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  • UK Research and Innovation
  • 2009
  • 2011

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/G024979/1
    Funder Contribution: 358,962 GBP

    This proposal is concerned primarily with Diophantine equations in two variables, i.e., polynomial relations with integers coefficients for which one seeks to understand the collection of integer solutions. The history of such investigations reaches back to the tradition of Greek mathematics, while the twentieth century has seen spectacular applications of abstract modern machinery to the resolution of difficult old questions, such as Wiles' proof of Fermat's last theorem. The investigator proposes a new approach to studying these classical problems by incorporating fundamental ideas of topology and geometry that go beyond the principal developments of the twentieth century in that the relevant structures are, in the main, non-commutative and non-linear. An eventual goal is to construct methods for effectively resolving Diophantine equations in two-variables.

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  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: RES-185-31-0113
    Funder Contribution: 93,223 GBP

    Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.

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  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: 600113
    Funder Contribution: 132,328 GBP

    Awaiting Public Project Summary

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  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/H002626/1
    Funder Contribution: 101,045 GBP

    Cyclobutanes are 4-carbon cyclic molecules that are found in many naturally occurring compounds with biological activities including antibiotics, antivirals and cytotoxics, and in insect pheromones, which can be used in agriculture to control pests. As a result, methods of preparing cyclobutanes are of great interest to chemists. Many syntheses have been developed but a large number involve the use of specialist equipment and hazardous reagents. This difficulty of synthesis means cyclobutane-containing molecules are rarely used in industry.This proposal aims to take a simple, but limited, method of forming the cyclobutane ring and extend it into a general route to prepare and attach a wide range of sidechains to the cyclobutane ring. These methods will find many applications in total synthesis of natural products, and the synthesis of molecules of interest to the agrochemical and pharmaceutical industries. As illustrations of these potential applications, we will be applying the new methods to, amongst other applications, the synthesis of a group of molecules with potential in the therapy of cancer.Each year, more than a quarter of a million people in the UK will be diagnosed with cancer. Most commonly used cancer treatments cause serious side-effects which reduce the patients' quality of life. There is an urgent need to develop new medicines which do not cause these side-effects in the body. One way of doing this is to create drugs to act on receptors which are found at different levels on tumour cells compared to normal cells. One such class of receptor is the integrins; receptors which allow a cell to interact with its surroundings. Beta3 integrins are highly expressed in prostate, colon, cervical and breast cancers and malignant melanoma, among others, where they encourage growth and distribution of the tumour to new areas of the body. We have designed a library of cyclobutane-containing compounds that are expected to block the interaction between a beta3-expressing cancer cell and its surroundings. This compound library will be synthesised employing the methods developed in this proposal and used in other investigations to improve our knowledge of the role of beta3 integrins in cancer and the structural features required for integrin-targeted drugs to be safe and effective; information which could ultimately lead to new medicines for the treatment of cancer.

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  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/F021399/1
    Funder Contribution: 222,230 GBP

