism, and especially since 2011 and the wave of migration related to the Syrian civil war, the most extreme and anti-migrant discourses put pressure on all European debates on migration. Stated by politicians, circulating on social networks or available on websites or blogs, populist narratives on gender and migration activate distressing representations as well as biased perceptions of reality, which threaten the cohesion of societies, diminish their resilience and increase risks of violence against migrant women. In globalized populist rhetoric, xenophobic and sexist narratives are intertwined, so that offensives against migrant women seem specific: according to national contexts, they are suspected of taking undue advantage of social protection systems through their multiple pregnancies, of threatening secularism, challenging a family model based on a supposed gender equality, of transgressing gender norms, fueling prostitution and clandestine labor, or - in the most conspiratorial theses- to be the matrix of a ""great replacement"". However, the unequal gender, class and race relationships largely invisibilize the structural violence and multiple discrimination faced by migrant women. In fact, the diffusion of such distorted representations increases their physical, sexual, social or professional vulnerability. In order to counter the influence of the xenophobic and sexist discourses against migrant women, the proposal aims firstly to deconstruct, based on different national contexts, the rhetorical and technological forces of their effectiveness, secondly to identify alternative narratives that are likely to inflect them. It will not focus exclusively on female migrants outside the European Union, but on all women perceived as foreign and mobile people: European Roma women, Muslim or perceived Muslim migrants, racist sub-Saharan migrants, LBTQIA + migrants. Based on two major social networks providing narratives, Facebook and Twitter, and mobilizing specific software, the analysis of sexist and xenophobic narratives focus on their substance, but also on the tools and strategies of their dissemination. The question of the ""past"" will be investigated by the uses of a supposed past in populist narratives. Against the narratives grounded in an ethnocultural conception of the political community and seeking to create collective fear, the counter-narratives value the concrete experience of migration carried by mixed migrant and non-migrant communities. The identification of such counter-narratives should provide guidelines to enlighten different actors, including the press, associations and politicians, in resisting xenophobic themes and populist strategies. The project involves a consortium of research teams, complementary to each other and strongly sensitized to issues of gender and discrimination, from seven countries differently exposed to populist rhetoric."

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-22-CE14-0008
    Funder Contribution: 310,185 EUR
    Partners: INSTITUT NATIONAL DE LA SANTE ET DE LA RECHERCHE MEDICALE - DELEGATION REGIONALE GRAND OUEST

    Cardiovascular diseases and myocardial infarction in particular are the leading cause of premature mortality worldwide. While inflammation is an essential aspect of cardiac repair, it can precipitate heart failure when excessive in intensity or duration. Cardiac resident macrophages (CRM) play an instrumental role in the organization of cardiac tissue repair through their unique ability to modulate inflammation. This immunomodulatory capability of CRM is associated with their prominent aptitude to clear dead cells from the myocardium through efferocytosis, and to secrete immunomodulatory cytokines. However, the molecular mechanisms conferring CRM the required temporal accuracy to adjust their phenotype and cytokine secretion in order to finely control inflammation resolution and coordinate tissue repair remain unknown. We hypothesize that efferocytosis activates regulated cytokine secretion pathways that allow CRM to immediately adjust their phenotype and cytokine secretion to promote inflammation resolution and initiate reparative processes. In this proposal, we will define the role of efferocytosis in the regulated cytokine secretion, characterize intracellular signaling and secretion pathways triggered by efferocytosis and evaluate the role of efferocytosis-triggered cytokine secretion in the repair of the infarcted myocardium.

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