    This project will quantify the effect of surface generated melt-water fluctuations on ice motion at the margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). More specifically, it will provide data that will enable ice-sheet modellers to improve their predictions of the future contribution of the GrIS to sea level rise in response to a warming world. To achieve this aim requires a dedicated field campaign to the GrIS to investigate seasonal ice flow dynamics and runoff processes along flow parallel transects extending from the ice sheet margin to the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) at both tidewater and land-terminating glaciers. The greatest store of fresh water in the northern hemisphere - equivalent to 7m of eustatic sea level rise - is held within the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), and yet its present and future contribution to sea level is poorly constrained (IPCC, 2007). Recent observations suggest that mass loss near the margin of the GrIS is accelerating through a combination of increased surface melting (e.g. Steffen et al, 2004) and dynamic thinning (e.g. Rignot and Kanagaratnam, 2006). However, the key processes controlling dynamic thinning have yet to be identified (Alley et al, 2005), and in consequence, are not incorporated in the ice-sheet models which form the basis of the IPCC sea level projections. This in part reflects the fact that the satellite data that has revealed the widespread speed-up of glaciers cannot be acquired at the temporal resolution needed to resolve the causal mechanisms. Our present understanding of GrIS mass balance is especially complicated by uncertainties in the sensitivity of ice-marginal dynamics to changes in melt-water induced lubrication resulting from penetration of supraglacial melt-waters to the glacier bed (Zwally et al, 2002). Recent observations on the GrIS Shepherd et al, in review) reveal, over a five day period in July, a strong and direct coupling between surface hydrology and dynamics where diurnal fluctuations in velocity of >100% occur and where maximum daily velocities scale with temperature. Such observations confirm the need to acquire hydrological and dynamic data at high temporal (sub-hourly) and spatial resolution throughout the year to parameterise the coupling between ice melting and flow. This project will collect data at the necessary resolution to quantify the relationship between melt-water production and ice sheet dynamics thereby enabling ice-sheet modellers to improve predictions of the GrIS's response to climate change. We will conduct ground based experiments along two flow-parallel transects at the western margin of the GrIS in adjacent land and marine terminating drainage basins to address the following objectives: 1. Is there a temporal and spatial pattern to any hydrology-dynamic link associated with the seasonal evolution of the supraglacial drainage system (including supraglacial lakes)? 2. Over what area does surface generated meltwater penetrate to the base of the ice sheet? 3. Is there a relationship between the volume of meltwater input at the glacier surface and the magnitude of the dynamic response? 4. Do tidewater and land-terminating glaciers behave differently during the course of a melt-season? Field campaigns will be undertaken during 2008 and 2009 to determine: 1) The rate, extent and duration of melt. 2) The temporal and spatial variations in water volumes stored in and released from supraglacial lakes and delivered to freely draining moulins. 3) The seasonal, diurnal and hourly variations in ice dynamics. 4) The variations in proglacial discharge and water chemistry (at Russell Glacier). As a result of our work, it will be possible to determine whether ice dynamics at the margin of the GrIS is significantly affected by lubrication of the glacier bed following the drainage of surface derived meltwaters. Our results will be delivered to ice sheet modellers to help them constrain predictions for the future of the GrIS

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  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/G009090/1
    Funder Contribution: 38,969 GBP

    Containerless heating is an increasingly important tool for studying liquids at extreme temperatures and for synthesising extreme compositions of glass. For example, neutron and X-ray diffraction studies of the structure of molten refractory materials (e.g. Al2O3) have used levitation furnaces to suspend molten drops in gas at temperatures of over 2500 K1. Containerless heating has the following advantages: - the maximum temperature is not limited by the crucible material - there is little chance of contamination of the sample - the entire surface of the melt is in contact with the carrier gas, leading to rapid equilibration and inhibition of crystallisation during quenching. Within the Earth Sciences, this means that studies of fractionation can be performed at extreme temperatures relevant to planetary accretion and impact processes, and extremely silica-poor glasses (e.g. pure olivine) produced at controlled oxygen fugacity. However, no such facility exists in the UK Earth Sciences community. We propose to develop a laser-heated gas-levitation furnace which fulfils all of the aspects mentioned above. Within the remit of this small-grant proposal we will use it for synthesis of peridotite glass compositions for studies of lower-mantle melting and of the effect of pressure on peridotitic melt structure. Future studies using the levetation furnace developed here will include isotopic fractionation at extreme temperatures and the evolution of the Earth's bulk composition during accretion, for which funding will be applied for separately.

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  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: 400110
    Funder Contribution: 212,399 GBP

    The public description for this project has been requested but has not yet been received.

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  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: AH/H000933/1
    Funder Contribution: 152,511 GBP

    This is an inquiry into the way in which, in Britain, media formats other than journalism portray politics and the political. Although there has been regular study of the relationship between news output and politics, little serious attention has so far been paid to the way in which forms of drama and entertainment, modes of expression free from journalistic obligations and constraints, mediate political events and the sphere of politics itself. Yet the various formats in which politics is dramatized, joked about and expressed within entertainment are an important part of the way political ideas and feelings are circulated in everyday life. Forms of storytelling, fantasy, farce and satire provide a powerful and rich indicator of the relationship between a national political system and a national popular culture, acting both as expressions of, and as resources for, the wider play of imagination. The recent increase in the range and scale of media output, extending to 'web culture', has added to their significance but British broadcasting has a strong and fascinating record of dramas and situation comedies that variously depict political life, from Yes Minister to Party People, while stand-up and sketch comedy have regularly used topical political events as a staple part of their material.\n\nThere is growing interest both in the humanities and social sciences internationally in 'political culture', the broader settings of meaning and value within which politics is understood, judged and engaged with. Our study aims to take its cue from this interest and to develop further understanding and improved conceptualisation based on empirical findings. \n\nSuch an inquiry is made particularly pertinent at a time when British politics is undergoing a number of shifts in its party-political identity and its stylings as well as in the kinds of domestic and international challenges it faces. Questions about 'spin', party 'branding', the funding of political activities and the perceived widespread mistrust of politicians have all variously become salient themes in the national culture, as have the various attempts of politicians to announce a 'new politics' which offers fresh terms of public transparency and honesty. \n\nOur study has been devised as an 'audit' of a four month period, during which a wide but inevitably selective range of broadcast and printed media items will be collected. These will be subjected to analysis using qualitative software, first of all to help produce a broad profile of their topics, treatments, visualizations, language, tone, judgments, etc., and then to aid a closer interpretation in relation to the generic 'work' they perform upon political circumstances, events and people. For instance, what are the recurrent terms and phrases (both of description and judgment) by which the world of politics is portrayed? What are perceived as the primary characteristics of politicians as a group? How varied are the criteria by which political performance is judged and sometimes found wanting or even ridiculous? How much portrayal relates to structures as well as to people and events? The material gathered here, and its analysis, will be taken over into a further phase of work with respondent groups, who will be invited to talk about it in the context of their own routine use of the media genres and their engagement with, and assessment of, political themes. An unfunded pilot study by the Principal and Co-Investigator into the 2009 Party Conference season will precede the research.\n\nThis research will have notable impact within the academic community because it will open up, through a focused empirical study, this under-examined but extremely salient dimension of contemporary cultural life.\n

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  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: ST/G502539/1
    Funder Contribution: 94,514 GBP

    Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.

    more_vert
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: G0802469/1
    Funder Contribution: 604,980 GBP

    People with high levels of cholesterol are at higher risk of having heart attacks and strokes. Treatments that lower the levels of cholesterol have been shown to protect against these diseases, thereby saving lives. This project will look into how we can use a new drug called an antisense oligonucleotide to lower the level of cholesterol in the blood and therefore perhaps to reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes.

    more_vert
Advanced search in
Projects
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arrow_drop_down
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arrow_drop_down
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/G024979/1
    Funder Contribution: 358,962 GBP

    This proposal is concerned primarily with Diophantine equations in two variables, i.e., polynomial relations with integers coefficients for which one seeks to understand the collection of integer solutions. The history of such investigations reaches back to the tradition of Greek mathematics, while the twentieth century has seen spectacular applications of abstract modern machinery to the resolution of difficult old questions, such as Wiles' proof of Fermat's last theorem. The investigator proposes a new approach to studying these classical problems by incorporating fundamental ideas of topology and geometry that go beyond the principal developments of the twentieth century in that the relevant structures are, in the main, non-commutative and non-linear. An eventual goal is to construct methods for effectively resolving Diophantine equations in two-variables.

    more_vert
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: RES-185-31-0113
    Funder Contribution: 93,223 GBP

    Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.

    visibility18
    visibilityviews18
    downloaddownloads8
    Powered by Usage counts
    more_vert
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: 600113
    Funder Contribution: 132,328 GBP

    Awaiting Public Project Summary

    more_vert
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/H002626/1
    Funder Contribution: 101,045 GBP

    Cyclobutanes are 4-carbon cyclic molecules that are found in many naturally occurring compounds with biological activities including antibiotics, antivirals and cytotoxics, and in insect pheromones, which can be used in agriculture to control pests. As a result, methods of preparing cyclobutanes are of great interest to chemists. Many syntheses have been developed but a large number involve the use of specialist equipment and hazardous reagents. This difficulty of synthesis means cyclobutane-containing molecules are rarely used in industry.This proposal aims to take a simple, but limited, method of forming the cyclobutane ring and extend it into a general route to prepare and attach a wide range of sidechains to the cyclobutane ring. These methods will find many applications in total synthesis of natural products, and the synthesis of molecules of interest to the agrochemical and pharmaceutical industries. As illustrations of these potential applications, we will be applying the new methods to, amongst other applications, the synthesis of a group of molecules with potential in the therapy of cancer.Each year, more than a quarter of a million people in the UK will be diagnosed with cancer. Most commonly used cancer treatments cause serious side-effects which reduce the patients' quality of life. There is an urgent need to develop new medicines which do not cause these side-effects in the body. One way of doing this is to create drugs to act on receptors which are found at different levels on tumour cells compared to normal cells. One such class of receptor is the integrins; receptors which allow a cell to interact with its surroundings. Beta3 integrins are highly expressed in prostate, colon, cervical and breast cancers and malignant melanoma, among others, where they encourage growth and distribution of the tumour to new areas of the body. We have designed a library of cyclobutane-containing compounds that are expected to block the interaction between a beta3-expressing cancer cell and its surroundings. This compound library will be synthesised employing the methods developed in this proposal and used in other investigations to improve our knowledge of the role of beta3 integrins in cancer and the structural features required for integrin-targeted drugs to be safe and effective; information which could ultimately lead to new medicines for the treatment of cancer.

    visibility3
    visibilityviews3
    downloaddownloads1
    Powered by Usage counts
    more_vert
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/F021399/1
    Funder Contribution: 222,230 GBP

    This project will quantify the effect of surface generated melt-water fluctuations on ice motion at the margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). More specifically, it will provide data that will enable ice-sheet modellers to improve their predictions of the future contribution of the GrIS to sea level rise in response to a warming world. To achieve this aim requires a dedicated field campaign to the GrIS to investigate seasonal ice flow dynamics and runoff processes along flow parallel transects extending from the ice sheet margin to the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) at both tidewater and land-terminating glaciers. The greatest store of fresh water in the northern hemisphere - equivalent to 7m of eustatic sea level rise - is held within the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), and yet its present and future contribution to sea level is poorly constrained (IPCC, 2007). Recent observations suggest that mass loss near the margin of the GrIS is accelerating through a combination of increased surface melting (e.g. Steffen et al, 2004) and dynamic thinning (e.g. Rignot and Kanagaratnam, 2006). However, the key processes controlling dynamic thinning have yet to be identified (Alley et al, 2005), and in consequence, are not incorporated in the ice-sheet models which form the basis of the IPCC sea level projections. This in part reflects the fact that the satellite data that has revealed the widespread speed-up of glaciers cannot be acquired at the temporal resolution needed to resolve the causal mechanisms. Our present understanding of GrIS mass balance is especially complicated by uncertainties in the sensitivity of ice-marginal dynamics to changes in melt-water induced lubrication resulting from penetration of supraglacial melt-waters to the glacier bed (Zwally et al, 2002). Recent observations on the GrIS Shepherd et al, in review) reveal, over a five day period in July, a strong and direct coupling between surface hydrology and dynamics where diurnal fluctuations in velocity of >100% occur and where maximum daily velocities scale with temperature. Such observations confirm the need to acquire hydrological and dynamic data at high temporal (sub-hourly) and spatial resolution throughout the year to parameterise the coupling between ice melting and flow. This project will collect data at the necessary resolution to quantify the relationship between melt-water production and ice sheet dynamics thereby enabling ice-sheet modellers to improve predictions of the GrIS's response to climate change. We will conduct ground based experiments along two flow-parallel transects at the western margin of the GrIS in adjacent land and marine terminating drainage basins to address the following objectives: 1. Is there a temporal and spatial pattern to any hydrology-dynamic link associated with the seasonal evolution of the supraglacial drainage system (including supraglacial lakes)? 2. Over what area does surface generated meltwater penetrate to the base of the ice sheet? 3. Is there a relationship between the volume of meltwater input at the glacier surface and the magnitude of the dynamic response? 4. Do tidewater and land-terminating glaciers behave differently during the course of a melt-season? Field campaigns will be undertaken during 2008 and 2009 to determine: 1) The rate, extent and duration of melt. 2) The temporal and spatial variations in water volumes stored in and released from supraglacial lakes and delivered to freely draining moulins. 3) The seasonal, diurnal and hourly variations in ice dynamics. 4) The variations in proglacial discharge and water chemistry (at Russell Glacier). As a result of our work, it will be possible to determine whether ice dynamics at the margin of the GrIS is significantly affected by lubrication of the glacier bed following the drainage of surface derived meltwaters. Our results will be delivered to ice sheet modellers to help them constrain predictions for the future of the GrIS

    visibility537
    visibilityviews537
    downloaddownloads191
    Powered by Usage counts
    more_vert
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/G009090/1
    Funder Contribution: 38,969 GBP

    Containerless heating is an increasingly important tool for studying liquids at extreme temperatures and for synthesising extreme compositions of glass. For example, neutron and X-ray diffraction studies of the structure of molten refractory materials (e.g. Al2O3) have used levitation furnaces to suspend molten drops in gas at temperatures of over 2500 K1. Containerless heating has the following advantages: - the maximum temperature is not limited by the crucible material - there is little chance of contamination of the sample - the entire surface of the melt is in contact with the carrier gas, leading to rapid equilibration and inhibition of crystallisation during quenching. Within the Earth Sciences, this means that studies of fractionation can be performed at extreme temperatures relevant to planetary accretion and impact processes, and extremely silica-poor glasses (e.g. pure olivine) produced at controlled oxygen fugacity. However, no such facility exists in the UK Earth Sciences community. We propose to develop a laser-heated gas-levitation furnace which fulfils all of the aspects mentioned above. Within the remit of this small-grant proposal we will use it for synthesis of peridotite glass compositions for studies of lower-mantle melting and of the effect of pressure on peridotitic melt structure. Future studies using the levetation furnace developed here will include isotopic fractionation at extreme temperatures and the evolution of the Earth's bulk composition during accretion, for which funding will be applied for separately.

    more_vert
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: 400110
    Funder Contribution: 212,399 GBP

    The public description for this project has been requested but has not yet been received.

    more_vert
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: AH/H000933/1
    Funder Contribution: 152,511 GBP

    This is an inquiry into the way in which, in Britain, media formats other than journalism portray politics and the political. Although there has been regular study of the relationship between news output and politics, little serious attention has so far been paid to the way in which forms of drama and entertainment, modes of expression free from journalistic obligations and constraints, mediate political events and the sphere of politics itself. Yet the various formats in which politics is dramatized, joked about and expressed within entertainment are an important part of the way political ideas and feelings are circulated in everyday life. Forms of storytelling, fantasy, farce and satire provide a powerful and rich indicator of the relationship between a national political system and a national popular culture, acting both as expressions of, and as resources for, the wider play of imagination. The recent increase in the range and scale of media output, extending to 'web culture', has added to their significance but British broadcasting has a strong and fascinating record of dramas and situation comedies that variously depict political life, from Yes Minister to Party People, while stand-up and sketch comedy have regularly used topical political events as a staple part of their material.\n\nThere is growing interest both in the humanities and social sciences internationally in 'political culture', the broader settings of meaning and value within which politics is understood, judged and engaged with. Our study aims to take its cue from this interest and to develop further understanding and improved conceptualisation based on empirical findings. \n\nSuch an inquiry is made particularly pertinent at a time when British politics is undergoing a number of shifts in its party-political identity and its stylings as well as in the kinds of domestic and international challenges it faces. Questions about 'spin', party 'branding', the funding of political activities and the perceived widespread mistrust of politicians have all variously become salient themes in the national culture, as have the various attempts of politicians to announce a 'new politics' which offers fresh terms of public transparency and honesty. \n\nOur study has been devised as an 'audit' of a four month period, during which a wide but inevitably selective range of broadcast and printed media items will be collected. These will be subjected to analysis using qualitative software, first of all to help produce a broad profile of their topics, treatments, visualizations, language, tone, judgments, etc., and then to aid a closer interpretation in relation to the generic 'work' they perform upon political circumstances, events and people. For instance, what are the recurrent terms and phrases (both of description and judgment) by which the world of politics is portrayed? What are perceived as the primary characteristics of politicians as a group? How varied are the criteria by which political performance is judged and sometimes found wanting or even ridiculous? How much portrayal relates to structures as well as to people and events? The material gathered here, and its analysis, will be taken over into a further phase of work with respondent groups, who will be invited to talk about it in the context of their own routine use of the media genres and their engagement with, and assessment of, political themes. An unfunded pilot study by the Principal and Co-Investigator into the 2009 Party Conference season will precede the research.\n\nThis research will have notable impact within the academic community because it will open up, through a focused empirical study, this under-examined but extremely salient dimension of contemporary cultural life.\n

    more_vert
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: ST/G502539/1
    Funder Contribution: 94,514 GBP

    Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.

    more_vert
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: G0802469/1
    Funder Contribution: 604,980 GBP

    People with high levels of cholesterol are at higher risk of having heart attacks and strokes. Treatments that lower the levels of cholesterol have been shown to protect against these diseases, thereby saving lives. This project will look into how we can use a new drug called an antisense oligonucleotide to lower the level of cholesterol in the blood and therefore perhaps to reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes.

    more_vert